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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231540/organic-amine-catalytic-organosolv-pretreatment-of-corn-stover-for-enzymatic-saccharification-and-high-quality-lignin
#1
Chenglun Tang, Junqiang Shan, Yanjun Chen, Lingxia Zhong, Tao Shen, Chenjie Zhu, Hanjie Ying
A novel and efficient organic amine and organosolv synergetic pretreatment method was developed to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to produce fermentable sugars and high-quality salt-free lignin. After optimization of the process parameters, a delignification of 81.7% and total sugar yield of 83.2% (87.1% glucose, 75.4% xylose) could be obtained using n-propylamine (10mmol/g, biomass) as a catalyst and aqueous ethanol (60%, v/v) as a solvent. The susceptibility of the substrates to enzymatic digestibility was explained by their physical and chemical characteristics...
February 13, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231534/efficient-utilization-of-hemicellulose-and-cellulose-in-alkali-liquor-pretreated-corncob-for-bioethanol-production-at-high-solid-loading-by-spathaspora-passalidarum-u1-58
#2
Hai Yu, Jian Guo, Yefu Chen, Gengxin Fu, Baozhong Li, Xuewu Guo, Dongguang Xiao
The bioethanol fermentation of pretreated corncob was investigated using Spathaspora passalidarum U1-58, which simultaneously utilizes glucose and xylose for high-efficiency ethanol production. Two approaches, namely, separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation (SHCF) and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF), were optimized to test the ethanol fermentation potential of U1-58. The highest ethanol titer of 42.46g/L and yield of 72.12% were acquired in SHCF, whereas 53.24g/L ethanol and yield of 75...
February 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231394/adaptive-divergence-in-wine-yeasts-and-their-wild-relatives-suggests-a-prominent-role-for-introgressions-and-rapid-evolution-at-non-coding-sites
#3
Pedro Almeida, Raquel Barbosa, Douda Bensasson, Paula Gonçalves, José Paulo Sampaio
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main yeast in wine fermentation, the opportunity to examine divergence at the molecular level between a domesticated lineage and its wild counterpart arose recently due to the identification of the closest relatives of wine strains, a wild population associated with Mediterranean oaks. Since genomic data is available for a considerable number of representatives belonging to both groups, we used population genomics to estimate the degree and distribution of nucleotide variation between wine yeasts and their closest wild relatives...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231170/fermentation-assisted-extraction-of-isothiocyanates-from-brassica-vegetable-using-box-behnken-experimental-design
#4
Amit K Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam
Recent studies showed that Brassica vegetables are rich in numerous health-promoting compounds such as carotenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and glucosinolates (GLS), as well as isothiocyanates (ITCs) and are involved in health promotion upon consumption. ITCs are breakdown products of GLS, and typically used in the food industry as a food preservative and colouring agent. They are also used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their several pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective effects, etc...
November 4, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231160/sourdough-based-biotechnologies-for-the-production-of-gluten-free-foods
#5
REVIEW
Luana Nionelli, Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello
Sourdough fermentation, a traditional biotechnology for making leavened baked goods, was almost completely replaced by the use of baker's yeast and chemical leavening agents in the last century. Recently, it has been rediscovered by the scientific community, consumers, and producers, thanks to several effects on organoleptic, technological, nutritional, and functional features of cereal-based products. Acidification, proteolysis, and activation of endogenous enzymes cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, carried out by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, which positively affect the overall quality of the baked goods...
