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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574840/crack-cocaine-use-in-adolescents-clinical-characteristics-and-predictors-of-early-initiation
#1
Thiago G Pianca, Luis Augusto Rohde, Ronaldo L Rosa, Ana Paula A Begnis, Pedro B Ferronatto, Mariana C Jensen, Flavio Pechansky, Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér, Victoria P Fairchild, Claudia M Szobot
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of adolescents with crack cocaine dependence and possible predictors of transition from drug experimentation to crack cocaine dependence. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled a consecutive sample of 90 adolescents admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit in the city of Porto Alegre in southern Brazil for crack cocaine detoxification between May 2011 and November 2012. Comorbid psychological conditions were assessed using the Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version, and severity of drug use was assessed using the Teen Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574527/associations-between-polygenic-risk-for-psychiatric-disorders-and-substance-involvement
#2
Caitlin E Carey, Arpana Agrawal, Kathleen K Bucholz, Sarah M Hartz, Michael T Lynskey, Elliot C Nelson, Laura J Bierut, Ryan Bogdan
Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European-American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB)...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549375/pharmacological-treatment-of-cannabis-related-disorders-a-narrative-review
#3
David A Gorelick
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit psychoactive substance world-wide, yet no medication is approved for the treatment of intoxication, withdrawal, or cannabis use disorder (CUD). OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively review the current state of knowledge. METHOD: Search of the PubMed electronic data base and review of reference lists of relevant articles to identify controlled clinical trials of pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: The search identified 4 trials for specific intoxication symptoms (none for global intoxication), 7 trials for withdrawal, and 12 phase II trials for CUD...
August 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227537/-i-use-weed-for-my-adhd-a-qualitative-analysis-of-online-forum-discussions-on-cannabis-use-and-adhd
#4
John T Mitchell, Maggie M Sweitzer, Angela M Tunno, Scott H Kollins, F Joseph McClernon
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for problematic cannabis use. However, clinical and anecdotal evidence suggest an increasingly popular perception that cannabis is therapeutic for ADHD, including via online resources. Given that the Internet is increasingly utilized as a source of healthcare information and may influence perceptions, we conducted a qualitative analysis of online forum discussions, also referred to as threads, on the effects of cannabis on ADHD to systematically characterize the content patients and caregivers may encounter about ADHD and cannabis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211587/-food-addiction-definition-measurement-and-limits-of-the-concept-associated-factors-therapeutic-and-clinical-implications
#5
Sarah Cathelain, Paul Brunault, Nicolas Ballon, Christian Réveillère, Robert Courtois
Addictions, which are characterized by the inability to control a behavior despite existence of physical or psychological consequences, have biological, psychological and social determinants. Although the possibility of developing an addiction to some psychoactive substances (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, cannabis) and to gambling (i.e., gambling disorder) is now well demonstrated, the possibility to develop a non-drug addiction (i.e., behavioral addiction) to certain behaviors which provide pleasure (e.g. eating, having sex, buying things) is still in debate...
May 19, 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079834/decision-making-does-not-moderate-the-association-between-cannabis-use-and-body-mass-index-among-adolescent-cannabis-users
#6
J Megan Ross, Paulo Graziano, Ileana Pacheco-Colón, Stefany Coxe, Raul Gonzalez
OBJECTIVES: Results from research conducted on the association between cannabis use and body mass index (BMI) reveal mixed findings. It is possible that individual differences in decision-making (DM) abilities may influence these associations. METHODS: This study analyzed how amount of cannabis use, DM performance, and the interaction of these variables influenced BMI and clinical classifications of weight among adolescents (ages 14 to 18 years; 56% male; 77% Hispanic)...
April 15, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061514/is-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-among-men-associated-with-initiation-or-escalation-of-substance-use-at-15-month-follow-up-a-longitudinal-study-involving-young-swiss-men
#7
Tanja Vogel, Geert Dom, Geurt van de Glind, Joseph Studer, Gerhard Gmel, Werner Strik, Franz Moggi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show higher substance use disorder (SUD) prevalence relative to non-ADHD controls; few longitudinal studies have examined the course of substance use with reference to conduct disorder (CD). We compared initiation and escalation of substance use at 15-month follow-up in men screened positive or negative for ADHD (ADHD(+) versus ADHD(-) ), controlling for CD presence in early adolescence. DESIGN: Participants were recruited during August 2010 and November 2011 from the census of all young men who have to pass mandatory army conscription from three of six Swiss Army recruitment centres...
