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Systemic hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915400/the-pathophysiological-role-of-nox2-in-hypertension-and-organ-damage
#1
REVIEW
Maurizio Forte, Cristina Nocella, Elena De Falco, Silvia Palmerio, Leonardo Schirone, Valentina Valenti, Giacomo Frati, Roberto Carnevale, Sebastiano Sciarretta
NADPH oxidases (NOXs) represent one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species in the vascular district. Reactive oxygen species are responsible for vascular damage that leads to several cardiovascular pathological conditions. Among NOX isoforms, NOX2 is widely expressed in many cells types, such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, confirming its pivotal role in vascular pathophysiology. Studies in mice models with systemic deletion of NOX2, as well as in transgenic mice overexpressing NOX2, have demonstrated the undeniable involvement of NOX2 in the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cardiac hypertrophy, platelet aggregation, and aging...
December 3, 2016: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915325/possible-role-of-sildenafil-citrate-in-the-recurrence-of-neovascularization-in-laser-regressed-aggressive-posterior-rop
#2
Chaitra Jayadev, Phanibhushan Ramasastry, Alia Gul, Anand Vinekar
BACKGROUND: Systemic diseases and their treatment influence aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: A premature infant with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity underwent laser treatment with a favourable outcome. She was started on oral sidenafil citrate for pulmonary hypertension. Ten days later she developed neovascularization within the lasered retina. INTERVENTION/OUTCOME: Considering the possible role of sildenafil in this unusual development, the drug was withdrawn resulting in regression of the neovascularization...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914592/hyperuricemia-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-is-it-associated-with-the-neuropsychiatric-manifestations-of-the-disease
#3
Mahdi Sheikh, Shafieh Movassaghi, Mohammad Khaledi, Maryam Moghaddassi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between hyperuricemia and different neuropsychiatric manifestations and stroke risk factors in systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: This study was conducted on 204 SLE patients who were admitted to a tertiary referral center. A standardized questionnaire was completed for all the participants and the medical records were reviewed regarding the occurrence of arterial or venous thrombotic events, stroke, seizure, depression, headache, psychosis, and peripheral neuropathy...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914359/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-arrhythmia-a-systemic-review
#4
EDITORIAL
Nirav Patel, Caroline Donahue, Abhishek Shenoy, Arpan Patel, Nabil El-Sherif
There is a growing consensus in the scientific community that suggests a strong association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular (CVD) conditions and events, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, arrhythmia, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. We reviewed evidence on the relationship between OSA and arrhythmia. Our conclusion, based on our review of the literature, is that the evidence supports a strong link between OSA and cardiovascular mortality, which warrants treating OSA...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913560/cohort-profile-the-diabetes-tuberculosis-treatment-outcome-ditto-study-in-pakistan
#5
Fatima Mukhtar, Zahid A Butt
PURPOSE: Pakistan is faced with an increasing prevalence of diabetes in addition to its existing high burden of tuberculosis (TB). Diabetes has a detrimental effect on treatment outcomes of patients with TB, which may hinder achieving the goals of the End-TB strategy by 2030. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine difference between treatment outcomes among patients with diabetes and new pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and patients without diabetes and new PTB. This would help generate contextual and valid scientific evidence from a developing country like Pakistan with its unique interplay of sociocultural, economic and health system factors to inform policy and practice...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913059/cha2ds2-vasc-scores-and-major-bleeding-in-patients-with-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-who-are-receiving-rivaroxaban
#6
W Frank Peacock, Sally Tamayo, Manesh Patel, Nicholas Sicignano, Kathleen P Hopf, Zhong Yuan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Assessing stroke risk associated with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation depends on the evaluation of patient characteristics and clinical features. Clinicians must determine that the net clinical benefit from anticoagulation therapy outweighs its risk, namely, bleeding. Risk assessment for stroke is commonly performed by calculating a CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure/left ventricular dysfunction, hypertension, ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism, vascular disease, aged 65 to 74 years, sex female) score...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912885/tetrandrine-an-alkaloid-from-s-tetrandra-exhibits-anti-hypertensive-and-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-shr-via-different-mechanisms
#7