September 20, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230263/recent-advances-in-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-properties-in-pulses-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Nooshin Nikmaram, B N Dar, Shahin Roohinejad, Mohamed Koubaa, Francisco J Barba, Greiner Ralf, Stuart K Johnson
Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of pulses that are extensively used as foods around the world due to their beneficial effects on human health including their low glycemic index, cholesterol lowering effects, ability to decrease the risk of heart diseases and their protective effects against some cancers. These health benefits are a result of their components such as bioactive proteins, dietary fibers, slowly digested starches, minerals and vitamins, and bioactive compounds. Among these bioactive compounds, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-proteinogenic amino acid with numerous reported health benefits (e...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230109/pentose-sugars-inhibit-metabolism-and-increase-expression-of-an-agrd-type-cyclic-pentapeptide-in-clostridium-thermocellum
#7
Tobin J Verbeke, Richard J Giannone, Dawn M Klingeman, Nancy L Engle, Thomas Rydzak, Adam M Guss, Timothy J Tschaplinski, Steven D Brown, Robert L Hettich, James G Elkins
Clostridium thermocellum could potentially be used as a microbial biocatalyst to produce renewable fuels directly from lignocellulosic biomass due to its ability to rapidly solubilize plant cell walls. While the organism readily ferments sugars derived from cellulose, pentose sugars from xylan are not metabolized. Here, we show that non-fermentable pentoses inhibit growth and end-product formation during fermentation of cellulose-derived sugars. Metabolomic experiments confirmed that xylose is transported intracellularly and reduced to the dead-end metabolite xylitol...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229907/expression-and-functional-evaluation-of-biopharmaceuticals-made-in-plant-chloroplasts
#8
REVIEW
Bei Zhang, Balamurugan Shanmugaraj, Henry Daniell
After approval of the first plant-made biopharmaceutical by FDA for human use, many protein drugs are now in clinical development. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in expression of heterologous complex/large proteins in chloroplasts of edible plants using codon optimized human or viral genes. Furthermore, advances in quantification enable determination of in-planta drug dosage. Oral delivery of plastid-made biopharmaceuticals (PMB) is affordable because it eliminates prohibitively expensive fermentation, purification processes addressing major challenges of short shelf-life after cold storage...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229521/microbial-potential-for-carbon-and-nutrient-cycling-in-a-geogenic-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-reservoir
#9
Adam J E Freedman, BoonFei Tan, Janelle R Thompson
Microorganisms catalyze carbon cycling and biogeochemical reactions in the deep subsurface and thus may be expected to influence the fate of injected supercritical (sc) CO2 following geological carbon sequestration (GCS). We hypothesized that natural subsurface scCO2 reservoirs, which serve as analogs for the long-term fate of sequestered scCO2 , harbor a "deep carbonated biosphere" with carbon cycling potential. We sampled subsurface fluids from scCO2 -water separators at a natural scCO2 reservoir at McElmo Dome, Colorado for analysis of 16S rRNA gene diversity and metagenome content...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229435/design-and-pharmacodynamics-of-recombinant-nz2114-histidine-mutants-with-improved-activity-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Huixian Chen, Ruoyu Mao, Da Teng, Xiumin Wang, Ya Hao, Xingjun Feng, Jianhua Wang
NZ2114 is a promising candidate for therapeutic application owing to its potent activity to Staphylococcus aureus. Our objective was to identify NZ2114 derivatives with improved activity through substitution of His16 and His18 with residues Arginine and Lysine. Eight mutants were designed and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 via pPICZαA. Five of them exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against S. aureus at low minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.057-0.454 μM. Among them, H1, H2, and H3 showed ideal pharmacodynamic effects on methicillin-resistant S...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229213/development-of-a-rapid-identification-method-for-the-differentiation-of-enterococcus-species-using-a-species-specific-multiplex-pcr-based-on-comparative-genomics
#11
Jongbin Park, Gwi-Deuk Jin, Jae In Pak, Jihyun Won, Eun Bae Kim
Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria that are commonly found in food and in animal gut. Since 16 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, genetic markers for bacterial identification, are similar among several Enterococcus species, it is very difficult to determine the correct species based on only 16 S rRNA sequences. Therefore, we developed a rapid method for the identification of different Enterococcus species using comparative genomics. We compared 38 genomes of 13 Enterococcus species retrieved from the National Center of Biotechnology Information database and identified 25,623 orthologs...
