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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817515/the-competency-outcomes-model-advancing-academic-progression
#1
Maureen Sroczynski, Liz Close, Mary Sue Gorski, Pat Farmer, Jean Wortock
AIM: This article describes the Competency Model (CM) as a promising curriculum framework to foster academic progression from the associate to the baccalaureate degree in nursing. BACKGROUND: The CM was identified by the Center to Champion Nursing in America as one of four seamless nursing academic progression models to streamline nursing academic progression. It is built on a foundation of authentic collaboration between education and practice partners to develop and maintain explicit, current, practice-relevant nursing education outcomes...
September 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816917/factors-associated-with-developmental-behavioral-pediatricians-prescribing-psychotropic-medication-to-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-study-of-three-dbpnet-sites
#2
Carissa Jackel, Justine Shults, Susan Wiley, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Marilyn Augustyn, Nathan Blum
OBJECTIVE: Psychotropic medications are frequently prescribed to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little is known about the prescribing practices of developmental-behavioral pediatricians (DBPs). Our objective was to determine whether clinical site, age, insurance, or comorbidities influenced DBPs prescribing psychotropic medication for children with ASD. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using electronic health record data of all patients with ASD seen at 3 academic developmental-behavioral pediatrics (DBP) clinical programs from January 2010 to December 2011...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816869/spine-trauma-what-are-the-current-controversies
#3
Cumhur Oner, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran, Jens R Chapman, Michael G Fehlings, Alexander R Vaccaro, Gregory D Schroeder, Said Sadiqi, James Harrop
Although less common than other musculoskeletal injuries, spinal trauma may lead to significantly more disability and costs. During the last 2 decades there was substantial improvement in our understanding of the basic patterns of spinal fractures leading to more reliable classification and injury severity assessment systems but also rapid developments in surgical techniques. Despite these advancements, there remain unresolved issues concerning the management of these injuries. At this moment there is persistent controversy within the spinal trauma community, which can be grouped under 6 headings...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815769/homology-modeling-in-a-dynamical-world
#4
Alexander Miguel Monzon, Diego Javier Zea, Cristina Marino-Buslje, Gustavo Parisi
A key concept in template-based modeling is the high correlation between sequence and structural divergence, with the practical consequence that homologous proteins that are similar at the sequence level will also be similar at the structural level. However, conformational diversity of the native state will reduce the correlation between structural and sequence divergence, because structural variation can appear without sequence diversity. In this work, we explore the impact that conformational diversity has on the relationship between structural and sequence divergence...
August 17, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815655/a-clinical-trial-design-using-the-concept-of-proportional-time-using-the-generalized-gamma-ratio-distribution
#5
Milind A Phadnis, James B Wetmore, Matthew S Mayo
Traditional methods of sample size and power calculations in clinical trials with a time-to-event end point are based on the logrank test (and its variations), Cox proportional hazards (PH) assumption, or comparison of means of 2 exponential distributions. Of these, sample size calculation based on PH assumption is likely the most common and allows adjusting for the effect of one or more covariates. However, when designing a trial, there are situations when the assumption of PH may not be appropriate. Additionally, when it is known that there is a rapid decline in the survival curve for a control group, such as from previously conducted observational studies, a design based on the PH assumption may confer only a minor statistical improvement for the treatment group that is neither clinically nor practically meaningful...
August 16, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815362/metric-to-quantify-white-matter-damage-on-brain-magnetic-resonance-images
#6
Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Francesca M Chappell, Susana Muñoz Maniega, David Alexander Dickie, Natalie A Royle, Zoe Morris, Devasuda Anblagan, Eleni Sakka, Paul A Armitage, Mark E Bastin, Ian J Deary, Joanna M Wardlaw
PURPOSE: Quantitative assessment of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is challenging. It is important to harmonise results from different software tools considering not only the volume but also the signal intensity. Here we propose and evaluate a metric of white matter (WM) damage that addresses this need. METHODS: We obtained WMH and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) volumes from brain structural MRI from community dwelling older individuals and stroke patients enrolled in three different studies, using two automatic methods followed by manual editing by two to four observers blind to each other...
