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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904786/a-targeted-metabolomics-assay-to-measure-eight-purines-in-the-diet-of-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#1
A J Ardente, T J Garrett, R S Wells, M Walsh, C R Smith, J Colee, R C Hill
Bottlenose dolphins managed under human care, human beings and Dalmatian dogs are prone to forming urate uroliths. Limiting dietary purine intake limits urate urolith formation in people and dogs because purines are metabolized to uric acid, which is excreted in urine. Managed dolphins develop ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not. Free-ranging dolphins consume live fish, whereas managed dolphins consume different species that have been stored frozen and thawed. Differences in the purine content of fish consumed by dolphins under human care versus in the wild may be responsible for the difference in urolith prevalence...
October 2016: Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892642/new-approaches-to-non-surgical-sterilization-for-dogs-and-cats-opportunities-and-challenges
#2
Linda Rhodes
Over the last 40 years, researchers have explored methods to non-surgically suppress fertility in animals. Immunocontraception has been used to control wildlife populations but does not confer long-term immunity. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin, formulated as an implant to provide 6-month to 1-year suppression of fertility in male dogs, is available commercially in some countries. Neither of these approaches provide permanent sterility. A single-dose, permanent treatment would be a valuable tool in dog and cat population control...
November 28, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887695/reprint-of-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto-s-s-from-the-critically-endangered-antelope-addax-nasomaculatus-in-tunisia
#3
Belgees Boufana, Yousra Saïd, Mokhtar Dhibi, Philip S Craig, Samia Lahmar
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881694/transdiaphragmatic-pericardiectomy-in-dogs
#4
M De Ridder, A Kitshoff, N Devriendt, M Or, A Rubio-Guzman, H de Rooster
In patients with recurrent pericardial effusions, pericardiectomy is indicated. The purpose of this study was to describe a transdiaphragmatic approach for subtotal pericardiectomy in dogs and to evaluate its feasibility. In total, 20 canine cadavers weighing less than 10 kg (group S) and 20 weighing more than 20 kg (group L) were used. Within each group, half underwent a subphrenic pericardiectomy via an intercostal approach and half via a transdiaphragmatic approach. For each approach and within each weight group, the percentage of resected pericardium was calculated and compared...
November 23, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874969/idiopathic-myelofibrosis-accompanied-by-peritoneal-extramedullary-hematopoiesis-presenting-as-refractory-ascites-in-a-dog
#5
Yolandi Rautenbach, Amelia Goddard, Sarah J Clift
A 2.5-year-old spayed female American Pit Bull Terrier dog presented with a primary complaint of chronic refractory ascites. The dog's CBC displayed a moderate to severe macrocytic, hypochromic, nonregenerative anemia, and a moderate leukopenia as result of a moderate neutropenia and monocytopenia. Microscopic examination of the blood smear showed marked anisocytosis, mild polychromasia, mild acanthocytosis and ovalocytosis, moderate schistocytosis and poikilocytosis, and 4 metarubricytes/100 WBC. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a homogenous, mild to moderately hyperechoic appearing liver as well as marked amounts of speckled anechoic to slightly hypoechoic peritoneal fluid...
November 22, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872724/are-magnetic-resonance-imaging-or-radiographic-findings-correlated-with-clinical-prognosis-in-spinal-cord-neuropathy
#6
Fatemeh Neshat Halati, Alireza Vajhi, Mohammad Molazem, Mohammad Mehdi Dehghan, Fereshteh Ansari
Dogs presented to the Small Animal Hospital of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran were included in the present study if spinal or intervertebral disc involvement was suspected. Clinical signs were recorded as well as general information of the patient such as age, breed and sex. Sixty dogs were examined radiographically and two standard orthogonal lateral and ventrodorsal projections were taken from the suspected region. Then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for all patients. Agreement between MRI and radiographic findings, comparison of sex and breed with diagnostic imaging grades, comparison between diagnostic imaging grades and mean age, recovery rate after surgery or medical treatment, effects of diagnostic imaging severity grades on surgical or medical referrals were evaluated statistically...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866176/hypoglycemia-alert-dogs-a-novel-cost-effective-approach-for-diabetes-monitoring
#7
Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Maurizio Dondi, Giovanni Targher
The recent publication of the results of 3 small trials, and as many as 5 case reports on dogs producing clear and intelligible alerts in the presence of their owners' hypoglycemia, opens an intriguing clinical scenario for management of diabetes. The skill seems attributable to the ability of dogs to identify patterns in skin and breath odors as well as to understand and interpret visual cues from humans during hypoglycemia. Provided that further trials can confirm the findings, the use of diabetes alert dogs that are trained to detect the onset of hypoglycemia can be regarded as a fast, versatile, reliable, and cost-effective approach for safeguarding the health of individuals with diabetes...
