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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639495/substance-use-in-adolescents-with-mental-illness-in-durban-south-africa
#1
Bhoodeo Taukoor, Saeeda Paruk, Enver Karim, Jonathan K Burns
Comorbid substance use in adolescents with mental illness is often an indicator of poor treatment outcome. This study aims to determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, substance use in adolescents with mental illness attending a mental health service. Data was collected from hospital records of 162 adolescents, using a structured data sheet, over a two-year period. Substance use was more significant in older adolescents and those with severe mental illness. Sixty-two (38.3%) adolescents used substances...
May 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576350/cannabinoids-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Ruth E Cooper, Emma Williams, Seth Seegobin, Charlotte Tye, Jonna Kuntsi, Philip Asherson
Adults with ADHD describe self-medicating with cannabis, with some reporting a preference for cannabis over ADHD medications. A small number of psychiatrists in the US prescribe cannabis medication for ADHD, despite there being no evidence from randomised controlled studies. The EMA-C trial (Experimental Medicine in ADHD-Cannabinoids) was a pilot randomised placebo-controlled experimental study of a cannabinoid medication, Sativex Oromucosal Spray, in 30 adults with ADHD. The primary outcome was cognitive performance and activity level using the QbTest...
May 30, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440194/concurrent-use-of-cannabis-and-alcohol-neuropsychiatric-effects-and-consequences
#3
Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Esther Papaseit, Ana Lucia Arellano, Magi Farré
Concurrent use of cannabis and alcohol is frequent. According different studies, the prevalence is among 20-34% depending on different samples studied. In contrast with the wide evidence available about neuropsychiatric effects associated to the use of cannabis or alcohol separately, there are few studies of the neuropsychiatric effects of their combination. Our aim was to review the literature regarding this topic. We performed a search in MEDLINE and from 114 potentially eligible studies, 27 were selected...
April 19, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406351/substance-use-in-undergraduate-students-with-histories-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-the-role-of-impulsivity
#4
Theresa E Egan, Anne E Dawson, Brian T Wymbs
BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood (18-25 years old) is regarded as a time of identity exploration that includes a peak in risky behaviors, such as substance use and misuse. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is also associated with greater levels of risky behaviors, including substance use and misuse; however, there is a lack of research on substance use by emerging adults with ADHD, in particular the potential mechanisms that may facilitate this risk. OBJECTIVES: The present study builds on the existing research regarding the association between ADHD and substance use by examining roles of multiple facets of impulsivity in facilitating this association during emerging adulthood...
April 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335878/psychotic-symptoms-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-analysis-of-the-mta-database
#5
Benedetto Vitiello, Guillermo Perez Algorta, L Eugene Arnold, Andrea L Howard, Annamarie Stehli, Brooke S G Molina
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among youths (14-25 years of age) with a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined type. METHOD: Participants in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) and a local normative comparison group (LNCG) were systematically assessed 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years after the original enrollment at a mean age of 8.5 years. Trained research assistants administered a psychosis screener, and positive screens were referred to study clinicians to confirm or exclude psychosis...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166690/how-substance-users-with-adhd-perceive-the-relationship-between-substance-use-and-emotional-functioning
#6
John T Mitchell, Thomas S Weisner, Peter S Jensen, Desiree W Murray, Brooke S G Molina, Eugene L Arnold, Lily Hechtman, James M Swanson, Stephen P Hinshaw, Elizabeth C Victor, Scott H Kollins, Karen C Wells, Katherine A Belendiuk, Andrew Blonde, Celeste Nguyen, Lizeth Ambriz, Jenny L Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: Although substance use (SU) is elevated in ADHD and both are associated with disrupted emotional functioning, little is known about how emotions and SU interact in ADHD. We used a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach to explore this relationship. METHOD: Narrative comments were coded for 67 persistent (50 ADHD, 17 local normative comparison group [LNCG]) and 25 desistent (20 ADHD, 5 LNCG) substance users from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) adult follow-up (21...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051838/mixed-amphetamine-salts-increase-abstinence-from-marijuana-in-patients-with-co-occurring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-cocaine-dependence