August 16, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815074/enhanced-recovery-protocols-after-oesophagectomy
#7
REVIEW
Laura J Halliday, Sheraz R Markar, Sophie L F Doran, Krishna Moorthy
The feasibility and safety of enhanced recovery protocols (ERP) have been demonstrated in a large number of surgical specialties. Several studies have shown improved post-operative outcomes and economic benefit from the use of ERPs in oesophageal cancer surgery. However, these improvements are not always translated more widely into clinical practice due to variation in protocols, poor compliance and failure to implement a robust implementation strategy. ERP implementation strategies should reflect the fact that these are complex interventions that are influenced by a wide range of social, organizational and cultural factors...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814625/variations-in-cause-of-death-determination-for-sudden-unexpected-infant-deaths
#8
Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Sharyn E Parks, Jennifer Brustrom, Tom Andrew, Lena Camperlengo, John Fudenberg, Betsy Payn, Dale Rhoda
OBJECTIVES: To quantify and describe variation in cause-of-death certification of sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs) among US medical examiners and coroners. METHODS: From January to November 2014, we conducted a nationally representative survey of US medical examiners and coroners who certify infant deaths. Two-stage unequal probability sampling with replacement was used. Medical examiners and coroners were asked to classify SUIDs based on hypothetical scenarios and to describe the evidence considered and investigative procedures used for cause-of-death determination...
June 5, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814379/are-routine-radiographs-needed-the-day-after-open-reduction-and-internal-fixation-surgery-for-distal-radius-and-ankle-fractures-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Florian Oehme, Annika Rühle, Julia Mühlhäusser, Lana Fourie, Björn-Christian Link, Reto Babst, Frank Jp Beeres
BACKGROUND: Distal radius and ankle fractures are one of the most common operatively treated fractures. To date, there is no consensus concerning the need for a standard postoperative radiograph. This leads to undesirable practice variations. A standardized radiograph in the department of radiology would theoretically be more reproducible and operator independent than an intraoperatively obtained fluoroscopic image. However, if adequate intraoperative radiographs have been obtained, it is questionable if these postoperative radiographs are necessary and will lead to changes in the treatment strategy...
August 16, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814262/update-on-the-evaluation-and-management-of-brief-resolved-unexplained-events-previously-apparent-life-threatening-events
#10
Eric Zwemer, Ilene Claudius, Joel Tieder
BACKGROUND: The thirty-year-old term "apparent life-threatening event" (ALTE) is difficult to apply in clinical practice and research. The American Academy of Pediatrics now defines these events as brief resolved unexplained events (BRUEs), stratifies infants based on the risk of recurrence or of a serious underlying condition, and offers evidence-based management recommendations for infants at lower-risk. OBJECTIVE: To review recent ALTE literature as it relates to BRUEs...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813432/basic-reversal-learning-capacity-in-flies-suggests-rudiments-of-complex-cognition
#11
Brad R Foley, Paul Marjoram, Sergey V Nuzhdin
The most basic models of learning are reinforcement learning models (for instance, classical and operant conditioning) that posit a constant learning rate; however many animals change their learning rates with experience. This process is sometimes studied by reversing an existing association between cues and rewards, and measuring the rate of relearning. Augmented reversal-learning, where learning rates increase with practice, can be an important component of behavioral flexibility; and may provide insight into higher cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813357/anticipation-in-sport
#12
REVIEW
Florian Loffing, Rouwen Cañal-Bruland
Anticipation has become an increasingly important research area within sport psychology since its infancy in the late 1970s. Early work has increased our fundamental understanding of skilled anticipation in sports and how this skill is developed. With increasing theoretical and practical insights and concurrent technological advancements, researchers are now able to tackle more detailed questions with sophisticated methods. Despite this welcomed progress, some fundamental questions and challenges remain to be addressed, including the (relative) contributions of visual and motor experience to anticipation, intraindividual and interindividual variation in gaze behaviour, and the impact of non-kinematic (contextual or situational) information on performance and its interaction with advanced kinematic cues during the planning and execution of (re)actions in sport...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813265/parenting-and-globalization-in-western-countries-explaining-differences-in-parent-child-interactions
#13
REVIEW
Mariëlle Jl Prevoo, Catherine S Tamis-LeMonda
We review research on intra-cultural differences in parenting, and the sources of those differences. Ethnic-minority parents differ from majority parents in parenting values, childrearing goals and resources-differences that affect parenting practices and children's development. Within-country comparisons indicate less sensitivity, more authoritarian discipline, less child-focused communications, and less engagement in learning activities in ethnic-minority compared to ethnic-majority parents, which help account for disparities in children...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813262/parenting-in-acculturation-two-contemporary-research-designs-and-what-they-tell-us