November 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864587/evaluation-of-the-genetic-basis-of-primary-hypoadrenocorticism-in-standard-poodles-using-snp-array-genotyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing
#8
Steven G Friedenberg, Katharine F Lunn, Kathryn M Meurs
Primary hypoadrenocorticism, also known as Addison's disease, is an autoimmune disorder leading to the destruction of the adrenal cortex and subsequent loss of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. The disease is prevalent in Standard Poodles and is believed to be highly heritable in the breed. Using genotypes derived from the Illumina Canine HD SNP array, we performed a genome-wide association study of 133 carefully phenotyped Standard Poodles (61 affected, 72 unaffected) and found no markers significantly associated with the disease...
November 18, 2016: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862797/ocular-biometry-by-computed-tomography-in-different-dog-breeds
#9
Carolin L H Chiwitt, Stephen J Baines, Paul Mahoney, Andrew Tanner, Christine L Heinrich, Michael Rhodes, Heidi J Featherstone
OBJECTIVE: To (i) correlate B-mode ocular ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) (prospective pilot study), (ii) establish a reliable method to measure the normal canine eye using CT, (iii) establish a reference guide for some dog breeds, (iv) compare eye size between different breeds and breed groups, and (v) investigate the correlation between eye dimensions and body weight, gender, and skull type (retrospective study). PROCEDURE: B-mode US and CT were performed on ten sheep cadaveric eyes...
November 11, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862393/use-of-the-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-stimulation-test-to-monitor-gonadal-function-in-intact-adult-male-cats
#10
S Romagnoli, A Baldan, C Righetti, C Fontaine, L Scenna, T Badon, C Stelletta, C Milani, M Cecchetto, A Mollo
The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test is a common procedure used to investigate normality of the pituitary-gonadal axis in mammals. There is very little information on the technique, its efficacy and side effects in small animals and in particular no information for male cats. In dogs, such test is performed by intravenous (IV) administration. With cats, the number of times the animal needs to be restrained for blood sampling should be the least possible. The purpose of this study was to assess efficacy and side effects of the GnRH stimulation test in tomcats comparing the IV with the intramuscular (IM) route of administration...
November 13, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859449/cytocentrifuge-preparation-in-veterinary-cytology-a-quick-simple-and-affordable-manual-method-to-concentrate-low-cellularity-fluids
#11
Ricardo Marcos, Marta Santos, Carla Marrinhas, Carla Correia-Gomes, Mario Caniatti
BACKGROUND: Smears prepared by cytocentrifugation, the so-called cytospins, are widely used in human and veterinary cytology. However, the high cost has hampered the availability of commercial cytospin centrifuges in some veterinary clinics and laboratories. Nevertheless, cytospins are important for evaluating fluids with very low cellularity such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to devise and test the use of a low-cost, in-house manual cytocentrifuge to obtain cytospin preparations...
November 9, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829458/retrospective-epidemiological-study-of-canine-epilepsy-in-japan-using-the-international-veterinary-epilepsy-task-force-classification-2015-2003-2013-etiological-distribution-risk-factors-survival-time-and-lifespan
#12
Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Shunta Mizoguchi, Yoshihiko Yu, Masae Wada, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease in veterinary practice. However, contrary to human medicine, epilepsy classification in veterinary medicine had not been clearly defined until recently. A number of reports on canine epilepsy have been published, reflecting in part updated proposals from the human epilepsy organization, the International League Against Epilepsy. In 2015, the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) published a consensus report on the classification and definition of canine epilepsy...
