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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783129/effect-of-surfactant-assisted-sonic-pretreatment-on-liquefaction-of-fruits-and-vegetable-residue-characterization-acidogenesis-biomethane-yield-and-energy-ratio
#1
M Shanthi, J Rajesh Banu, P Sivashanmugam
The present study explored the disintegration potential of fruits and vegetable residue through sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) assisted sonic pretreatment (SSP). In SSP method, initially the biomass barrier (lignin) was removed using SDS at different dosage, subsequently it was sonically disintegrated. The effect of SSP were assessed based on dissolved organic release (DOR) of fruits and vegetable waste and specific energy input. SSP method achieved higher DOR rate and suspended solids reduction (26% and 16%) at optimum SDS dosage of 0...
May 15, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783127/free-acetic-acid-as-the-key-factor-for-the-inhibition-of-hydrogenotrophic-methanogenesis-in-mesophilic-mixed-culture-fermentation
#2
Wei Zhang, Kun Dai, Xiu-Yang Xia, Hua-Jie Wang, Yun Chen, Yong-Ze Lu, Fang Zhang, Raymond Jianxiong Zeng
The inhibition of acetate under acidic pH is an ideal way to reduce methanogenesis in mesophilic mixed culture fermentation (MCF). However, the effects of acetate concentration and acidic pH on methanogenesis remain unclear. Besides, although hydrogenotrophic methanogens can be suitable targets in MCF, they are generally ignored. Therefore, we intentionally enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens and found that free acetic acid (FAA, x) concentration and specific methanogenic activity (SMA, y) were correlated according to the equation: y = 0...
May 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782982/process-optimization-purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-acidic-thermostable-chitinase-from-humicola-grisea
#3
Manish Kumar, Amandeep Brar, V Vivekanand, Nidhi Pareek
An extracellular acidic and thermostable chitinase (HgChi) from thermophilic Humicola grisea was purified and characterized. Enhancement in chitinase production (Qp  = 2.9662 Ul-1  h-1 ) was achieved through derivation of optimum fermentation conditions via central composite design. H. grisea observed to produce various isoforms of chitinase, among which the major expressed form has molecular mass of about 50 kDa. Purified chitinases exhibited optimal activity at pH 3.0 and 70 °C. Chitinase showed notable stability at increasing temperatures...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781997/antimicrobial-peptides-produced-by-selective-pressure-incorporation-of-non-canonical-amino-acids
#4
Jessica H Nickling, Tobias Baumann, Franz-Josef Schmitt, Maike Bartholomae, Oscar P Kuipers, Thomas Friedrich, Nediljko Budisa
Nature has a variety of possibilities to create new protein functions by modifying the sequence of the individual amino acid building blocks. However, all variations are based on the 20 canonical amino acids (cAAs). As a way to introduce additional physicochemical properties into polypeptides, the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) is increasingly used in protein engineering. Due to their relatively short length, the modification of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides by ncAAs is particularly attractive...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781240/predominant-nonproductive-substrate-binding-by-fungal-cellobiohydrolase-i-and-implications-for-activity-improvement
#5
Mikhail L Rabinovich, Maria S Melnik, Mikhail L Herner, Yakov V Voznyi, Lilia G Vasilchenko
Enzymatic conversion of the most abundant renewable source of organic compounds, cellulose to fermentable sugars is attractive for production of green fuels and chemicals. The major component of industrial enzyme systems, cellobiohydrolase I from Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) (HjCel7A) processively splits disaccharide units from the reducing ends of tightly packed cellulose chains. HjCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) separated by a linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped substrate-binding site in the CD includes 9 subsites for β-D-glucose units, 7 of which (-7 to -1) precede the catalytic center...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779558/short-communication-variability-in-fermentation-end-products-and-methanogen-communities-in-different-rumen-sites-of-dairy-cows
#6
ZhiYuan Ma, Rong Wang, Min Wang, XiuMin Zhang, HongXiang Mao, ZhiLiang Tan
The objective of this study was to investigate differences in fermentation and methanogen communities in samples collected from 3 sites in the rumen of dairy cows. The study involved 3 ruminally cannulated nonlactating Chinese Holstein dairy cows fed a diet of 40% forage and 60% concentrate feeds. Four handfuls of whole ruminal contents were collected from the cranial sac, middle of the ventral sac, and caudodorsal blind sac of the rumen of the cows at 0, 2.5, and 6 h after the morning feeding. Concentrations of VFA, ammonia, and dissolved methane and hydrogen were analyzed...
