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Systemic hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351480/mechanistically-different-effects-of-fat-and-sugar-on-insulin-resistance-hypertension-and-gut-microbiota-in-rats
#1
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Lidia Atienza, Josefina Casas, Olga Jáuregui, Susana Amézqueta, Gabriel Dasilva, Isabel Medina, Maria Rosa Nogués, Marta Romeu, Josep Lluís Torres
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are the first manifestations of diet-induced metabolic alterations leading to type-2 diabetes, while hypertension is the deadliest risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The roles of dietary fat and fructose in the development of IR, IGT and hypertension are controversial. We tested the long-term effects of an excess of fat or sucrose (fructose/glucose) on healthy male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Fat affects IR and IGT earlier than fructose through low-grade systemic inflammation evidenced by liver inflammatory infiltration, increased levels of plasma interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2 and reduced levels of protective short-chain fatty acids without triggering hypertension...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351470/increased-pro-renin-receptor-expression-in-subfornical-organ-neurons-in-hypertensive-humans
#2
Silvana G Cooper, Darshan P Trivedi, Rieko Yamamoto, Caleb J Worker, Cheng-Yuan Feng, Jacob T Sorensen, Wei Yang, Zhenggang Xiong, Yumei Feng
The central nervous system plays an important role in essential hypertension in humans and in animal models of hypertension through modulation of sympathetic activity, and sodium and body fluid homeostasis. Data from animal models of hypertension suggest that the renin-angiotensin system in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain is critical for hypertension development. We recently reported that the brain (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is a novel component of the brain renin-angiotensin system and could be a key initiator of the pathogenesis of hypertension...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351460/macrophage-dependent-impairment-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-autoreceptor-function-in-sympathetic-neurons-from-doca-salt-but-not-high-fat-diet-induced-hypertensive-rats
#3
Ryan Kwun-Yee Mui, Roxanne Fernandes, Hannah Garver, Nico van Rooijen, James J Galligan
DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension are associated with inflammation and sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity. Prejunctional α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) provide negative feedback to norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves through inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels. Increased neuronal norepinephrine release in DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension occurs through impaired α2AR signaling, however, the mechanisms involved are unclear. Mesenteric arteries are resistance arteries that receive sympathetic innervation from the superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia (SMCG)...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351457/important-role-of-endothelium-dependent-hyperpolarization-in-pulmonary-microcirculation-in-male-mice-implications-for-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#4
Shuhei Tanaka, Takashi Shiroto, Shigeo Godo, Hiroki Saito, Yosuke Ikumi, Akiyo Ito, Shoko Kajitani, Saori Sato, Hiroaki Shimokawa
Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) plays important roles in systemic circulation, whereas its role in pulmonary circulation remains largely unknown. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) also remain to be elucidated. We thus aimed to elucidate the role of EDH in pulmonary circulation in general and in PH in particular. In isolated perfused lung using male wild-type mice, endothelium-dependent relaxations to bradykinin (BK) were significantly reduced in the presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) by ~50% as compared with those in the presence of indomethacin, and the combination of apamin plus charybdotoxin abolished the residual relaxations, showing the comparable contributions of nitric oxide (NO) and EDH in pulmonary microcirculation under physiological conditions...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351212/changes-in-the-expression-of-aqp4-and-aqp9-in-the-hippocampus-following-eclampsia-like-seizure
#5
Xinjia Han, Qian Huang, Lei Liu, Xiaoyan Sha, Bihui Hu, Huishu Liu
Eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that is defined by the new onset of grand mal seizures on the basis of pre-eclampsia. Until now, the mechanisms underlying eclampsia were poorly understood. Brain edema is considered a leading cause of eclamptic seizures; aquaporins (AQP4 and AQP9), the glial water channel proteins mainly expressed in the nervous system, play an important role in brain edema. We studied AQP4 and AQP9 expression in the hippocampus of pre-eclamptic and eclamptic rats in order to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in brain edema...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350998/overexpression-of-the-neuronal-human-pro-renin-receptor-mediates-angiotensin-ii-independent-blood-pressure-regulation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Hua Peng, Dane D Jensen, Wencheng Li, Michelle N Sullivan, Sophie A Buller, Caleb J Worker, Silvana G Cooper, Shiqi Zheng, Scott Earley, Curt D Sigmund, Yumei Feng
Despite advances in anti-hypertensive therapeutics, at least 15-20% of hypertensive patients have resistant hypertension through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. In this study, we provide a new mechanism for regulation of blood pressure (BP) in the central nervous system (CNS) by the (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a recently identified component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that mediates angiotensin II (Ang II) formation in the CNS. Although the PRR also mediates Ang II-independent signaling, the importance of these pathways in BP regulation is unknown...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350384/the-importance-of-psychosocial-factors-in-management-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-patients
#7
Maria A Sobczak-Kaleta, Adam Torbicki, Jarosław D Kasprzak
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is significantly reshaping personal and professional lives of patients due to its chronic nature, varying clinical profile and uncertain perspectives of treatment. PAH is at this time an incurable disease, which requires to consider not only strictly medical dimension, but also the psychosocial aspects of care. This paper discusses therefore the psychological problems most commonly reported by PAH patients. It reviews the instruments used to assess them. We describe the relationships between the quality of life and depressive symptoms and the physical activity of the PAH patients, which have deep treatment-related consequences...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350061/the-adverse-effects-of-environmental-noise-exposure-on-oxidative-stress-and-cardiovascular-risk
#8
Thomas Münzel, Mette Sørensen, Frank P Schmidt, Erwin Schmidt, Sebastian Steven, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Andreas Daiber
Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that traffic noise exposure is linked to cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke. Noise is a non-specific stressor that activates the autonomous nervous system and endocrine signaling. According to the noise reaction model introduced by Babisch and colleagues, chronic low levels of noise can cause so called non-auditory effects, such as disturbances of activity, sleep and communication, which can trigger a number of emotional responses, including annoyance and subsequent stress...