February 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228143/relationship-between-salivary-pancreatic-amylase-and-body-mass-index-a-systems-biology-approach
#12
Amélie Bonnefond, Loïc Yengo, Aurélie Dechaume, Mickaël Canouil, Maxime Castelain, Estelle Roger, Frédéric Allegaert, Robert Caiazzo, Violeta Raverdy, Marie Pigeyre, Abdelilah Arredouani, Jean-Michel Borys, Claire Lévy-Marchal, Jacques Weill, Ronan Roussel, Beverley Balkau, Michel Marre, François Pattou, Thierry Brousseau, Philippe Froguel
BACKGROUND: Salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylases hydrolyze starch. Copy number of AMY1A (encoding AMY1) was reported to be higher in populations with a high-starch diet and reduced in obese people. These results based on quantitative PCR have been challenged recently. We aimed to re-assess the relationship between amylase and adiposity using a systems biology approach. METHODS: We assessed the association between plasma enzymatic activity of AMY1 or AMY2, and several metabolic traits in almost 4000 French individuals from D...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225615/structural-characterization-and-in-vitro-fermentation-of-%C3%AE-mannooligosaccharides-produced-from-locust-bean-gum-by-gh-26-endo-%C3%AE-1-4-mannanase-manb-1601
#13
Praveen Kumar Srivastava, Deepesh Panwar, Harish Prashanth Kv, Mukesh Kapoor
Size exclusion chromatography of β-mannooligosaccharides (β-MOS) mixture, obtained from ManB-1601 hydrolysis of locust bean gum, resulted in separation of oligosaccharides with varied degree of polymerization (DP 2, 3 and 5). The oligosaccharides were structurally [ESI-MS, FTIR, XRD, TGA and NMR (1H and 13C)] and functionally (in vitro fermentation) characterized. DP2 oligosaccharide was composed of two species (A) mannopyranose β-1,4 mannopyranose and (B) α-1,6-galactosyl-mannopyranose, while DP3 oligosaccharide showed presence of only one species i...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225254/insights-into-free-volume-variations-across-ion-exchange-membranes-upon-mixed-solvents-uptake-by-small-and-ultra-small-angle-neutron-scattering
#14
Francois-Marie Allioux, Christopher J Garvey, Christine Rehm, Blaise L Tardy, Raymond Riley Dagastine, Peter D Hodgson, Lingxue Kong, Ludovic Francis Dumée
Ion-exchange membranes are composite separation materials increasingly used in a variety of electro-membranes and electro-chemical processes. Although promising for solvent reclamation, to date, their main applications are limited to aqueous environments due to physico-chemical and microstructural changes of the materials upon exposure to non-aqueous and mixed solvents solutions, affecting long term stability and separation performance. In the present work, the structural changes of commercial and novel hybrid ion-exchange membranes in mixed methanol/water and ethanol/water solutions are assessed for the first time using ultra-and small-angle neutron scattering techniques...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224483/selection-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-with-probiotic-potential-isolated-from-the-fermentation-process-of-cupua%C3%A3-u-theobroma-grandiflorum
#15
Roberta Maria Santos Ornellas, Tiza Teles Santos, Leonardo Borges Arcucio, Sávio Henrique Cicco Sandes, Mayara Messias Oliveira, Cristiano Villela Dias, Samuel de Carvalho Silva, Ana Paula Trovatti Uetanabaro, Gabriel Vinderola, Jacques Robert Nicoli
In the present study, nine lactic acid bacteria isolated from the fermentation process of "cupuaçu" (Theobroma grandiflorum) were selected for probiotic use. In vitro (resistance to gastrointestinal environment, in vitro antagonism and co-aggregation with pathogens) and in vivo (intestinal colonization and ex vivo antagonism in germ-free mice, cumulative mortality, translocation to liver and spleen, histopathological examination of liver and ileum and mRNA cytokine gene expression during an experimental infection with S...