October 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033880/adhd-is-highly-prevalent-in-patients-seeking-treatment-for-cannabis-use-disorders
#8
Daniel P Notzon, Martina Pavlicova, Andrew Glass, John J Mariani, Amy L Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, Frances R Levin
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of ADHD and determine an effective screening test for ADHD in a population-seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders. METHOD: The Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview forDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition(DSM-IV; CAADID) was used to generate sensitivity and specificity data for ADHD screening tests, which were then administered to 99 participants seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders to estimate ADHD prevalence...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920911/adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptom-profiles-and-concurrent-problems-with-alcohol-and-cannabis-sex-differences-in-a-representative-population-survey
#9
Nathan J Kolla, Mark van der Maas, Maggie E Toplak, Patricia G Erickson, Robert E Mann, Jane Seeley, Evelyn Vingilis
BACKGROUND: Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a robust association with alcohol and cannabis misuse, and these relationships are expressed differently in males and females. Manifestation of specific ADHD symptom profiles, even in the absence of the full disorder, may also be related to problems with alcohol and cannabis, although these relationships have not been investigated in epidemiological studies. To address this question, we studied the sex-specific associations of ADHD symptomatology with problematic alcohol and cannabis use in a representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older residing in Ontario, Canada...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903256/gender-differences-in-associations-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-substance-use-disorder
#10
Cæcilie Ottosen, Liselotte Petersen, Janne Tidselbak Larsen, Søren Dalsgaard
OBJECTIVE: To examine gender differences in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder (SUD), and to explore the impact of comorbid psychiatric conditions. METHOD: This was a cohort study of all children born in Denmark in 1990 to 2003 (n = 729,560). By record linkage across nationwide registers, we merged data on birth characteristics, socioeconomic status, familial psychiatric history, and diagnoses of ADHD (N = 19,645), comorbidities, and SUD...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897585/the-impact-of-adhd-persistence-recent-cannabis-use-and-age-of-regular-cannabis-use-onset-on-subcortical-volume-and-cortical-thickness-in-young-adults
#11
Krista M Lisdahl, Leanne Tamm, Jeffery N Epstein, Terry Jernigan, Brooke S G Molina, Stephen P Hinshaw, James M Swanson, Erik Newman, Clare Kelly, James M Bjork
BACKGROUND: Both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and chronic cannabis (CAN) use have been associated with brain structural abnormalities, although little is known about the effects of both in young adults. METHODS: Participants included: those with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD who were CAN users (ADHD_CAN; n=37) and non-users (NU) (ADHD_NU; n=44) and a local normative comparison group (LNCG) who did (LNCG_CAN; n=18) and did not (LNCG_NU; n=21) use CAN regularly...
April 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26522870/prescription-stimulant-use-is-associated-with-earlier-onset-of-psychosis
#12
Lauren V Moran, Grace A Masters, Samira Pingali, Bruce M Cohen, Elizabeth Liebson, R P Rajarethinam, Dost Ongur
A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors...
December 2015: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26489976/adhd-and-cannabis-use-in-young-adults-examined-using-fmri-of-a-go-nogo-task
#13
Jerod Rasmussen, B J Casey, Theo G M van Erp, Leanne Tamm, Jeffery N Epstein, Claudia Buss, James M Bjork, Brooke S G Molina, Katerina Velanova, Daniel H Mathalon, Leah Somerville, James M Swanson, Tim Wigal, L Eugene Arnold, Steven G Potkin
Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) cannabis use...