January 19, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348380/effect-of-nigella-sativa-seed-extract-for-hypertension-in-elderly-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Aulia Rizka, Siti Setiati, Aida Lydia, Esthika Dewiasty
BACKGROUND: Nigella sativa (NS) seed extract shows diuretic activity, inhibits sympathetic nervous system overactivity and increases the production of Nitric Oxide in in vivo studies, thus it has a potential use as an adjuvant antihypertensive for elderly population. This study aimed to determine the effect of Nigella sativa seed extract to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of elderly patients with hypertension. METHODS: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted on elderly subjects with hypertension in three outpatient clinics in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta Indonesia from June to September 2011...
October 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348255/hypertension-and-atrial-fibrillation-doubts-and-certainties-from-basic-and-clinical-studies
#10
REVIEW
Paolo Verdecchia, Fabio Angeli, Gianpaolo Reboldi
Hypertension and atrial fibrillation (AF) are 2 important public health priorities. Their prevalence is increasing worldwide, and the 2 conditions often coexist in the same patient. Hypertension and AF are strikingly related to an excess risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Hypertension ultimately increases the risk of AF, and because of its high prevalence in the population, it accounts for more cases of AF than other risk factors. Among patients with established AF, hypertension is present in about 60% to 80% of individuals...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348027/implications-of-underlying-mechanisms-for%C3%A2-the-recognition-and-management-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#11
REVIEW
Thomas H Marwick, Rebecca Ritchie, Jonathan E Shaw, David Kaye
Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome, the incidence and prevalence of which is increased in diabetes mellitus, pre-diabetes, and obesity. Although this may arise from underlying coronary artery disease, it often occurs in the absence of significant major epicardial coronary disease, and most commonly manifests as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Despite epidemiological evidence linking diabetes to heart failure incidence and outcome, the presence of a distinct primary "diabetic" cardiomyopathy has been difficult to prove, because the link between diabetes and heart failure is confounded by hypertension, microvascular dysfunction, and autonomic neuropathy...
January 23, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347930/risk-factors-for-stillbirths-how-much-can-a-responsive-health-system-prevent
#12
Sutapa Bandyopadhyay Neogi, Jyoti Sharma, Preeti Negandhi, Monika Chauhan, Siddharth Reddy, Ghanashyam Sethy
BACKGROUND: The stillbirth rate is an indicator of quality of care during pregnancy and delivery. Good quality care is supported by a functional heath system. The objective of this study was to explore the risk factors for stillbirths, particularly those related to a health system. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted in two districts of Bihar, India. Information on cases (stillbirths) were obtained from facilities as reported by Health Management Information System; controls were consecutive live births from the same population as cases...
January 18, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347927/prevalence-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-in-ethiopia-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Abadi Kidanemariam Berhe, Getachew Mullu Kassa, Gedefaw Abeje Fekadu, Achenef Asmamaw Muche
BACKGROUND: Although hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the leading cause of poor perinatal outcomes in Ethiopia, there is no study that shows the national prevalence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the national pooled prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy from studies conducted in different parts of the country. METHODS: Databases; MEDLINE, PubMed, HINARI, EMBASE, Google Scholar and African Journals Online were searched by using different search terms on HDP and Ethiopia...
