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Enalapril

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542215/treatment-with-enalapril-and-not-diltiazem-ameliorated-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-rats-and-normalized-renal-at1-receptor-expression-as-measured-with-pet-imaging
#1
Basma Ismail, Rob A deKemp, Etienne Croteau, Tayebeh Hadizad, Kevin D Burns, Rob S Beanlands, Jean N DaSilva
ACE inhibitors are considered first line of treatment in patients with many forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Other antihypertensives such as calcium channel blockers achieve similar therapeutic effectiveness in attenuating hypertension-related renal damage progression. Our objective was to explore the value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of renal AT1 receptor (AT1R) to guide therapy in the 5/6 subtotal-nephrectomy (Nx) rat model of CKD. Ten weeks after Nx, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 10mg/kg/d enalapril (NxE), 30mg/kg/d diltiazem (NxD) or left untreated (Nx) for an additional 8-10 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534088/the-ppar-gamma-binding-sequence-pal3-is-necessary-for-basal-but-dispensable-for-high-fat-diet-regulated-human-renin-expression-in-the-kidney
#2
Peter Lachmann, Jenny Selbmann, Linda Hickmann, Bernd Hohenstein, Christian Hugo, Vladimir T Todorov
We reported earlier that PPAR-gamma regulates renin transcription through a human-specific atypical binding sequence termed hRen-Pal3. Here we developed a mouse model to investigate the functional relevance of the hRen-Pal3 sequence in vivo since it might be responsible for the increased renin production in obesity and thus for the development of accompanying arterial hypertension. We used bacterial artificial chromosome construct and co-placement strategy to generate two transgenic mouse lines expressing the human renin gene from identical genomic locus without affecting the intrinsic mouse renin expression...
May 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501374/the-effect-of-the-superior-cavopulmonary-anastomosis-on-ventricular-remodeling-in-infants-with-single-ventricle
#3
Renee Margossian, Victor Zak, Amanda J Shillingford, Anthony M Hlavacek, James F Cnota, Michael D Puchalski, Jami C Levine, Brian W McCrindle, Meryl S Cohen, Karen Altmann, Piers C Barker, Daphne T Hsu, Steven D Colan
BACKGROUND: Infants with single ventricular physiology have volume and pressure overload that adversely affect ventricular mechanics. The impact of superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (SCPA) on single left ventricles versus single right ventricles is not known. METHODS: As part of the Pediatric Heart Network placebo-controlled trial of enalapril in infants with single ventricular physiology, echocardiograms were obtained before SCPA and at 14 months and analyzed in a core laboratory...
May 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491438/isolated-unilateral-absence-of-the-right-pulmonary-artery-in-two-cats-visualized-by-computed-tomography-angiography
#4
Tyler Jm Jordan, Brian A Scansen, Agnieszka M Kent, Lora S Hitchcock, Duncan S Russell
CASE SERIES SUMMARY: Two cats were evaluated for progressive exercise intolerance, dyspnea and unilateral infiltrate of the left lung. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed absence of the right pulmonary artery in both cats with systemic arterial collateral vessels perfusing the right segmental pulmonary arteries. In one case, the collateral vessels arose from the esophageal artery, while in the other case they derived off the right costocervical trunk. One cat was diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension and was euthanized owing to progressive respiratory distress despite medical management with sildenafil, pimobendan, clopidogrel and furosemide...
July 2016: JFMS Open Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489472/enalapril-maleate-orally-disintegrating-tablets-tableting-and-in-vivo-evaluation-in-hypertensive-rats
#5
Hesham M Tawfeek, Waleed Faisal, Ghareb M Soliman
The aim of this study was to develop orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for enalapril maleate (EnM) to facilitate its administration to the elderly or other patients having dysphagia. Compatibility between EnM and various excipients was studied using differential scanning calorimetry. ODTs of EnM were prepared by direct compression of EnM mixtures with various superdisintegrants. The tablets were evaluated for physical properties including drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time, wetting time and drug release...
May 10, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476051/impaired-corneal-sensation-and-nerve-loss-in-a-type-2-rat-model-of-chronic-diabetes-is-reversible-with-combination-therapy-of-menhaden-oil-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-and-enalapril
#6
Eric P Davidson, Lawrence J Coppey, Hanna Shevalye, Alexander Obrosov, Randy H Kardon, Mark A Yorek
PURPOSE: This study investigated the efficacy of monotherapy versus combination of menhaden oil, α-lipoic acid, and enalapril on corneal sensation and morphometry and other neuropathy-related endpoints in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 12 weeks) were fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks followed by 30 mg/kg streptozotocin. After 16 weeks of hyperglycemia, 12-week treatments consisting of menhaden oil, α-lipoic acid, enalapril, or their combination were initiated...
