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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717592/epas1-variants-in-high-altitude-tibetan-wolves-were-selectively-introgressed-into-highland-dogs
#1
Bridgett vonHoldt, Zhenxin Fan, Diego Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Robert K Wayne
BACKGROUND: Admixture can facilitate adaptation. For example, black wolves have obtained the variant causing black coat color through past hybridization with domestic dogs and have higher fitness than gray colored wolves. Another recent example of the transfer of adaptive variation between the two species has been suggested by the similarity between high altitude Tibetan mastiffs and wolves at the EPAS1 gene, a transcription factor induced in low oxygen environments. METHODS: Here, we investigate the directionality of admixture in EPAS1 between 28 reference highland gray wolves, 15 reference domestic dogs, and 21 putatively admixed highland wolves...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708601/synergistic-and-targeted-therapy-with-a-procaspase-3-activator-and-temozolomide-extends-survival-in-glioma-rodent-models-and-is-feasible-for-the-treatment-of-canine-malignant-glioma-patients
#2
Avadhut D Joshi, Rachel C Botham, Lisa J Schlein, Howard S Roth, Antonella Mangraviti, Alexandra Borodovsky, Betty Tyler, Steve Joslyn, Jayme S Looper, Michael Podell, Timothy M Fan, Paul J Hergenrother, Gregory J Riggins
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma is a deadly brain cancer with a median survival time of ~15 months. Ionizing radiation plus the DNA alkylator temozolomide (TMZ) is the current standard therapy. PAC-1, a procaspase-3 activating small molecule, is blood-brain barrier penetrant and has previously demonstrated ability to synergize with diverse pro-apoptotic chemotherapeutics. We studied if PAC-1 could enhance the activity of TMZ, and whether addition of PAC-1 to standard treatment would be feasible in spontaneous canine malignant gliomas...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708525/assessment-of-the-age-for-a-preventive-ultrasonographic-examination-of-the-prostate-in-the-dog
#3
G Mantziaras, S Alonge, M Faustini, G C Luvoni
The prostate commonly develops benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs over 5 years, while in aged dogs other pathological findings might be revealed by ultrasonographic exam. The aim of the present study was to estimate the most suitable age for a preventive ultrasonographic examination of the prostate in the dog. The prostate of 1003 intact male dogs of 64 different breeds, of different ages (1-18 years) and bodyweights (2-55 kg) was evaluated with ultrasound, irrespective of the reason for clinical examination...
June 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705488/prevalence-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-dogs-and-small-mammals-in-nuevo-le%C3%A3-n-mexico
#4
Lucio Galaviz-Silva, Roberto Mercado-Hernández, José J Zárate-Ramos, Zinnia J Molina-Garza
Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important public health concern in areas extending from South America northward into the southern United States of America. Although this hemoflagellate has many wild and domestic mammalians reported as reservoir hosts, studies on this subject are scarce in Nuevo León state, a region located in northeastern Mexico. This cross-sectional study showed that the general prevalence of T. cruzi infection in Nuevo León state was 14.5% (35/241), this percentage matching the ones determined by PCR and traditional diagnostics...
July 10, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703447/chronic-diarrhea-in-dogs-retrospective-study-in-136-cases
#5
M Volkmann, J M Steiner, G T Fosgate, J Zentek, S Hartmann, B Kohn
BACKGROUND: Chronic diarrhea (CD) is common in dogs, and information on frequency and distribution of primary and secondary causes is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate underlying causes and predictors of outcome in dogs with CD. ANIMALS: One hundred and thirty-six client-owned dogs with CD (≥3 weeks duration). METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records (Small Animal Clinic, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, 09/2009-07/2011)...
July 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697879/evaluation-of-three-hand-held-tonometers-in-normal-canine-eyes
#6
K L Tofflemire, C Wang, J K Jens, N M Ellinwood, R D Whitley, G Ben-Shlomo
Tonometry, an indirect measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP), is important for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma and uveitis. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three hand-held tonometers in normal canine eyes. Eyes from cadavers of dogs without observable ocular disease were used to compare tonometric measurements with direct manometry over a range of 7.4-65mmHg. In vivo measurements using the three tonometers in both eyes of 12 healthy dogs were compared. All tonometers significantly underestimated manometric values both ex vivo and in vivo...
