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K M Gourley, J C Woodworth, J M DeRouchey, S S Dritz, M D Tokach, R D Goodband
A total of 288 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 11.1 ± 0.1 kg, and day 40 of age) were used in a 21-d growth trial to determine the available P (aP) release curve for a novel source of 6-phytase (Natuphos E 5,000 G; BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ). Natuphos E is a bacterial derived 6-phytase of which the phytase gene is assembled from a hybrid of phytase-producing bacteria and produced through the fermentation of Aspergillus niger. Pigs were randomly allotted to pens at weaning. From day 15 to 18 postweaning, a common corn-soybean meal diet containing 0...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Evan M Zhao, Yanfei Zhang, Justin Mehl, Helen Park, Makoto A Lalwani, Jared E Toettcher, José L Avalos
The optimization of engineered metabolic pathways requires careful control over the levels and timing of metabolic enzyme expression. Optogenetic tools are ideal for achieving such precise control, as light can be applied and removed instantly without complex media changes. Here we show that light-controlled transcription can be used to enhance the biosynthesis of valuable products in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We introduce new optogenetic circuits to shift cells from a light-induced growth phase to a darkness-induced production phase, which allows us to control fermentation with only light...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Wenxi Qian, Weiping Ao, Xiaohong Hui, Jianping Wu
The ruminal microbiota plays major roles in feed digestion. The composition and fermentation of the bacterial communities in three important ruminant species have been studied previously. Here, we extended this research to the effect of concentrate-to-forage ratios on ruminal bacterial communities in Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis). Different concentrate-to-forage ratios [2:8, 3:7, 4:6 and 5:5] were fed to Tarim red deer for 20 days. Ruminal bacterial communities were elucidated by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform...
March 21, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Aurélie Bechoff, Keith Ian Tomlins, Ugo Chijioke, Paul Ilona, Andrew Westby, Erick Boy
Gari, a fermented and dried semolina made from cassava, is one of the most common foods in West Africa. Recently introduced biofortified yellow cassava containing provitamin A carotenoids could help tackle vitamin A deficiency prevalent in those areas. However there are concerns because of the low retention of carotenoids during gari processing compared to other processes (e.g. boiling). The aim of the study was to assess the levels of true retention in trans-β-carotene during gari processing and investigate the causes of low retention...
2018: PloS One
Jin Huang, Wan Tang, Shengquan Zhu, Meini Du
Butyric acid (C3 H7 COOH) is an important chemical that is widely used in foodstuffs along with in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The bioproduction of butyric acid via large-scale fermentation has the potential to be more economical and efficient than petrochemical synthesis. In this paper, the metabolic pathways involved in the production of butyric acid from Clostridium tyrobutyricum using hexose and pentose as substrates are investigated, and approaches to enhance butyric acid production via genetic modification are discussed...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
S Prakash, K Rajeswari, P Divya, M Ferlin, C T Rajeshwari, B Vanavil
Curdlan gum is a neutral water-insoluble bacterial exopolysaccharide composed primarily of linear β-(1,3) glycosidic linkages. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the applications of curdlan and its derivatives. Curdlan is found to inhibit tumors and its sulfated derivative possess anti- HIV activity. Curdlan is biodegradable, non-toxic towards human, environment and edible which makes it suitable as drug-delivery vehicles for sustained drug release. The increasing demand for the growing applications of curdlan requires an efficient high yield fermentation production process so as to satisfy the industrial needs...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Ying Liang, Li Zhu, Minjie Gao, Jianrong Wu, Xiaobei Zhan
Water-soluble β-1,3-glucan (w-glucan) prepared from curdlan is reported to possess various bioactive and medicinal properties. To develop an efficient and cost-effective microbial fermentation method for the direct production of w-glucan, a coupled fermentation system of Agrobacterium sp. and Trichoderma harzianum (CFS-AT) was established. The effects of Tween-80, glucose flow rate, and the use of a dissolved oxygen (DO) control strategy on w-glucan production were assessed. The addition of 10 g L-1 Tween-80 to the CFS-AT enhanced w-glucan production, presumably by loosening the curdlan ultrastructure and increasing the efficiency of curdlan hydrolysis...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Chu K Yao, Asaf Rotbart, Jian Z Ou, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Jane G Muir, Peter R Gibson
Excessive hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) production from gut microbial metabolism may have clinically important relevance in the pathogenesis of gut disorders, including ulcerative colitis. However, little is known regarding factors that alter its production. Using a newly-designed in vitro gas-profiling technology, the study aimed to verify real-time H2 S measurement reproducibility and thereafter, assess its production following exposure to dietary factors and 5-aminosalicylate acid (5-ASA). Measurements of H2 S, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane measurements were compared between gas-profiling systems...
March 21, 2018: Gut Microbes
Han Wu, Xin Rui, Wei Li, Yu Xiao, Jianzhong Zhou, Mingsheng Dong
This study explored a novel strategy to develop solid-state whole-grain oats as a novel carrier of lactic acid bacteria and a nutraceutical supplement rich in ACE inhibitory peptides. Oats were fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6, Rhizopus oryzae, or a combination of L. plantarum B1-6 and R. oryzae. L. plantarum showed a much better growth performance in oats when it was combined with R. oryzae than when it was cultured alone, as evidenced by an increase in viable cell count to 9.70 log cfu g-1 after 72 h of fermentation...