November 9, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829045/a-new-metric-for-quantifying-the-relative-impact-of-risk-factors-on-loss-of-working-life-illustrated-in-a-population-of-working-dogs
#13
Geoffrey Caron-Lormier, Naomi D Harvey, Gary C W England, Lucy Asher
In a resource-limited world, organisations attempting to reduce the impact of health or behaviour issues need to choose carefully how to allocate resources for the highest overall impact. However, such choices may not always be obvious. Which has the biggest impact? A large change to a small number of individuals, or a small change to a large number of individuals? The challenge is identifying the issues that have the greatest impact on the population so potential interventions can be prioritised. We addressed this by developing a score to quantify the impact of health conditions and behaviour problems in a population of working guide dogs using data from Guide Dogs, UK...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824893/an-age-associated-decline-in-thymic-output-differs-in-dog-breeds-according-to-their-longevity
#14
Angela Holder, Stephanie Mella, Donald B Palmer, Richard Aspinall, Brian Catchpole
The age associated decline in immune function is preceded in mammals by a reduction in thymic output. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence of a link between immune competence and lifespan. One approach to determining thymic output is to quantify signal joint T cell receptor excision circles (sj-TRECs), a method which has been developed and used in several mammalian species. Life expectancy and the rate of aging vary in dogs depending upon their breed. In this study, we quantified sj-TRECs in blood samples from dogs of selected breeds to determine whether there was a relationship between longevity and thymic output...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823373/clinical-features-and-pathological-joint-changes-in-dogs-with-erosive-immune-mediated-polyarthritis-13-cases-2004-2012
#15
Magen L Shaughnessy, Susannah J Sample, Carter Abicht, Caitlin Heaton, Peter Muir
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical features and pathological joint changes in dogs with erosive immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 13 dogs with erosive IMPA and 66 dogs with nonerosive IMPA. PROCEDURES The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was reviewed to identify dogs with IMPA that were examined between October 2004 and December 2012. For each IMPA-affected dog, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, diagnostic test results, radiographic findings, and treatments administered...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821718/arterio-venous-anastomoses-in-isolated-perfused-rat-lungs
#16
Robert L Conhaim, Gilad S Segal, Kal E Watson
Several studies have suggested that large-diameter (>25 μm) arterio-venous shunt pathways exist in the lungs of rats, dogs, and humans. We investigated the nature of these pathways by infusing specific-diameter fluorescent latex particles (4, 7, 15, 30, or 50 μm) into isolated, ventilated rat lungs perfused at constant pressure. All lungs received the same mass of latex (5 mg), which resulted in infused particle numbers that ranged from 1.7 × 10(7) 4 μm particles to 7.5 × 10(4) 50 μm particles...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821712/btk-small-molecule-inhibitors-induce-a-distinct-pancreatic-toxicity-in-rats
#17
Rebecca I Erickson, Leah K Schutt, Jacqueline Tarrant, Michelle McDowell, Lichuan Liu, Adam R Johnson, Sock-Cheng Lewin-Koh, Maj Hedehus, Jed Ross, Richard A D Carano, Karin Staflin, Fiona Zhong, James Crawford, Shelly Zhong, Karin Reif, Arna Katewa, Harvey Wong, Wendy Young, Donna Dambach, Dinah Misner
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a member of the Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases involved in B-cell and myeloid cell signaling. Small molecule inhibitors of BTK are being investigated for treatment of several hematological cancers and autoimmune diseases. GDC-0853 is a selective and reversible oral small molecule BTK inhibitor in development for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, administration of GDC-0853 and other structurally diverse BTK inhibitors for 7 days or longer caused pancreatic lesions consisting of multifocal islet-centered hemorrhage, inflammation, fibrosis, and pigment-laden macrophages with adjacent lobular exocrine acinar cell atrophy, degeneration, and inflammation...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816691/pancreatic-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-a-case-report
#18
Ahmed Elgeidie, El-Sayed Abou El-Magd, Sara Raafat Abu El-Maaty, Amira Kamal El-Hawary
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tumors of mesenchymal origin. GISTs tend to arise with a higher frequency in the stomach and the small intestine. GISTs that originate from outside of the GIT are defined as extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs). Among them pancreatic EGISTs are very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 30 years old male patient presented with abdominal pain. Triphasic abdominal computed tomography scan with contrast revealed large well defined mass at the pancreatic tail, about 12×11...
August 17, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804139/outcome-of-tibial-closing-wedge-osteotomy-in-55-cranial-cruciate-ligament-deficient-stifles-of-small-dogs-15-kg
#19
Kathryn A Campbell, John T Payne, Michael T Doornink, Jamie Haggerty
OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of cranial closing wedge osteotomy (CWO) of the tibia for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifles in dogs with a body weight of <15 kg. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Forty-five client-owned dogs (n=55 stifles). METHODS: Medical records (2005-2014), radiographs, and owner questionnaire were used to identify the surgical procedure performed, associated complications and outcome in 45 dogs undergoing CWO in 55 stifles...
November 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803375/pre-trilostane-and-three-hour-post-trilostane-cortisol-to-monitor-trilostane-therapy-in-dogs
#20
L Macfarlane, T Parkin, I Ramsey
The adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test has been widely used and recommended as a monitoring method for dogs receiving trilostane; however, it has never been validated for this purpose. As trilostane is relatively short acting, there could be variation in the results depending on the time since the last dose of trilostane and results may not reflect clinical control. Additionally, tetracosactide (synthetic ACTH) can be expensive in some countries and has had limited availability throughout much of Europe...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Record
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