June 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695759/diffusion-tensor-imaging-findings-suggestive-of-white-matter-alterations-in-a-canine-model-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-i
#7
Dana M Middleton, Jonathan Y Li, Steven D Chen, Leonard E White, Patricia Dickson, N Matthew Ellinwood, James M Provenzale
Purpose We investigated fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) in a canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). We hypothesized that canines affected with MPS would exhibit decreased FA and increased RD values when compared to unaffected canines, a trend that has been previously described in humans with white matter diseases. Methods Four unaffected canines and two canines with MPS were euthanized at 18 weeks of age. Their brains were imaged using high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on a 7T small-animal magnetic resonance imaging system...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693574/demographics-of-dogs-cats-and-rabbits-attending-veterinary-practices-in-great-britain-as-recorded-in-their-electronic-health-records
#8
Fernando Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Peter-John M Noble, Phil H Jones, Tarek Menacere, Iain Buchan, Suzanna Reynolds, Susan Dawson, Rosalind M Gaskell, Sally Everitt, Alan D Radford
BACKGROUND: Understanding the distribution and determinants of disease in animal populations must be underpinned by knowledge of animal demographics. For companion animals, these data have been difficult to collect because of the distributed nature of the companion animal veterinary industry. Here we describe key demographic features of a large veterinary-visiting pet population in Great Britain as recorded in electronic health records, and explore the association between a range of animal's characteristics and socioeconomic factors...
July 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687280/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-clostridium-perfringens-and-clostridium-difficile-in-dogs-and-cats-attended-in-diverse-veterinary-clinics-from-the-madrid-region
#9
Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, José L Blanco, Celine Harmanus, Ed J Kuijper, Marta E García
Despite extensive research on the epidemiology of pathogenic clostridia in dogs and cats, most published studies focus on a selected animal population and/or a single veterinary medical centre. We assessed the burden of Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile shedding by small animals in 17 veterinary clinics located within the Madrid region (Spain) and differing in size, number and features of animals attended and other relevant characteristics. In addition, we studied the genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of recovered isolates...
July 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681971/growth-plate-expression-profiling-large-and-small-breed-dogs-provide-new-insights-in-endochondral-bone-formation
#10
Michelle Teunissen, Frank M Riemers, Dik van Leenen, Marian J A Groot Koerkamp, Björn P Meij, Jacqueline Alblas, Louis C Penning, Alberto Miranda-Bedate, Marianna A Tryfonidou
The difference in the adult height of mammals, and hence in endochondral bone formation, is not yet fully understood and may serve to identify targets for bone and cartilage regeneration. In line with this hypothesis, the intra-species disparity between the adult height of Great Danes and Miniature Poodles was investigated at a transcriptional level. Microarray analysis of the growth plate of 5 Great Danes and 5 Miniature Poodles revealed 2981 unique genes that were differentially expressed, including many genes with an unknown role in skeletal development...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678959/evaluation-of-ovarian-structures-using-computerized-microtomography
#11
Fernanda Paulini, Sacha B Chaves, José Luiz J P Rôlo, Ricardo B DE Azevedo, Carolina M Lucci
Visualization and clear understanding of the ovarian structures are important in determining the stage of oestrus, helping to diagnose several pathologies and supporting advances in reproductive technologies. In this research, computerized microtomography (microCT) was used to explore and characterize the ovarian structure of seven mammalian species. Ovaries of rats, female dog, queens, cows, mares, sows and a female donkey were used. After microCT scanning, the same samples were prepared for histologic evaluation, used here as a validation criterion...
June 29, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675424/predicting-qrs-and-pr-interval-prolongations-in-humans-using-nonclinical-data
#12
L Bergenholm, J Parkinson, J Mettetal, N D Evans, M J Chappell, T Collins
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Risk of cardiac conduction slowing (QRS/PR prolongations) is assessed prior to clinical trials using in vitro and in vivo studies. Understanding the quantitative translation of these studies to the clinical situation enables improved risk assessment in the nonclinical phase. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Four compounds that prolong QRS and/or PR (AZD1305, flecainide, quinidine and verapamil) were characterised using in vitro (sodium/calcium channels), in vivo (guinea pigs/dogs) and clinical data...