#14
REVIEW
Marc H Bornstein
Massive population transfers are common today. To understand how immigrants negotiate variation and adjustment as they settle in a new culture, researchers have explored acculturation, the changes that individuals and groups undergo as a result of contact with a culture not their own. Parents have crucial roles to play in acculturation. Parenting is instantiated in cognitions and practices, and cognitions and practices of parents are multifaceted and influenced by many factors, including parents' own individual characteristics, their children, and their cultural experiences...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813261/current-research-on-parenting-styles-dimensions-and-beliefs
#15
REVIEW
Judith G Smetana
For decades, parenting has been characterized in terms of broad global styles, with authoritative parenting seen as most beneficial for children's development. Concerns with greater sensitivity to cultural and contextual variations have led to greater specificity in defining parenting in terms of different parenting dimensions and greater consideration of the role of parenting beliefs in moderating links between parenting and adjustment. New research includes 'domain-specific' models that describe parents as flexibly deploying different practices depending on their goals, children's needs, and the types of behaviors towards which parenting is directed...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812947/a-concept-analysis-of-professional-commitment-in-nursing
#16
Loreto García-Moyano, Rogelio Altisent, Begoña Pellicer-García, Sandra Guerrero-Portillo, Oihana Arrazola-Alberdi, María Teresa Delgado-Marroquín
BACKGROUND: The concept of professional commitment is being widely studied at present. However, although it is considered an indicator for the most human part of nursing care, there is no clear definition for it, and different descriptors are being used indiscriminately to reference it. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to clarify the concept of professional commitment in nursing through the Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis process. DESIGN: Systematic search using English and Spanish descriptors and concept analysis...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812813/do-management-and-leadership-practices-in-the-context-of-decentralisation-influence-performance-of-community-health-fund-evidence-from-iramba-and-iringa-districts-in-tanzania
#17
Chakupewa Joseph, Stephen Oswald Maluka
BACKGROUND: In early 1990s, Tanzania like other African countries, adopted health sector reform (HSR). The most strongly held centralisation system that informed the nature of services provision including health was, thus, disintegrated giving rise to decentralisation system. It was within the realm of HSR process, user fees were introduced in the health sector. Along with user fees, various types of health insurances, including the Community Health Fund (CHF), were introduced. While the country's level of enrolment in the CHF is low, there are marked variations among districts...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812740/higher-order-interactions-capture-unexplained-complexity-in-diverse-communities
#18
Margaret M Mayfield, Daniel B Stouffer
Natural communities are well known to be maintained by many complex processes. Despite this, the practical aspects of studying them often require some simplification, such as the widespread assumption that direct, additive competition captures the important details about how interactions between species impact community diversity. More complex non-additive 'higher-order' interactions are assumed to be negligible or absent. Notably, these assumptions are poorly supported and have major consequences for the accuracy with which patterns of natural diversity are modelled and explained...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810814/acceptability-of-a-vocational-advice-service-for-patients-consulting-in-primary-care-with-musculoskeletal-pain-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-experiences-of-general-practitioners-vocational-advisers-and-patients
#19
Tom Sanders, Gwenllian Wynne-Jones, Bie Nio Ong, Majid Artus, Nadine Foster
AIMS: Using qualitative interviews, this study explored the experiences of GPs, vocational advisers and patients towards a new vocational advice (VA) service in primary care. METHODS: This study was nested within the Study of Work and Pain (SWAP) cluster randomised controlled trial. The SWAP trial located a VA service within three general practices in Staffordshire. Interviews took place with 10 GPs 12 months after the introduction of the VA service, four vocational advisers whilst the VA service was running and 20 patients on discharge from the VA service...
August 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809628/-the-effect-of-activation-of-the-shoulder-girdle-muscles-on-functional-outcomes-of-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-surgically-treated-distal-radius-fractures
#20
V Jančíková, J Opavský, P Dráč, A Krobot, I Čižmář
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of the study was to assess the functional outcomes of rehabilitation in patients with surgically treated distal radius fractures in the early postoperative period. We compared the functional outcomes of patients undergoing standard rehabilitation with the group of patients whose postoperative rehabilitation was extended with shoulder girdle exercises of the affected upper limb while the wrist was immobilized. Several indices and variables were used for the assessment of the functional therapeutic outcomes of the affected wrist...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
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