February 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224223/agarwood-formation-induced-by-fermentation-liquid-of-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-the-dominating-fungus-in-wounded-wood-of-aquilaria-sinensis
#16
Xuyu Chen, Chun Sui, Yangyang Liu, Yun Yang, Peiwei Liu, Zheng Zhang, Jianhe Wei
Agarwood is broadly used in incense and medicine. Traditionally, agarwood formation is induced by wounding the trunks and branches of some species of Aquilaria spp., including A. sinensis. As recently evidenced, some fungi or their fermentation liquid may have the potential of inducing agarwood formation. The present study aimed to analyze the fungi isolated from an agarwood-producing A. sinensis tree and subsequently identify the fungi capable of promoting agarwood formation. We identified a total of 110 fungi isolates based on their morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS sequences...
February 21, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223974/determination-of-antibacterial-and-technological-properties-of-vaginal-lactobacilli-for-their-potential-application-in-dairy-products
#17
Lorenzo Siroli, Francesca Patrignani, Diana I Serrazanetti, Carola Parolin, Rogers A Ñahui Palomino, Beatrice Vitali, Rosalba Lanciotti
Functional foods could differently affect human health in relation to the gender. Recent studies have highlighted the anti-Candida and anti-Chlamydia activities of some Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vagina of healthy women. Considering these important beneficial activities on women's health, the preparation of functional food containing active vaginal lactobacilli can represent a great scientific challenge for the female gender. In this context, the aim of this work was to study some functional and technological properties of 17 vaginal strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus vaginalis in the perspective to include them in dairy products...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223973/a-perspective-study-of-koumiss-microbiome-by-metagenomics-analysis-based-on-single-cell-amplification-technique
#18
Guoqiang Yao, Jie Yu, Qiangchuan Hou, Wenyan Hui, Wenjun Liu, Lai-Yu Kwok, Bilige Menghe, Tiansong Sun, Heping Zhang, Wenyi Zhang
Koumiss is a traditional fermented dairy product and a good source for isolating novel bacteria with biotechnology potential. In the present study, we applied the single-cell amplification technique in the metagenomics analysis of koumiss. This approach aimed at detecting the low-abundant bacteria in the koumiss. Briefly, each sample was first serially diluted until reaching the level of approximately 100 cells. Then, three diluted bacterial suspensions were randomly picked for further study. By analyzing 30 diluted koumiss suspensions, a total of 24 bacterial species were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223968/effect-of-temperature-on-the-prevalence-of-saccharomyces-non-cerevisiae-species-against-a-s-cerevisiae-wine-strain-in-wine-fermentation-competition-physiological-fitness-and-influence-in-final-wine-composition
#19
Javier Alonso-Del-Real, María Lairón-Peris, Eladio Barrio, Amparo Querol
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for the fermentation of wine. Nevertheless, in the last years wineries are facing new challenges due to current market demands and climate change effects on the wine quality. New yeast starters formed by non-conventional Saccharomyces species (such as S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii) or their hybrids (S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii) can contribute to solve some of these challenges. They exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, producing wines with lower alcohol and higher glycerol amounts...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223966/geological-and-geochemical-controls-on-subsurface-microbial-life-in-the-samail-ophiolite-oman
#20
Kaitlin R Rempfert, Hannah M Miller, Nicolas Bompard, Daniel Nothaft, Juerg M Matter, Peter Kelemen, Noah Fierer, Alexis S Templeton
Microbial abundance and diversity in deep subsurface environments is dependent upon the availability of energy and carbon. However, supplies of oxidants and reductants capable of sustaining life within mafic and ultramafic continental aquifers undergoing low-temperature water-rock reaction are relatively unknown. We conducted an extensive analysis of the geochemistry and microbial communities recovered from fluids sampled from boreholes hosted in peridotite and gabbro in the Tayin block of the Samail Ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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