July 3, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674771/a-review-of-the-physiology-of-a-survival-expert-of-big-freeze-deep-snow-and-an-empty-stomach-the-boreal-raccoon-dog-nyctereutes-procyonoides
#13
REVIEW
Anne-Mari Mustonen, Petteri Nieminen
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an invasive canid originating from eastern Asia. Here, we review its physiological adaptations to wintering, with an emphasis on northern Europe, where the raccoon dog spends the coldest part of the year in winter sleep. The timing of physiological changes related to wintering is connected to photoperiod by melatonin. In preparation to winter, raccoon dogs display autumnal hyperphagia and fattening probably regulated by the interaction of several peptide hormones...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672787/the-efficacy-of-dog-assisted-therapy-in-detained-drug-users-a-pilot-study-in-an-italian-attenuated-custody-institute
#14
Laura Contalbrigo, Marta De Santis, Marica Toson, Maria Montanaro, Luca Farina, Aldo Costa, Felice Alfonso Nava
Drug addiction is a major care and safety challenge in prison context. Nowadays, rehabilitation and specific therapeutic programs are suggested to improve health and well-being of inmates during their detention time and to reduce substance abuse relapse after release from prison. Among these programs, several studies reported the benefits for inmates coming from animal assisted interventions. In this pilot controlled study, we investigated the efficacy of a dog assisted therapy program addressed to 22 drug addicted male inmates housed in an attenuated custody institute in Italy...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655291/naturally-acquired-canine-herpesvirus-associated-meningoencephalitis
#15
Mason C Jager, Erica A Sloma, Morgan Shelton, Andrew D Miller
Canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CHV) causes morbidity and mortality in susceptible puppies. While the neuropathology of experimentally infected puppies has been detailed, characterization of naturally acquired infections is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the histologic, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization features of CHV encephalitis in the dog. Six female and 11 male puppies ranging in age from stillborn to 57 days old were included. Histologically, lesions included multifocal glial nodules (16/17, 94%), meningeal infiltrates (15/17, 88%), and cerebellar cortical necrosis (6/9, 67%); however, robust inflammation was not a significant feature in any of the cases...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653415/computed-tomography-of-the-abdomen-in-eight-clinically-normal-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#16
W M du Plessis, H B Groenewald, D Elliott
The aim of this study was to provide a detailed anatomical description of the abdomen in the clinically normal common marmoset by means of computed tomography (CT). Eight clinically healthy mature common marmosets ranging from 12 to 48 months and 235 to 365 g bodyweight were anesthetized and pre- and post-contrast CT examinations were performed using different CT settings in dorsal recumbency. Abdominal organs were identified and visibility noted. Diagnostic quality abdominal images could be obtained of the common marmoset despite its small size using a dual-slice CT scanner...
June 26, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652520/biochemical-characterization-of-variants-of-canine-cyp1a1-using-heterologous-3-expression
#17
Hee Jeong Yu, Seung Heon Lee, Seungwoo Lee, Yu Jung Choi, Dayoung Oh, Ki-Hoan Nam, YoungMin Yun, Doug-Young Ryu
Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is a heme-containing mono-oxygenase involved in metabolism of environmental contaminants. Two variants of dog CYP1A1 with a single residue difference were identified and designated Sap1 and Sap2. Compared with Sap1, Sap2 had a Trp50Leu substitution. The biochemical characteristics of the variants were comparatively analyzed using heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The membrane fraction of E. coli expressing Sap2 exhibited higher CYP holoprotein and heme contents than the Sap1-containing membranes, although the level of total CYP1A1 protein (i...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649790/safety-of-a-benazepril-and-pimobendan-combination-tablet-in-adult-healthy-dogs
#18
E A Kuntz, G Strehlau, J M Giraudel, J N King
The objective of the study was to investigate the safety of a combination tablet of benazepril and pimobendan, Fortekor PLUS(®) , in a randomized, blinded, parallel-group design study in healthy adult beagle dogs. The test article, Fortekor PLUS(®) tablets, was administered orally twice daily for 6 months at one, two, and four times the highest recommended dosage of 0.5 mg/kg benazepril hydrochloride/0.25 mg/kg pimobendan (four males and four females per group). An additional control group was sham-dosed...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649326/viral-gut-metagenomics-of-sympatric-wild-and-domestic-canids-and-monitoring-of-viruses-insights-from-an-endangered-wolf-population
#19
Nádia Conceição-Neto, Raquel Godinho, Francisco Álvares, Claude K Yinda, Ward Deboutte, Mark Zeller, Lies Laenen, Elisabeth Heylen, Sara Roque, Francisco Petrucci-Fonseca, Nuno Santos, Marc Van Ranst, João R Mesquita, Jelle Matthijnssens
Animal host-microbe interactions are a relevant concern for wildlife conservation, particularly regarding generalist pathogens, where domestic host species can play a role in the transmission of infectious agents, such as viruses, to wild animals. Knowledge on viral circulation in wild host species is still scarce and can be improved by the recent advent of modern molecular approaches. We aimed to characterize the fecal virome and identify viruses of potential conservation relevance of diarrheic free-ranging wolves and sympatric domestic dogs from Central Portugal, where a small and threatened wolf population persists in a highly anthropogenically modified landscape...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636059/clinical-outcome-and-complications-of-thoracic-and-pelvic-limb-stump-and-socket-prostheses
#20
Andrew Phillips, Elvin Kulendra, Edith Bishop, Michelle Monk, Kevin Parsons, Arthur House
OBJECTIVES: To describe the use, quality of life, compliance, complications, and outcome of animals fitted with stump socket prostheses. METHODS: Medical records of dogs fitted with a stump socket prosthesis were reviewed. Functional outcome, quality of life and complications were retrospectively assessed from an owner questionnaire. RESULTS: Thirteen stump socket prostheses (12 dogs) were fitted for a variety of reasons including trauma, congenital abnormalities, and neoplasia...
June 21, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
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