March 21, 2018: Food & Function
Qiannan Peng, Shuaiming Jiang, Jieling Chen, Chenchen Ma, Dongxue Huo, Yuyu Shao, Jiachao Zhang
Fermented vegetables are typically traditional foods made of fresh vegetables and their juices, which are fermented by beneficial microorganisms. Herein, we applied high-throughput sequencing and culture-dependent technology to describe the diversities of microbiota and identify core microbiota in fermented vegetables from different areas of Hainan Province, and abundant metabolic pathways in the fermented vegetables were simultaneously predicted. At the genus level, Lactobacillus bacteria were the most abundant...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Christoph Jans, Eleonora Sarno, Lucie Collineau, Leo Meile, Katharina D C Stärk, Roger Stephan
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB) between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design. Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gary D Crouse, David A Demeter, Geno Samaritoni, Casandra L McLeod, Thomas C Sparks
New insect pest control agents are needed to meet the demands to feed an expanding global population, to address the desire for more environmentally-friendly insecticide tools, and to fill the loss of control options in some crop-pest complexes due to development of insecticide resistance. The spinosyns are a highly effective class of naturally occurring, fermentation derived insecticides, possessing a very favorable environmental profile. Chemically, the spinosyns are composed of a large complex macrolide tetracycle coupled to two sugars...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zheng Lu, Ramakrishnan Sethu, James A Imlay
It has been unclear whether superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide play important roles in the phenomenon of obligate anaerobiosis. This question was explored using Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron , a major fermentative bacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract. Aeration inactivated two enzyme families-[4Fe-4S] dehydratases and nonredox mononuclear iron enzymes-whose homologs, in contrast, remain active in aerobic Escherichia coli Inactivation-rate measurements of one such enzyme, B. thetaiotaomicron fumarase, showed that it is no more intrinsically sensitive to oxidants than is an E...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A Gramegna, B C Millar, F Blasi, J S Elborn, D G Downey, J E Moore
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary exacerbations in people with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), with chronic Gram-negative pathogens, are associated with reduced survival. These pathogens are usually treated with repeated courses of systemic antibiotics. However there is a linked emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens. Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a new cephalosporin/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination that has been demonstrated to have good activity against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MATERIAL & METHODS: In this study ceftolozane/tazobactam was compared to other commonly used intravenous antibiotics against 193 non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria isolated from CF sputum specimens, including P...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Odile Francesca Restaino, Maria Giovanna Borzacchiello, Ilaria Scognamiglio, Luigi Fedele, Alberto Alfano, Elena Porzio, Giuseppe Manco, Mario De Rosa, Chiara Schiraldi
BACKGROUND: Thermostable phosphotriesterase-like lactonases (PLLs) are able to degrade organophosphates and could be potentially employed as bioremediation tools and bioscavengers. But nowadays their manufacturing in high yields is still an issue that limits their industrial applications. In this work we aimed to set up a high yield production and purification biotechnological process of two recombinant PLLs expressed in E. coli, the wild type SacPox from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and a triple mutated SsoPox C258L/I261F/W263A, originally from Sulfolobus solfataricus...
March 20, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Carlo Pinna, Carla Giuditta Vecchiato, Carmen Bolduan, Monica Grandi, Claudio Stefanelli, Wilhelm Windisch, Giuliano Zaghini, Giacomo Biagi
BACKGROUND: Feeding dogs with diets rich in protein may favor putrefactive fermentations in the hindgut, negatively affecting the animal's intestinal environment. Conversely, prebiotics may improve the activity of health-promoting bacteria and prevent bacterial proteolysis in the colon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on fecal microbiota and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs fed kibbles differing in protein content...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Xiaofei Zeng, Abhijeet P Borole, Spyros G Pavlostathis
Furanic and phenolic compounds are problematic compounds resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising technology to convert furanic and phenolic compounds to renewable H2 . The objective of the research presented here was to elucidate the processes and electron equivalents flow during the conversion of two furanic (furfural, FF; 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, HMF) and three phenolic (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA) compounds in the MEC bioanode...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shuangshuang Ma, Chen Fang, Xiaoxi Sun, Lujia Han, Xueqin He, Guangqun Huang
Bacteria play an important role in organic matter degradation and maturity during aerobic composting. This study analyzed composting with or without a membrane cover in laboratory-scale aerobic composting reactor systems. 16S rRNA gene analysis was used to study the bacterial community succession during composting. The richness of the bacterial community decreased and the diversity increased after covering with a semi-permeable membrane and applying a slight positive pressure. Principal components analysis based on operational taxonomic units could distinguish the main composting phases...
March 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kei-Anne Baritugo, Hee Taek Kim, Yokimiko David, Jong-Il Choi, Soon Ho Hong, Ki Jun Jeong, Jong Hyun Choi, Jeong Chan Joo, Si Jae Park
Bio-based production of industrially important chemicals provides an eco-friendly alternative to current petrochemical-based processes. Because of the limited supply of fossil fuel reserves, various technologies utilizing microbial host strains for the sustainable production of platform chemicals from renewable biomass have been developed. Corynebacterium glutamicum is a non-pathogenic industrial microbial species traditionally used for L-glutamate and L-lysine production. It is a promising species for industrial production of bio-based chemicals because of its flexible metabolism that allows the utilization of a broad spectrum of carbon sources and the production of various amino acids...
March 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
C Kaewpila, K Sommart, M Mitsumori
The mitigation of enteric methane emission in beef cattle production is important for reducing feed energy loss and increasing environmental sustainability. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different oilseeds included in fermented total mixed rations (whole soyabean seed (SBS, control), whole kapok seed (KPS) and cracked oil palm fruit (OPF)) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different cattle genotypes (Charolais crossbred v...
March 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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