September 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26404018/go-no-go-task-performance-predicts-cortical-thickness-in-the-caudal-inferior-frontal-gyrus-in-young-adults-with-and-without-adhd
#14
Erik Newman, Terry L Jernigan, Krista M Lisdahl, Leanne Tamm, Susan F Tapert, Steven G Potkin, Daniel Mathalon, Brooke Molina, James Bjork, F Xavier Castellanos, James Swanson, Joshua M Kuperman, Hauke Bartsch, Chi-Hua Chen, Anders M Dale, Jeffery N Epstein, Mta Neuroimaging Group
Response inhibition deficits are widely believed to be at the core of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have examined neural architectural correlates of ADHD, but research directly examining structural correlates of response inhibition is lacking. Here we examine the relationship between response inhibition as measured by a Go/No Go task, and cortical surface area and thickness of the caudal inferior frontal gyrus (cIFG), a region implicated in functional imaging studies of response inhibition, in a sample of 114 young adults with and without ADHD diagnosed initially during childhood...
September 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26235475/adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-and-psychosis-epidemiological-evidence-from-a-population-survey-in-england
#15
Steven Marwaha, Andrew Thompson, Paul Bebbington, Swaran P Singh, Daniel Freeman, Catherine Winsper, Matthew R Broome
Despite both having some shared features, evidence linking psychosis and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sparse and inconsistent. Hypotheses tested were (1) adult ADHD symptoms are associated with auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation and psychosis (2) links between ADHD symptoms and psychosis are mediated by prescribed ADHD medications, use of illicit drugs, and dysphoric mood. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403) provided data for regression and multiple mediation analyses...
September 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26088112/methylphenidate-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-substance-use-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Nicolas Simon, Benjamin Rolland, Laurent Karila
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopment disorder occurring during childhood. However, ADHD persists into adulthood in 45.7% of cases. The global prevalence of adult ADHD is estimated to 5.3%, with no difference between Europe and North America. ADHD is often comorbid with substance use disorder (SUD), with Odds Ratio ranges from 1.5 to 7.9, depending on the substance and the dependence level. Conversely, the prevalence of ADHD among patients with SUD is 10.8%, versus 3.8% for patients without SUD...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25989844/adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-its-association-with-substance-use-and-substance-use-disorders-in-young-men
#17
N Estévez, M Dey, D Eich-Höchli, S Foster, G Gmel, M Mohler-Kuo
BACKGROUND: Functional and mental health impairments that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience may be exacerbated by regular substance use and co-morbidity with substance use disorders (SUD). This may be especially true during young adulthood, which represents a critical stage of life associated with increased substance use and associated problems. However, previous studies investigating the association between ADHD and substance use and SUD have demonstrated inconsistent results, probably due to methodological limitations (e...
June 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25979680/e-mental-health-care-among-young-adults-and-help-seeking-behaviors-a-transversal-study-in-a-community-sample
#18
Nadia Younes, Aude Chollet, Estelle Menard, Maria Melchior
BACKGROUND: The Internet is widely used by young people and could serve to improve insufficient access to mental health care. Previous information on this topic comes from selected samples (students or self-selected individuals) and is incomplete. OBJECTIVE: In a community sample of young adults, we aimed to describe frequency of e-mental health care study-associated factors and to determine if e-mental health care was associated with the use of conventional services for mental health care...
2015: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25957927/clinical-trials-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-psychiatry-and-neurology-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Deepmala, John Slattery, Nihit Kumar, Leanna Delhey, Michael Berk, Olivia Dean, Charles Spielholz, Richard Frye
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is recognized for its role in acetaminophen overdose and as a mucolytic. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence for the use of NAC in treating psychiatric and neurological disorders, considering its role in attenuating pathophysiological processes associated with these disorders, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and glutamate and dopamine dysregulation. In this systematic review we find favorable evidence for the use of NAC in several psychiatric and neurological disorders, particularly autism, Alzheimer's disease, cocaine and cannabis addiction, bipolar disorder, depression, trichotillomania, nail biting, skin picking, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, drug-induced neuropathy and progressive myoclonic epilepsy...
August 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832823/neuropsychological-sex-differences-associated-with-age-of-initiated-use-among-young-adult-cannabis-users
#20
Natania A Crane, Randi Melissa Schuster, Robin J Mermelstein, Raul Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. METHOD: In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users...
2015: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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