June 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475676/comparative-effectiveness-of-enalapril-lisinopril-and-ramipril-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-a-propensity-score-matched-cohort-study
#7
Hanna Fröhlich, Felix Henning, Tobias Täger, Dieter Schellberg, Morten Grundtvig, Kevin Goode, Anna Corletto, Syed Kazmi, Torstein Hole, Hugo A Katus, Dan Atar, John G F Cleland, Stefan Agewall, Lutz Frankenstein, Andrew L Clark
Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are recommended as first-line therapy in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The comparative effectiveness of different ACEIs is not known. Methods and results: 4,723 out-patients with stable HFrEF prescribed either enalapril, lisinopril, or ramipril were identified from three registries in Norway, England, and Germany. In three separate matching procedures, patients were individually matched with respect to both dose equivalents and their respective propensity scores for ACEI treatment...
May 5, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460827/heart-failure
#8
REVIEW
Marco Metra, John R Teerlink
Heart failure is common in adults, accounting for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its prevalence is increasing because of ageing of the population and improved treatment of acute cardiovascular events, despite the efficacy of many therapies for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), β blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and advanced device therapies. Combined angiotensin receptor blocker neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs) have been associated with improvements in hospital admissions and mortality from heart failure compared with enalapril, and guidelines now recommend substitution of ACE inhibitors or ARBs with ARNIs in appropriate patients...
April 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441699/folic-acid-therapy-reduces-the-risk-of-mortality-associated-with-heavy-proteinuria-among-hypertensive-patients
#9
Youbao Li, Xianhui Qin, Lian Luo, Binyan Wang, Yong Huo, Fan Fan Hou, Xin Xu
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels can modify the efficacy of folic acid therapy on the risk of all-cause mortality among hypertensive patients in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, a randomized, double-blind, and controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 20 702 hypertensive patients without a history of major cardiovascular diseases were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of a single tablet containing 10-mg enalapril and 0...
June 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438986/transient-enalapril-attenuates-the-reduction-in-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-prenatally-programmed-rats
#10
Asifhusen Mansuri, Ayah Elmaghrabi, Issa Alhamoud, Susan K Legan, Jyothsna Gattineni, Michel Baum
A maternal low-protein diet has been shown to program hypertension and a reduction in glomerular filtration rate in adult offspring. This study examined the effect of continuous administration of enalapril in the drinking water and transient administration of enalapril administered from 21 to 42 days of age on blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in male rats whose mothers were fed a 20% protein diet (control) or a 6% protein diet (programmed) during the last half of pregnancy. After birth all rats were fed a 20% protein diet...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435140/biowaiver-monographs-for-immediate-release-solid-oral-dosage-forms-enalapril
#11
Roger K Verbeeck, Isadore Kanfer, Raimar Löbenberg, Bertil Abrahamsson, Rodrigo Cristofoletti, D W Groot, Peter Langguth, James E Polli, Alan Parr, Vinod P Shah, Mehul Mehta, Jennifer B Dressman
Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the marketing authorization of immediate-release, solid oral dosage forms containing enalapril maleate are reviewed. Enalapril, a prodrug, is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases to the active angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat. Enalapril as the maleate salt is shown to be highly soluble, but only 60%-70% of an orally administered dose of enalapril is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the enterocytes...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429850/association-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-with-arterial-stiffness-and-nondipping-blood-pressure-in-patients-with-hypertension
#12
Raimundo Jenner, Fernanda Fatureto-Borges, Valéria Costa-Hong, Heno F Lopes, Sandra H Teixeira, Elias Marum, Dante A M Giorgi, Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Luiz A Bortolotto, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Eduardo M Krieger, Luciano F Drager
Whether sex influences the association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension is unknown. In this study, 95 hypertensive participants underwent carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiogram, and polysomnography after a 30-day standardized treatment with hydrochlorothiazide plus enalapril or losartan. OSA was present in 52 patients. Compared with non-OSA patients, pulse wave velocity values were higher in the OSA group (men: 11...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408160/physical-training-promotes-similar-effects-to-the-blockade-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-on-the-cardiac-morphology-and-function-in-old-female-rats-subjected-to-premature-ovarian-failure
#13
Ana Carolina S Felix, Sabrina G V Dutra, Ada C Gastaldi, Pâmela C Bonfim, Suenimeire Vieira, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza
We investigated the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and aerobic physical training on the heart of old female rats (82-wk-old) submitted to premature ovarian failure (10-wk.-old). We used different approaches: morphology and function by echocardiography, reactivity of the coronary bed and left ventricular contractibility (Langendorff Technique). Female Wistar ovariectomized (OVX) rats (n=42) were assigned to one of four groups: OVX, vehicle treated only; OVX-EM, Enalapril Maleate only (EM, 10mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)); OVX-T, aerobic trained only; and OVX-EMT, treated with Enalapril Maleate and aerobic trained...