January 18, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347857/mulberry-leaves-and-their-potential-effects-against-cardiometabolic-risks-a-review-of-chemical-compositions-biological-properties-and-clinical-efficacy
#14
Thanchanit Thaipitakwong, Surawej Numhom, Pornanong Aramwit
CONTEXT: Cardiometabolic risks are regarded as the crucial factors associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Regarding an increased attention to medicinal plants in the current healthcare system, the effects of mulberry (Morus spp., Moraceae) leaves on cardiometabolic risks have been consecutively considered in scientific research. OBJECTIVE: The present review compiles and summarizes the chemical compositions, biological properties and clinical efficacy of mulberry leaves that are related to the amelioration of cardiometabolic risks...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346340/disparities-in-preconception-health-indicators-%C3%A2-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-2013-2015-and-pregnancy-risk-assessment-monitoring-system-2013-2014
#15
Cheryl Robbins, Sheree L Boulet, Isabel Morgan, Denise V D'Angelo, Lauren B Zapata, Brian Morrow, Andrea Sharma, Charlan D Kroelinger
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Preconception health is a broad term that encompasses the overall health of nonpregnant women during their reproductive years (defined here as aged 18-44 years). Improvement of both birth outcomes and the woman's health occurs when preconception health is optimized. Improving preconception health before and between pregnancies is critical for reducing maternal and infant mortality and pregnancy-related complications. The National Preconception Health and Health Care Initiative's Surveillance and Research work group suggests ten prioritized indicators that states can use to monitor programs or activities for improving the preconception health status of women of reproductive age...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346014/role-of-the-lymphatic-system-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension-in-humans
#16
Angelika Chachaj, Bartosz Puła, Mariusz Chabowski, Jędrzej Grzegrzółka, Ewa Szahidewicz-Krupska, Maciej Karczewski, Dariusz Janczak, Piotr Dzięgiel, Marzenna Podhorska-Okołów, Grzegorz Mazur, Andrzej Gamian, Andrzej Szuba
BACKGROUND: Recent studies, mainly on animal models, have suggested that negatively charged glycosaminoglycans, macrophages, and lymph vessels in the skin interstitium may serve as extrarenal control of sodium balance and blood pressure. The aim of the study was to prove the hypothesis that skin interstitium has a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have examined skin biopsies in 91 patients from the department of surgery who had elective surgery with abdominal skin incision: 43 were hypertensive, 14 had resistant hypertension, and 34 with normal blood pressure as control group (median patients' age in these groups estimated accordingly 64 vs...
January 18, 2018: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345505/the-pharmacological-management-of-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Julie Rask Larsen, Lorena Dima, Christoph U Correll, Peter Manu
Introduction The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice...
January 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345195/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-pulmonary-hypertension-cause-effect-or-both
#18
Jeffrey D Marshall, Isabel Bazan, Yi Zhang, Wassim H Fares, Patty J Lee
Pulmonary hypertension describes a heterogeneous disease defined by increased pulmonary artery pressures, and progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance due to pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature involving pulmonary endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells.  This process occurs under various conditions, and though these populations vary, the clinical manifestations are the same: progressive dyspnea, increases in right ventricular (RV) afterload and dysfunction, RV-pulmonary artery uncoupling, and right-sided heart failure with systemic circulatory collapse...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344073/bilateral-non-arteritic-anterior-ischaemic-optic-neuropathy-as-the-presentation-of-systemic-amyloidosis
#19
M Z Kanaan, A R Lorenzi, N Thampy, R Pandit, Margaret Dayan
A 75-year-old hypertensive female with stable idiopathic intermediate uveitis presented with bilateral sequential optic neuropathy with optic disc swelling. The optic neuropathy in the first affected eye (right) was thought to be due to non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Asymptomatic left optic disc swelling was found at routine review 2 months later, and a diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA) was sought. Temporal artery duplex ultrasound showed the "halo sign," but a subsequent temporal artery biopsy showed light-chain (AL) amyloidosis with no signs of giant cell arteritis...
December 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344052/manidipine-an-antihypertensive-drug-with-positive-effects-on-metabolic-parameters-and-adrenergic-tone-in-patients-with-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Margarita SaizSatjes, Francisco Javier Martinez-Martin
Antihypertensive treatment of patients with diabetes should include those drugs with a positive effect on metabolic parameters. Most patients with diabetes require at least two antihypertensive agents. Combining a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor is a rational approach. However, not all dihydropyridines are equal with respect to their effects on metabolic parameters. Thus, manidipine exerts a positive effect on insulin resistance. However, this effect has not been observed with amlodipine...
2018: Drugs in Context
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