June 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779067/cost-effective-large-scale-expression-of-proteins-for-nmr-studies
#7
Julia Klopp, Aurélie Winterhalter, Rémy Gébleux, Daniela Scherer-Becker, Christian Ostermeier, Alvar D Gossert
We present protocols for high-level expression of isotope-labelled proteins in E. coli in cost-effective ways. This includes production of large amounts of unlabeled proteins and 13 C-methyl methionine labeling in rich media, where yields of up to a gram of soluble protein per liter of culture are reached. Procedures for uniform isotope labeling of 2 H, 13 C and 15 N using auto-induction or isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside-induction are described, with primary focus on minimal isotope consumption and high reproducibility of protein expression...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778800/phenotypic-and-genotypic-diversity-of-lactobacillus-buchneri-strains-isolated-from-spoiled-fermented-cucumber
#8
Katheryne V Daughtry, Suzanne D Johanningsmeier, Rosemary Sanozky-Dawes, Todd R Klaenhammer, Rodolphe Barrangou
Lactobacillus buchneri is a Gram-positive, obligate heterofermentative, facultative anaerobe commonly affiliated with spoilage of food products. Notably, L. buchneri is able to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Although beneficial to the silage industry, this metabolic capability is detrimental to preservation of cucumbers by fermentation. The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of L. buchneri purified from both industrial and experimental fermented cucumber after the onset of secondary fermentation...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778795/bioaugmentation-with-clostridium-tyrobutyricum-to-improve-butyric-acid-production-through-direct-rice-straw-bioconversion
#9
Xue Chi, Jianzheng Li, Xin Wang, Yafei Zhang, Shao-Yuan Leu, Ying Wang
One-pot bioconversion is an economically attractive biorefinery strategy to reduce enzyme consumption. Direct conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for butyric acid production is still challenging because of competition among microorganisms. In a consolidated hydrolysis/fermentation bioprocessing (CBP) the microbial structure may eventually prefer the production of caproic acid rather than butyric acid production. This paper presents a new bioaugmentation approach for high butyric acid production from rice straw...
May 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778649/fermentation-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-combining-kinetic-modeling-and-optimization-techniques-points-out-avenues-to-effective-process-design
#10
Johannes Scheiblauer, Stefan Scheiner, Martin Joksch, Barbara Kavsek
A combined experimental/theoretical approach is presented, for improving the predictability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations. In particular, a mathematical model was developed explicitly taking into account the main mechanisms of the fermentation process, allowing for continuous computation of key process variables, including the biomass concentration and the respiratory quotient (RQ). For model calibration and experimental validation, batch and fed-batch fermentations were carried out. Comparison of the model-predicted biomass concentrations and RQ developments with the corresponding experimentally recorded values shows a remarkably good agreement for both batch and fed-batch processes, confirming the adequacy of the model...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778485/meta-analysis-of-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic-acid-supplementation-on-ruminal-fermentation-milk-production-and-nutrient-digestibility
#11
X Feng, R R White, H A Tucker, M D Hanigan
Methionine is considered one of the most important essential AA for milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. Supplementation of unprotected, free Met is nearly 100% degraded by ruminal microorganisms, which complicates supplementation. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid (HMTBa) can be converted to Met in the body and is used as a Met source in dairy production. However, results of published studies assessing the effects of supplementing Met sources, including HMTBa, on performance variables are inconsistent...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778478/quantitative-proteomics-of-lactococcus-lactis-f44-under-cross-stress-of-low-ph-and-lactate
#12
Hao Wu, Yue Zhao, Yuhui Du, Sen Miao, Jingui Liu, Yanni Li, Qinggele Caiyin, Jianjun Qiao
Lactococcus lactis encounters 3 environmental stimuli, H+ , lactate, and undissociated lactic acid, because of the accumulation of lactic acid-the predominant fermentation product. Few studies have examined how these stimuli synergistically affect the bacteria. Herein, we analyzed the dissociation degree of lactic acid at different pH and investigated the cellular response to cross-stress in L. lactis ssp. lactis F44 through quantitative proteomic analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of 3 groups: 0% lactic acid with pH 4...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778475/performance-nutritional-behavior-and-metabolic-responses-of-calves-supplemented-with-forage-depend-on-starch-fermentability
#13
S Mojahedi, M Khorvash, G R Ghorbani, E Ghasemi, M Mirzaei, F Hashemzadeh-Cigari
This study evaluated the interactive effects of forage provision on performance, nutritional behavior, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of dairy calves when corn grains with different fermentability were used. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments were (1) steam-flaked (SF) corn without alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation (SF-NO), (2) SF corn with AH supplementation (SF-AH), (3) cracked (CR) corn without AH supplementation (CR-NO), and (4) CR corn with AH supplementation (CR-AH)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778095/establishing-an-innovative-carbohydrate-metabolic-pathway-for-efficient-production-of-2-keto-l-gulonic-acid-in-ketogulonicigenium-robustum-initiated-by-intronic-promoters
#14
Cai-Yun Wang, Ye Li, Zi-Wei Gao, Li-Cheng Liu, Meng-Yue Zhang, Tian-Yuan Zhang, Chun-Fu Wu, Yi-Xuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: 2-Keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KGA), the precursor of vitamin C, is currently produced by two-step fermentation. In the second step, L-sorbose is transformed into 2-KGA by the symbiosis system composed of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus megaterium. Due to the different nutrient requirements and the uncertain ratio of the two strains, the symbiosis system significantly limits strain improvement and fermentation optimization. RESULTS: In this study, Ketogulonicigenium robustum SPU_B003 was reported for its capability to grow well independently and to produce more 2-KGA than that of K...