April 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393356/association-of-serum-uric-acid-with-increased-risk-of-cancer-among-hypertensive-chinese
#14
Juan Yang, Yupeng Wang, Qianqian Zhao, Xianglin Zhang, Xiaobin Wang, Xianhui Qin, Rong Zhang, Lin Shen, Xiaodong Jiang, Hua Jiang, Yu Lei, Binyan Wang, Jin Gu, Fan Fan Hou, Yong Huo, Wei Gao, Xiping Xu
Several large prospective studies show an association between serum uric acid (SUA) and cancer, however there is a lack of evidence in China. We aimed to investigate the effects of SUA levels on cancer incidence and mortality in China. This study included 20,577 adult hypertensive patients with valid SUA measurements who participated in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial where subjects were randomly assigned to receive a double-blind treatment of either 10 mg enalapril (n = 10,286) or 10.8 mg enalapril-folic acid (n = 10,291)...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384884/a-study-to-assess-the-therapeutic-effect-of-enalapril-on-olanzapine-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-wistar-rats
#15
Avinash Arivazhahan, Laxminarayana Kurady Bairy, Veena Nayak, Sushil Kiran Kunder
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a complex of risk factors for the development of cardiovascular complications and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Pharmacological management of the condition is complex, as multiple drug groups have to be used, as the syndrome itself is multi faceted. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) are chiefly used to manage the hypertensive component of the syndrome. However, recent studies have shown that these drugs may have a role in the non hypertensive aspects of the syndrome as well...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377431/the-renal-and-cardiovascular-effects-of-natriuretic-peptides
#16
Philip Ching Yat Wong, Jun Guo, Aidong Zhang
The landmark report by de Bold et al. in 1981 signified the heart as one of the endocrine organs involved in fluid and salt balance (de Bold AJ, Borenstein HB, Veress AT, Sonnenberg H. Life Sci 28: 89-94, 1981). Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are secreted from cardiomyocytes in response to cardiac stretch as in the case of heart failure, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is secreted from endothelial and renal cells in response to cytokines and endothelium-dependent agonists, such as acetylcholine...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363066/congestive-heart-failure-associated-with-pregnancy-in-okapi-okapia-johnstoni
#17
Joshua D Warren, Copper Aitken-Palmer, Alan D Weldon, Joseph P Flanagan, Lauren L Howard, Michael M Garner, Scott B Citino
Acute signs associated with cardiovascular disease occurred in three pregnant okapi ( Okapia johnstoni ) during early to midgestation and progressed to congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed antemortem using echocardiography and plasma cardiac troponin levels. Clinical signs included decreased activity, hyporexia, tachypnea, dyspnea, flared nostrils, and productive coughing with copious amounts of foamy nasal discharge. Parenteral and oral treatment with furosemide, enalapril, and spironolactone controlled clinical signs in the three okapi allowing each to carry out one pregnancy to term...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360116/homocysteine-and-stroke-risk-modifying-effect-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-c677t-polymorphism-and-folic-acid-intervention
#18
Min Zhao, Xiaobin Wang, Mingli He, Xianhui Qin, Genfu Tang, Yong Huo, Jianping Li, Jia Fu, Xiao Huang, Xiaoshu Cheng, Binyan Wang, Fan Fan Hou, Ningling Sun, Yefeng Cai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated blood homocysteine concentration increases the risk of stroke, especially among hypertensive individuals. Homocysteine is largely affected by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and folate status. Among hypertensive patients, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the association between homocysteine and stroke can be modified by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and folic acid intervention. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 20 424 hypertensive adults enrolled in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial...
March 30, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357099/spontaneous-regression-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-caucasian-male-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Daniel P Noij, Petrus W G van Der Linden
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic cancer. As it often presents at an advanced stage, it generally has a poor prognosis. Spontaneous regression is a rare finding in HCC, and is often associated with tumour ischemia or a systemic inflammatory response. We herein present the case of a Caucasian patient with spontaneous regression of advanced HCC, not associated with either mechanism. Our patient was a 74-year old Caucasian male who presented with advanced biopsy-proven HCC, with α-fetoprotein levels of >16,600 kU/l...
February 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356668/targeting-renin-angiotensin-system-in-malignant-hypertension-in-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#20
V Raghunathan, S K Sethi, M A Dragon-Durey, M Dhaliwal, R Raina, P Jha, S B Bansal, V Kher
Hypertension is common in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and often difficult to control. Local renin-angiotensin activation is believed to be an important part of thrombotic microangiopathy, leading to a vicious cycle of progressive renal injury and intractable hypertension. This has been demonstrated in vitro via enhanced tissue factor expression on glomerular endothelial cells which is enhanced by angiotensin II. We report two pediatric cases of atypical HUS with severe refractory malignant hypertension, in which we targeted the renin-angiotensin system by using intravenous (IV) enalaprilat, oral aliskiren, and oral enalapril with quick and dramatic response of blood pressure...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
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