Yuan-Li Huang, Su-Ying Cui, Xiang-Yu Cui, Qing Cao, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Xiao Hu, Hui Ye, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders have been found to be associated with hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. Tetrandrine, a major component of Stephania tetrandra, is well known as an antihypertensive agent. The anti-hypertension mechanism mainly relies on its L-type calcium channel blocking property. In the previous study, tetrandrine revealed both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). PURPOSE: This study aims to elucidate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of tetrandrine in SHRs is relevant to its hypnotic effect...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910864/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-gene-polymorphisms-in-gestational-hypertension-and-preeclampsia-a-case-control-gene-association-study
#8
Xun Li, Hongzhuan Tan, Shujin Zhou, Shimin Hu, Tianyi Zhang, Yangfen Li, Qianru Dou, Zhiwei Lai, Fenglei Chen
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, including preeclampsia [PE] and gestational hypertension [GH]) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have some metabolic changes and risk factors in common. Many studies have reported associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) genes and CVDs (particularly hypertension), and their findings have provided candidate SNPs for research on genetic correlates of PIH. We explored the association between hypertension-related RAAS SNPs and PIH in a Chinese population...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910061/inhaled-gene-transfer-for-pulmonary-circulation
#9
Jaume Aguero, Lahouaria Hadri, Nadjib Hammoudi, Lauren Leonardson, Roger J Hajjar, Kiyotake Ishikawa
Chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with right ventricular failure and high mortality regardless of the underlying disease. Currently, therapies can improve clinical outcomes in specific subsets of patients, but have little impact on the progression of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Upon new advances in vector development and delivery techniques, gene therapy is a novel strategy in this field with the potential of overcoming the main limitations of approved drug therapies: modulation of novel anti-remodeling targets and selective pulmonary vasculature targeting with minimal systemic effects...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908301/utility-of-b-type-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-assessment-of-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis-associated-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-pharos-registry
#10
Lorinda Chung, Robert M Fairchild, Daniel E Furst, Shufeng Li, Firas Alkassab, Marcy B Bolster, Mary Ellen Csuka, Chris T Derk, Robyn T Domsic, Aryeh Fischer, Tracy Frech, Mardi Gomberg-Maitland, Jessica K Gordon, Monique Hinchcliff, Vivien Hsu, Laura K Hummers, Dinesh Khanna, Thomas A Jr Medsger, Jerry A Molitor, Ivana R Preston, Elena Schiopu, Lee Shapiro, Faye Hant, Richard Silver, Robert Simms, John Varga, Virginia D Steen, Roham T Zamanian
OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) in detecting and monitoring pulmonary hypertension (PH) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: PHAROS is a multicenter prospective cohort of SSc patients at high risk for developing pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-AR-PAH) or with a definitive diagnosis of SSc-PH. We evaluated 1) the sensitivity and specificity of BNP≥64 and NT-proBNP≥210 pg/mL for the detection of SSc-PAH and/ or SSc-PH in the SSc-AR-PAH population; 2) baseline and longitudinal BNP and NT-proBNP levels as predictors of progression to SSc-PAH and/or SSc-PH; 3) baseline BNP≥180, NT-proBNP≥553 pg/mL, and longitudinal changes in BNP and NT-proBNP as predictors of mortality in SSc-PH diagnosed patients...
November 10, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907953/management-of-the-pediatric-neurocritical-care-patient
#11
Christopher M Horvat, Haifa Mtaweh, Michael J Bell
Pediatric neurocritical care is a growing subspecialty of pediatric intensive care that focuses on the management of acute neurological diseases in children. A brief history of the field of pediatric neurocritical care is provided. Neuromonitoring strategies for children are reviewed. Management of major categories of acute childhood central neurologic diseases are reviewed, including treatment of diseases associated with intracranial hypertension, seizures and status epilepticus, stroke, central nervous system infection and inflammation, and hypoxic-ischemic injury...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906842/spironolactone-and-the-risk-of-urinary-tract-cancer-in-patients-with-hypertension-a-nationwide-population-based-retrospective-case-control-study
#12
Ya-Wen Chuang, Mei-Ching Yu, Shih-Ting Huang, Cheng-Kuang Yang, Cheng-Hsu Chen, Ying-Chih Lo, Cheng-Li Lin, Kuo-Hsiung Shu, Tung-Min Yu, Chia-Hung Kao
AIM: This was a nationwide study by National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the risk of urinary tract cancers (UTCs) for renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors including spironolactone. METHODS: A total of 32 167 UTC patients with hypertension were enrolled in the National Health Insurance program between 2005 and 2011. RESULTS: Among different subclasses of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for UTC risk was 1...
