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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330649/effect-of-sacubitril-valsartan-versus-enalapril-on-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-diabetes-a-post-hoc-analysis-from-the-paradigm-hf-trial
#1
Jelena P Seferovic, Brian Claggett, Sara B Seidelmann, Ellen W Seely, Milton Packer, Michael R Zile, Jean L Rouleau, Karl Swedberg, Martin Lefkowitz, Victor C Shi, Akshay S Desai, John J V McMurray, Scott D Solomon
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an independent risk factor for heart failure progression. Sacubitril/valsartan, a combination angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, improves morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), compared with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, and improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in obese hypertensive patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril on HbA1c and time to first-time initiation of insulin or oral antihyperglycaemic drugs in patients with diabetes and HFrEF...
March 17, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292877/the-effects-of-dual-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-agonism-compared-with-ace-inhibition-in-the-btbrob-ob-mouse-model-of-diabetes-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#2
Anette Ericsson, Pernilla Tonelius, Mark Lal, Alan Sabirsh, Gerhard Böttcher, Lena William-Olsson, Maria Strömstedt, Camilla Johansson, Gina Hyberg, Sofia Tapani, Ann-Cathrine Jönsson-Rylander, Robert Unwin
The leptin-deficient BTBRob/ob mouse develops progressive albuminuria and morphological lesions similar to human diabetic nephropathy (DN), although whether glomerular hyperfiltration, a recognized feature of early DN that may contribute to renal injury, also occurs in this model is not known. Leptin replacement has been shown to reverse the signs of renal injury in this model, but in contrast, the expected renoprotection by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in BTBRob/ob mice seems to be limited...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292483/an-economic-evaluation-of-sacubitril-valsartan-for-heart-failure-patients-in-the-netherlands
#3
Simon van der Pol, Fabian Degener, Maarten J Postma, Pepijn Vemer
BACKGROUND: In September 2014, the PARADIGM-HF trial showed the heart failure drug combination sacubitril/valsartan to be superior to enalapril for patients with a reduced ejection fraction. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril in the Netherlands using the clinical data from the PARADIGM-HF trial. METHODS: To compare sacubitril/valsartan and enalapril in a cost-effectiveness study, a Markov model was developed using the effectiveness data from the PARADIGM-HF trial...
March 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290795/-a-breakthrough-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-the-clinical-significance-of-the-paradigm-hf-trial
#4
Zh D Kobalava, S V Villevalde, O I Lukina
The implementation into clinical practice of new therapeutic strategies that could improve the prognosis of patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) remains relevant. Innovative approach is to restore imbalances of neurohumoral systems by inhibiting angiotensin II receptor and neprilysin. The review presents the role of the natriuretic peptides system in the HFrEF pathophysiology, historical approaches to neurohormonal modulation, clinical pharmacology of the first in the class of angiotensin receptor and neprilysin inhibitor sakubitril/valsartan...
February 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288974/china-stroke-primary-prevention-trial-visit-to-visit-systolic-blood-pressure-variability-is-an-independent-predictor-of-primary-stroke-in-hypertensive-patients
#5
Xi Men, Wei Sun, Fangfang Fan, Min Zhao, Xiao Huang, Yu Wang, Lishun Liu, Ran Liu, Weiping Sun, Qing Peng, Xianhui Qin, Genfu Tang, Jianping Li, Yan Zhang, Yefeng Cai, Fan Fan Hou, Binyan Wang, Xiping Xu, Xiaoshu Cheng, Ningling Sun, Yining Huang, Yong Huo
BACKGROUND: The optimal range of blood pressure variability remains unclear. We aimed to stratify the degree of risk of stroke based on visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability in a large Chinese hypertensive population in 32 communities. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 20 702 hypertensive patients from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The participants were randomized into 2 treatment groups to receive either enalapril or enalapril plus folic acid...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285069/sacubitril-valsartan-the-newest-addition-to-the-toolbox-for-guideline-directed-medical-therapy-of-heart-failure
#6
REVIEW
Jo E Rodgers
Sacubitril/valsartan combines a neprilysin inhibitor with an angiotensin receptor blocker. As an inhibitor of neprilysin, an enzyme that degrade biologically active natriuretic peptides, this first-in-class therapy increases levels of circulating natriuretic peptides resulting in natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilatory effects. In patients chronic New York Heart Association class II-IV heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the PARADIGM-HF trial demonstrated that sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced the primary endpoint of cardiovascular mortality and HF hospitalization compared to enalapril...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282296/herbal-and-dietary-supplements-related-to-diarrhea-and-acute-kidney-injury-a-case-report
#7
Suphamat Wanitsriphinyo, Mayuree Tangkiatkumjai
Background There is very little evidence relating to the association of herbal medicine with diarrhea and the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study reports a case of diarrhea-induced AKI, possibly related to an individual ingesting copious amounts of homemade mixed fruit and herb puree. Case presentation A 45-year-old Thai man with diabetes had diarrhea for 2 days, as a result of taking high amounts of a puree made up of eight mixed fruits and herbs over a 3-day period. He developed dehydration and stage 2 AKI, with a doubling of his serum creatinine...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281174/potential-expanded-indications-for-neprilysin-inhibitors
#8
REVIEW
Elizabeth Riddell, Justin M Vader
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this article is to review potential expanded indications for neprilysin inhibitors. This article reviews the rationale and design for ongoing and future trials of sacubitril/valsartan in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized trial data are lacking for use of sacubitril/valsartan in acute heart failure and advanced heart failure. Mechanistic data from animal studies suggest a role for neprilysin inhibition in the treatment of post-myocardial infarction systolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction...