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Daniel P Notzon, John J Mariani, Martina Pavlicova, Andrew Glass, Amy L Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, John Grabowski, Frances R Levin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of ADHD is greater in substance use disorders than the general population, and ADHD and substance use disorders share neurobiological features such as dysregulation of reward circuitry. We tested the hypothesis that stimulants would decrease marijuana use in a randomized controlled trial of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) for treatment of co-occurring ADHD and cocaine use disorders. METHODS: Marijuana users were defined as participants reporting use in the 30 days before study initiation, collected with timeline follow-back...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995073/distinct-effects-of-childhood-adhd-and-cannabis-use-on-brain-functional-architecture-in-young-adults
#8
Clare Kelly, F Xavier Castellanos, Olivia Tomaselli, Krista Lisdahl, Leanne Tamm, Terry Jernigan, Erik Newman, Jeffery N Epstein, Brooke S G Molina, Laurence L Greenhill, Steven G Potkin, Stephen Hinshaw, James M Swanson
One of the most salient long-term implications of a childhood diagnosis of ADHD is an increased risk for substance use, abuse, or dependence in adolescence and adulthood. The extent to which cannabis use affects ADHD-related alterations in brain functional organization is unknown, however. To address this research gap, we recruited a sample of 75 individuals aged 21-25 years with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD Combined Type, who were either frequent users or non-users of cannabis. These participants have been followed longitudinally since age 7-9...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991999/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-drug-addiction-rehabilitation-patients
#9
Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo, Tarcísio Fanha Dornelles, Karin Barszcz, Eduardo Antunes Martins
Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. Methods: The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. Results: No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found...
December 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574840/crack-cocaine-use-in-adolescents-clinical-characteristics-and-predictors-of-early-initiation
#10
Thiago G Pianca, Luis Augusto Rohde, Ronaldo L Rosa, Ana Paula A Begnis, Pedro B Ferronatto, Mariana C Jensen, Flavio Pechansky, Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér, Victoria P Fairchild, Claudia M Szobot
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of adolescents with crack cocaine dependence and possible predictors of transition from drug experimentation to crack cocaine dependence. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled a consecutive sample of 90 adolescents admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit in the city of Porto Alegre in southern Brazil for crack cocaine detoxification between May 2011 and November 2012. Comorbid psychological conditions were assessed using the Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version, and severity of drug use was assessed using the Teen Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574527/associations-between-polygenic-risk-for-psychiatric-disorders-and-substance-involvement
#11
Caitlin E Carey, Arpana Agrawal, Kathleen K Bucholz, Sarah M Hartz, Michael T Lynskey, Elliot C Nelson, Laura J Bierut, Ryan Bogdan
Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European-American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB)...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549375/pharmacological-treatment-of-cannabis-related-disorders-a-narrative-review
#12
David A Gorelick
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit psychoactive substance world-wide, yet no medication is approved for the treatment of intoxication, withdrawal, or cannabis use disorder (CUD). OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively review the current state of knowledge. METHOD: Search of the PubMed electronic data base and review of reference lists of relevant articles to identify controlled clinical trials of pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: The search identified 4 trials for specific intoxication symptoms (none for global intoxication), 7 trials for withdrawal, and 12 phase II trials for CUD...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227537/-i-use-weed-for-my-adhd-a-qualitative-analysis-of-online-forum-discussions-on-cannabis-use-and-adhd
#13
John T Mitchell, Maggie M Sweitzer, Angela M Tunno, Scott H Kollins, F Joseph McClernon
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for problematic cannabis use. However, clinical and anecdotal evidence suggest an increasingly popular perception that cannabis is therapeutic for ADHD, including via online resources. Given that the Internet is increasingly utilized as a source of healthcare information and may influence perceptions, we conducted a qualitative analysis of online forum discussions, also referred to as threads, on the effects of cannabis on ADHD to systematically characterize the content patients and caregivers may encounter about ADHD and cannabis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211587/-food-addiction-definition-measurement-and-limits-of-the-concept-associated-factors-therapeutic-and-clinical-implications
#14
Sarah Cathelain, Paul Brunault, Nicolas Ballon, Christian Réveillère, Robert Courtois
Addictions, which are characterized by the inability to control a behavior despite existence of physical or psychological consequences, have biological, psychological and social determinants. Although the possibility of developing an addiction to some psychoactive substances (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, cannabis) and to gambling (i.e., gambling disorder) is now well demonstrated, the possibility to develop a non-drug addiction (i.e., behavioral addiction) to certain behaviors which provide pleasure (e.g. eating, having sex, buying things) is still in debate...