May 19, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778094/substrate-sustained-release-based-high-efficacy-biosynthesis-of-gaba-by-lactobacillus-brevis-ncl912
#15
Qiong Wang, Xiaohua Liu, Jinheng Fu, Shuixing Wang, Yuanhong Chen, Kunpeng Chang, Haixing Li
BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a significant role in the food and drug industries. Our previous study established an efficient fed-batch fermentation process for Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 production of GABA from monosodium L-glutamate; however, monosodium L-glutamate may not be an ideal substrate, as it can result in the rapid increase of pH due to decarboxylation. Thus, in this study, L-glutamic acid was proposed as a substrate. To evaluate its potential, key components of the fermentation medium affecting GABA synthesis were re-screened and re-optimized to enhance GABA production from L...
May 19, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777997/rumen-fluid-fermentation-for-enhancement-of-hydrolysis-and-acidification-of-grass-clipping
#16
Siqi Wang, Guangming Zhang, Panyue Zhang, Xiaowen Ma, Fan Li, Haibo Zhang, Xue Tao, Junpei Ye, Mohammad Nabi
Rumen fluid, formed in rumen of ruminants, includes a complex microbial population of bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea, and has high ability to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, rumen fluid was used to ferment grass clipping for enhancing the hydrolysis and acidification of organic matters. Results showed that strict anaerobic condition, higher grass clipping content and smaller particle size of grass clipping were beneficial to the hydrolysis and acidification of organics. The increase of SCOD and total VFA concentration respectively reached 24...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777861/in-vitro-activity-characterization-of-the-tomato-snrk1-complex-proteins
#17
Dongyin Su, Timothy P Devarenne
Plant Sucrose non-Fermenting 1-Related Protein Kinase1 (SnRK1) complexes are members of the Snf1/AMPK/SnRK protein kinase family and play important roles in many aspects of metabolism. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Sl), only one α-subunit of the SnRK1 complex, SlSnRK1.1, has been characterized to date. In this study, the phylogenetic placement and in vitro kinase activity of a second tomato SnRK1 α-subunit, SlSnRK1.2, were characterized. Interestingly, in the phylogenetic analysis of SnRK1 sequences from monocots and dicots SlSnRK1...
May 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777591/bioengineering-triacetic-acid-lactone-production-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-pogostone-synthesis
#18
James Yu, Jenny Landberg, Farbod Shavarebi, Virginia Bilanchone, Adam Okerlund, Umayangani Wanninayake, Le Zhao, George Kraus, Suzanne Sandmeyer
Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast that is recognized for its ability to accumulate high levels of lipids, which can serve as precursors to biobased fuels and chemicals. Polyketides such as triacetic acid lactone (TAL) can also serve as a precursor for diverse commodity chemicals. This study used Y. lipolytica as a host organism for the production of TAL via expression of the 2-pyrone synthase gene from Gerbera hybrida. Induction of lipid biosynthesis by nitrogen-limited growth conditions increased TAL titers...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776925/unravelling-the-reduction-pathway-as-alternative-metabolic-route-to-hydroxycinnamate-decarboxylation-in-lactobacillus-plantarum
#19
Laura Santamaría, Inés Reverón, Félix López de Felipe, Blanca de Las Rivas, Rosario Muñoz
Lactobacillus plantarum is the lactic acid bacterial species most frequently found in plant-food fermentations where hydroxycinnamic acids are abundant. L. plantarum efficiently decarboxylates these compounds, and also reduces them, yielding substituted phenylpropionic acids. Although the reduction step is known to be induced by a hydroxycinnamic acid, the enzymatic machinery responsible for this reduction pathway has not been yet identified and characterized. A previous study on the transcriptomic response of L...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776590/batch-process-fault-detection-and-identification-based-on-discriminant-global-preserving-kernel-slow-feature-analysis
#20
Hanyuan Zhang, Xuemin Tian, Xiaogang Deng, Yuping Cao
As an attractive nonlinear dynamic data analysis tool, global preserving kernel slow feature analysis (GKSFA) has achieved great success in extracting the high nonlinearity and inherently time-varying dynamics of batch process. However, GKSFA is an unsupervised feature extraction method and lacks the ability to utilize batch process class label information, which may not offer the most effective means for dealing with batch process monitoring. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel batch process monitoring method based on the modified GKSFA, referred to as discriminant global preserving kernel slow feature analysis (DGKSFA), by closely integrating discriminant analysis and GKSFA...
May 16, 2018: ISA Transactions
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