April 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275067/impact-of-achieved-blood-pressure-on-first-stroke-in-uncomplicated-grade-1-hypertension
#9
Xianhui Qin, Youbao Li, Ningling Sun, Mingli He, Genfu Tang, Delu Yin, JiGuang Wang, Min Liang, Binyan Wang, Yong Huo, Xin Xu, Xiping Xu, Fan Fan Hou
BACKGROUND: We aimed to test the impact of achieved blood pressure (BP) on first stroke among patients with grade 1 hypertension and without cardiovascular diseases in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3187 patients with uncomplicated grade 1 hypertension were included. The risk of outcomes was assessed according to: (1) the proportion of visits in which BP was reduced to <140/90 mm Hg, and (2) the time-averaged systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP levels during the study treatment period...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263289/establishment-of-a-mouse-model-of-enalapril-induced-liver-injury-and-investigation-of-the-pathogenesis
#10
Yuji Shirai, Shingo Oda, Sayaka Makino, Koichi Tsuneyama, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major concern in drug development and clinical drug therapy. Since the underlying mechanisms of DILI have not been fully understood in most cases, elucidation of the hepatotoxic mechanisms of drugs is expected. Although enalapril (ELP), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, has been reported to cause liver injuries with a low incidence in humans, the precise mechanisms by which ELP causes liver injury remains unknown. In this study, we established a mouse model of ELP-induced liver injury and analyzed the mechanisms of its hepatotoxicity...
March 6, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260705/changes-in-renal-vessels-associated-with-long-term-administration-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-in-zucker-fatty-rats
#11
Kazushige Nakanishi, Yohko Nagai, Tatsuo Akimoto, Nobuaki Yamanaka
Background Recently, we showed that long-term angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) administration induced unusual proliferative changes in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of afferent arterioles of the kidneys of Zucker fatty rats (ZFRs). In this study, we investigated renal afferent arteriolar changes induced by the long-term administration of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) in ZFRs. Materials and Methods Fourteen 6-week-old male ZFRs were divided into two groups (n=14): the ZFR+ACEI group (n=6) was fed a standard diet containing ACEI (Enalapril, 2 mg/kg/day), and the ZFR control group (n=8) for 12 weeks...
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244205/what-proportion-of-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-are-eligible-for-sacubitril-valsartan
#12
Pierpaolo Pellicori, Alessia Urbinati, Parin Shah, Alexandra MacNamara, Syed Kazmi, Riet Dierckx, Jufen Zhang, John G F Cleland, Andrew L Clark
AIMS: The PARADIGM-HF trial showed that sacubitril-valsartan, an ARB-neprilysin inhibitor, is more effective than enalapril for some patients with heart failure (HF). It is uncertain what proportion of patients with HF would be eligible for sacubitril-valsartan in clinical practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2014, 6131 patients consecutively referred to a community HF clinic with suspected HF were assessed. The criteria required to enter the randomized phase of PARADIGM-HF, including symptoms, NT-proBNP, and current treatment with or without target doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs, were applied to identify the proportion of patients eligible for sacubitril-valsartan...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230579/hospital-outpatient-visits-associated-with-medication-related-problems-in-thailand-a-multicenter-prospective-observational-study
#13
Supinya Dechanont, Arom Jedsadayanmata, Bodin Butthum, Chuenjid Kongkaew
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of hospital visits associated with medication-related problems (MRPs, i.e., adverse drug events [ADEs], adverse drug reactions [ADRs], nonadherence [NA] to medication, and medication error) and to identify the medications involved in hospital visits associated with MRPs in outpatient departments (OPDs). METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out in OPD of 11 hospitals in the lower northern region of Thailand...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230330/comparing-six-antihypertensive-medication-classes-for-preventing-new-onset-diabetes-mellitus-among-hypertensive-patients-a-network-meta-analysis
#14
Yang Yang, Huilan Xu
Hypertensive patients usually have a higher risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NOD) which may trigger cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the effectiveness of six antihypertensive agents with respect to NOD prevention in hypertensive patients was assessed. A network meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy of specific drug classes. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant articles. Results of the pairwised meta-analysis were illustrated by odd ratios (OR) and a corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI)...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214547/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-predisposes-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#15
Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Francesca Scicchitano, Annalidia Donato, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Sara Gasparini, Vittoria Cianci, Chiara Mignogna, Giuseppe Donato, Rita Citraro, Umberto Aguglia, Giovambattista De Sarro