December 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079834/decision-making-does-not-moderate-the-association-between-cannabis-use-and-body-mass-index-among-adolescent-cannabis-users
#15
J Megan Ross, Paulo Graziano, Ileana Pacheco-Colón, Stefany Coxe, Raul Gonzalez
OBJECTIVES: Results from research conducted on the association between cannabis use and body mass index (BMI) reveal mixed findings. It is possible that individual differences in decision-making (DM) abilities may influence these associations. METHODS: This study analyzed how amount of cannabis use, DM performance, and the interaction of these variables influenced BMI and clinical classifications of weight among adolescents (ages 14 to 18 years; 56% male; 77% Hispanic)...
October 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061514/is-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-among-men-associated-with-initiation-or-escalation-of-substance-use-at-15-month-follow-up-a-longitudinal-study-involving-young-swiss-men
#16
Tanja Vogel, Geert Dom, Geurt van de Glind, Joseph Studer, Gerhard Gmel, Werner Strik, Franz Moggi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show higher substance use disorder (SUD) prevalence relative to non-ADHD controls; few longitudinal studies have examined the course of substance use with reference to conduct disorder (CD). We compared initiation and escalation of substance use at 15-month follow-up in men screened positive or negative for ADHD (ADHD(+) versus ADHD(-) ), controlling for CD presence in early adolescence. DESIGN: Participants were recruited during August 2010 and November 2011 from the census of all young men who have to pass mandatory army conscription from three of six Swiss Army recruitment centres...
October 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033880/adhd-is-highly-prevalent-in-patients-seeking-treatment-for-cannabis-use-disorders
#17
Daniel P Notzon, Martina Pavlicova, Andrew Glass, John J Mariani, Amy L Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, Frances R Levin
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of ADHD and determine an effective screening test for ADHD in a population-seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders. METHOD: The Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview forDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition(DSM-IV; CAADID) was used to generate sensitivity and specificity data for ADHD screening tests, which were then administered to 99 participants seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders to estimate ADHD prevalence...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920911/adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptom-profiles-and-concurrent-problems-with-alcohol-and-cannabis-sex-differences-in-a-representative-population-survey
#18
Nathan J Kolla, Mark van der Maas, Maggie E Toplak, Patricia G Erickson, Robert E Mann, Jane Seeley, Evelyn Vingilis
BACKGROUND: Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a robust association with alcohol and cannabis misuse, and these relationships are expressed differently in males and females. Manifestation of specific ADHD symptom profiles, even in the absence of the full disorder, may also be related to problems with alcohol and cannabis, although these relationships have not been investigated in epidemiological studies. To address this question, we studied the sex-specific associations of ADHD symptomatology with problematic alcohol and cannabis use in a representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older residing in Ontario, Canada...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903256/gender-differences-in-associations-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-substance-use-disorder
#19
Cæcilie Ottosen, Liselotte Petersen, Janne Tidselbak Larsen, Søren Dalsgaard
OBJECTIVE: To examine gender differences in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder (SUD), and to explore the impact of comorbid psychiatric conditions. METHOD: This was a cohort study of all children born in Denmark in 1990 to 2003 (n = 729,560). By record linkage across nationwide registers, we merged data on birth characteristics, socioeconomic status, familial psychiatric history, and diagnoses of ADHD (N = 19,645), comorbidities, and SUD...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897585/the-impact-of-adhd-persistence-recent-cannabis-use-and-age-of-regular-cannabis-use-onset-on-subcortical-volume-and-cortical-thickness-in-young-adults
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Krista M Lisdahl, Leanne Tamm, Jeffery N Epstein, Terry Jernigan, Brooke S G Molina, Stephen P Hinshaw, James M Swanson, Erik Newman, Clare Kelly, James M Bjork
BACKGROUND: Both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and chronic cannabis (CAN) use have been associated with brain structural abnormalities, although little is known about the effects of both in young adults. METHODS: Participants included: those with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD who were CAN users (ADHD_CAN; n=37) and non-users (NU) (ADHD_NU; n=44) and a local normative comparison group (LNCG) who did (LNCG_CAN; n=18) and did not (LNCG_NU; n=21) use CAN regularly...
April 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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