January 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906840/renal-artery-denervation-for-treatment-of-patients-with-self-reported-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-resistant-hypertension-results-from-the-global-symplicity-registry
#13
Dominik Linz, Giuseppe Mancia, Felix Mahfoud, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Luis Ruilope, Markus Schlaich, Ingrid Kindermann, Roland E Schmieder, Sebastian Ewen, Bryan Williams, Michael Böhm
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing, predominantly obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is highly prevalent in patients with hypertension. OSA may underlie the progression to resistant hypertension, partly due to increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system. This analysis of patients with and without OSA evaluated the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of sympathetic modulation by renal denervation (RDN) in a real-world setting. METHODS: The Global SYMPLICITY Registry (NCT01534299) is a prospective, open-label, multicenter registry conducted worldwide to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of RDN in patients with uncontrolled hypertension...
January 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906839/endothelin-contributes-to-the-blood-pressure-rise-triggered-by-hypoxia-in-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#14
Christophe Janssen, Atul Pathak, Guido Grassi, Philippe van de Borne
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is strongly correlated with an increased risk of systemic hypertension. However, the link between systemic hypertension and nocturnal apneas remains incompletely understood. Animal studies suggest an implication of the endothelin system. The aim of the present study is to determine if endogenous endothelin plays a role in the increase in blood pressure observed during hypoxic episodes in OSA patients, in addition to peripheral chemoreflex and neural sympathetic activation...
January 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906755/optimal-blood-pressure-target-in-stroke-prevention
#15
Alexandra Yannoutsos, Céline Dreyfuss Tubiana, Michel E Safar, Jacques Blacher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A generalized single blood pressure (BP) goal may appear not suitable to achieve an optimal stroke prevention at the individual level. The aim of the present review is to consider the clinical relevance of individualized BP goal according to patient's age, comorbidities and established cerebrovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Observational and interventional data support heterogeneity in target organ prevention in that lower BP values than recommended by hypertension guidelines are associated with further stroke risk reduction...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906749/sodium-and-potassium-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension-focus-on-the-brain
#16
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary hypertension is characterized by Na excess and K deficit in the body, which together are key to its pathogenesis. These derangements work jointly in the brain and the peripheral vascular wall to establish hypertension. In this review, we highlight recent evidence describing the central mechanisms through which Na surfeit and K deficit enhance sympathetic nerve activity, thereby raising peripheral vascular resistance and generating hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies point to a small increase in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [Na], a small decrease in CSF [K], and increased levels of circulating angiotensin II, aldosterone, and endogenous ouabain as the central signals evoking hypertension...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906645/age-differences-in-visits-to-office-based-physicians-by-adults-with-hypertension-united-states-2013
#17
Jill J Ashman, Pinyao Rui, Susan M Schappert
Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey •The percentage of all adult visits to office-based physicians made by adults with hypertension increased with age, from 9% for those aged 18-44 to 58% for those aged 75 and over. •Hypertensive medications were provided, prescribed, or continued at 62% of visits made by adults with hypertension. •Eighty-two percent of visits by adults with hypertension were made by those with multiple chronic conditions, and the number of chronic conditions increased with age...
November 2016: NCHS Data Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906477/blood-pressure-measurements-in-780-apparently-healthy-cats
#18
J R Payne, D C Brodbelt, V Luis Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Mean systolic blood pressure in apparently healthy cats has been reported as approximately 125 mmHg using direct assessment, but there is greater variability in reported values using indirect assessment. Increasing age and the white-coat effect are associated with increased systolic blood pressure. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To report Doppler-derived blood pressure measurements from a large population of apparently healthy cats and to assess epidemiologic factors associated with recorded blood pressures...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905648/-a-new-fetal-death-classification-system
#19
Alfredo Ovalle, Ariel Fuentes, Valentina Chacón, Carolina Espinoza, Rodrigo González, Manuel Ramos, Jorge Geraldo, Letsy Osses, Elena Kakarieka
BACKGROUND: Stillbirth is the mayor contributor to perinatal mortality. AIM: To report a system for classification of fetal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 29,916 births with 258 fetal deaths that occurred in a public hospital. Data were obtained from audit reports of stillbirths. The method for classification “obstetric condition relevant to the death” was applied, based on obstetric and placental pathological findings analyzed exclusively by a single obstetrician and a single pathologist...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904988/acute-visual-loss-and-intraretinal-hemorrhages-associated-to-energy-drink-consumption
#20
Christina W Pagano, Max Wu, Lihteh Wu
PURPOSE: To report the association of acute visual loss secondary to intraretinal hemorrhages and energy drink consumption. METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 48-year-old hypertensive man developed an elevation in systemic blood pressure, tachycardia, and acute visual loss secondary to intraretinal hemorrhages shortly after drinking several cans of energy drinks. CONCLUSION: High consumption of energy drinks may lead to intraretinal hemorrhages and acute visual loss...
December 1, 2016: International Ophthalmology
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