The link between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and epilepsy has been poorly investigated. Some reports suggest that CSVD may predispose to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Aim of this study was to evaluate whether spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an established model of systemic hypertension and CSVD, have a propensity to develop TLE more than generalized seizures. To this aim, amygdala kindling, as a model of TLE, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling, as a model of generalized seizures, have been used to ascertain whether SHRs are more prone to TLE as compared to Wistar Kyoto control rats...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183375/translating-clinical-trials-into-clinical-practice-a-survey-assessing-the-potential-impact-of-the-pediatric-heart-network-infant-single-ventricle-trial
#16
Victor Zak, Daphne T Hsu, Victoria L Pemberton, Jami C Levine, Andrew M Atz, James F Cnota, Chitra Ravishankar, Piers Barker, Linda M Lambert, Brian W McCrindle, Michele A Frommelt, Karen Altmann, Shan Chen, Richard V Williams
BACKGROUND: A few studies have evaluated the impact of clinical trial results on practice in paediatric cardiology. The Infant Single Ventricle (ISV) Trial results published in 2010 did not support routine use of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in infants with single-ventricle physiology. We sought to assess the influence of these findings on clinical practice. METHODS: A web-based survey was distributed via e-mail to over 2000 paediatric cardiologists, intensivists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and cardiac advance practice nurses during three distribution periods...
February 10, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148501/folic-acid-therapy-reduces-serum-uric-acid-in-hypertensive-patients-a-substudy-of-the-china-stroke-primary-prevention-trial-csppt
#17
Xianhui Qin, Youbao Li, Mingli He, Genfu Tang, Delu Yin, Min Liang, Binyan Wang, Jing Nie, Yong Huo, Xin Xu, Fan Fan Hou
BACKGROUND: The effect of folic acid supplementation on uric acid (UA) concentrations is still inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the efficacy of folic acid therapy in reducing serum UA in hypertensive patients. DESIGN: A total of 15,364 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment with a single tablet that contained 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid (n = 7685) or 10 mg enalapril alone (n = 7679)...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133468/changing-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-clinical-use-of-sacubitril-valsartan-combination
#18
REVIEW
Edgardo Kaplinsky
Despite significant therapeutic advances, patients with chronic heart failure (HF) remain at high risk of morbidity and mortality. Sacubitril valsartan (previously known as LCZ696) is a new oral agent approved for the treatment of symptomatic chronic heart failure in adults with reduced ejection fraction. It is described as the first in class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) since it incorporates the neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, valsartan. Neprilysin is an endopeptidase that breaks down several vasoactive peptides including natriuretic peptides (NPs), bradykinin, endothelin and angiotensin II (Ang-II)...
November 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126276/captopril-enalapril-inhibit-promiscuous-esterase-activity-of-carbonic-anhydrase-at-micromolar-concentrations-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-study
#19
Sajjad Esmaeili, Mohammad Reza Ashrafi-Kooshk, Hadi Adibi, Reza Khodarahmi
The inhibitory activity of captopril, a thiol-containing competitive inhibitor of the angiotensin-converting enzyme, ACE, against esterase activity of carbonic anhydrase, CA was investigated. This small molecule, as well as enalapril, was selected in order to represents both thiol and carboxylate, as two well-known metal binding functional groups of metalloprotein inhibitors. Since captopril, has also been observed to inhibit other metalloenzymes such as tyrosinase and metallo-beta lactamase through binding to the catalytic metal ions and regarding CA as a zinc-containing metallo-enzyme, in the current study, we set out to determine whether captopril/enalapril inhibit CA esterase activity of the purified human CA II or not? Then, we revealed the inhibitors' potencies (IC50, Ki and Kdiss values) and also mode of inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123481/effect-of-telmisartan-and-enalapril-on-ventricular-remodeling-and-kidney-prognosis-of-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-complicated-with-diabetic-nephropathy
#20
Yuyan Hou, Fucheng Zhang, Zhiqiang Liu, Shuhong Su, Xiao Wu, Zhifang Wang
The aim of the present study was to compare the value of telmisartan and enalapril on ventricular remodeling and kidney prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease complicated with diabetic nephropathy, and provide discussion on clinical reasonably chosen medicine. A total of 60 cases of coronary artery disease complicated with diabetic nephropathy were randomly divided for telmisartan (80 mg/day) treatment (n=32), enalapril (10 mg/day) treatment (n=28), while the rest of the therapy was kept the same...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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