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COPD, Asthma, Pulmonary Function Tests

Ravishekar Ravi Kannan, Narender Singh, Andrzej Przekwas
Spirometry is a widely used pulmonary function test to detect the airflow limitations associated with various obstructive lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and even obesity-related complications. These conditions arise due to the change in the airway resistance, alveolar compliance, and inductance values. Currently, zero-dimensional (0D) compartmental models are commonly used for calibrating these resistance, compliance, and inductance values, i.e., solving the inverse spirometry problem...
February 27, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Hyo Jung Sim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Kyung-Jae Myung, Taejoon Kwon, Hyun-Shik Lee, Tae Joo Park
The airway epithelium in human plays a central role as the first line of defense against environmental contaminants. Most respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and respiratory infections, disturb normal muco-ciliary functions by stimulating the hypersecretion of mucus. Several muco-active agents have been used to treat hypersecretion symptoms in patients. Current muco-active reagents control mucus secretion by modulating either airway inflammation, cholinergic parasympathetic nerve activities or by reducing the viscosity by cleaving crosslinking in mucin and digesting DNAs in mucus...
2018: PloS One
M Held, S Baron, B Jany
Alongside imaging techniques, pulmonary function testing helps in the diagnosis of underlying disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or fibrosing lung disease. However, disease severity grading is also important, as well as disease follow-up under therapy. The value of spirometry as a first-line diagnostic test, whole-body plethysmography in advanced diagnostics, the measurement of transfer factor, as well as blood gas analysis are outlined. The importance of spiroergometry, echocardiography, and right-heart catheterization, particularly in the functional assessment of pulmonary vascular disorders, is described...
January 10, 2018: Der Internist
Frederik Trinkmann, Johannes Götzmann, Daniel Saur, Michele Schroeter, Katharina Roth, Ksenija Stach, Martin Borggrefe, Joachim Saur, Ibrahim Akin, Julia D Michels
BACKGROUND: Multiple breath washout (MBW) became a valuable research tool assessing ventilation heterogeneity. However, routine clinical application still faces several challenges. Deriving MBW parameters from three technically acceptable measurements according to current recommendations prolongs test times. We therefore aimed to evaluate reporting only duplicate measurements in healthy adults and pulmonary disease. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-three subjects prospectively underwent conventional lung function testing and closed-circuit SF6 -MBW...
December 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Ghalib A Bello, Susan L Teitelbaum, Roberto G Lucchini, Christopher R Dasaro, Moshe Shapiro, Julia R Kaplan, Michael A Crane, Denise J Harrison, Benjamin J Luft, Jacqueline M Moline, Iris G Udasin, Andrew C Todd
BACKGROUND: Multiple comorbidities have been reported among rescue/recovery workers responding to the 9/11/2001 WTC disaster. In this study, we developed an index that quantifies the cumulative physiological burden of comorbidities and predicts life expectancy in this cohort. METHODS: A machine learning approach (gradient boosting) was used to model the relationship between mortality and several clinical parameters (laboratory test results, blood pressure, pulmonary function measures)...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Christian Infante, Daniel B Chamberlain, Rahul Kodgule, Richard Ribon Fletcher
Pulmonary and respiratory diseases (e.g. asthma, COPD, allergies, pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc.) represent a large proportion of the global disease burden, mortality, and disability. In this context of creating automated diagnostic tools, we explore how the analysis of voluntary cough sounds may be used to screen for pulmonary disease. As a clinical study, voluntary coughs were recorded using a custom mobile phone stethoscope from 54 patients, of which 7 had COPD, 15 had asthma, 11 had allergic rhinitis, 17 had both asthma and allergic rhinitis, and four had both COPD and allergic rhinitis...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Jie Gao, Wutie Zhou, Bida Chen, Weiming Lin, Sifang Wu, Feng Wu
INTRODUCTION: Cell count in induced sputum is a noninvasive biomarker to assess airway inflammation phenotypes. Accordingly, sputum cell counts are extensively used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. Nevertheless, the clinical application of sputum cell counts in patients with asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate sputum cell counts in patients with ACO which are different from those in patients with asthma and COPD and also to examine the relationship between sputum cell counts in bronchial reversibility and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Carian E Boorsma, T Anienke van der Veen, Kurnia S S Putri, Andreia de Almeida, Christina Draijer, Thais Mauad, Gyorgy Fejer, Corry-Anke Brandsma, Maarten van den Berge, Yohan Bossé, Don Sin, Ke Hao, Anja Reithmeier, Göran Andersson, Peter Olinga, Wim Timens, Angela Casini, Barbro N Melgert
The enzyme tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, two isoforms 5a and 5b) is highly expressed in alveolar macrophages, but its function there is unclear and potent selective inhibitors of TRAP are required to assess functional aspects of the protein. We found higher TRAP activity/expression in lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma compared to controls and more TRAP activity in lungs of mice with experimental COPD or asthma. Stimuli related to asthma and/or COPD were tested for their capacity to induce TRAP...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Claudio Sorino, Nicola Scichilone, Maria D'Amato, Vincenzo Patella, Fabiano DI Marco
The term asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) has been proposed for individuals with features of both asthma and COPD. Several attempts have been done to define ACOS on the basis of medical history, symptoms, and functional findings. The main diagnostic criteria include airflow obstruction with a strong although incomplete reversibility to bronchodilation tests, a significant exposure to cigarette or biomass smoke, and a history of atopy or asthma. Additional diagnostic elements include eosinophilic airway and systemic inflammation, a good response to corticosteroid treatment, and a high concentration of exhaled nitric oxide...
June 2017: Minerva Medica
Plamen Bokov, Clémence Martin, Sémia Graba, Karine Gillet-Juvin, Mohamed Essalhi, Christophe Delclaux
BACKGROUND: A concomitant decrease in FEV1 and FVC with normal FEV1/FVC ratio and TLC defines small airways obstructive pattern (SAOP) and constitutes a classic pitfall of pulmonary-function-tests interpretation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of flow- (FEV1 increase≥12% and 200 mL), volume- (FVC or inspiratory capacity [IC] increase≥12% and 200 mL), flow and volume-, and non-response to bronchodilation in patients with SAOP. An additional objective was to assess whether impulse oscillometry (IOS) parameters allow the diagnosis of SAOP and its reversibility...
2017: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Huai Chen, Qing-Si Zeng, Min Zhang, Rong-Chang Chen, Ting-Ting Xia, Wei Wang, Xiaoyin Xu, Yubao Guan
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to differentiate between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma in clinics; therefore, for diagnostic purposes, imaging-based measurements could be beneficial to differentiate between the two diseases. OBJECTIVES: We aim to analyze quantitative measurements of the lung and bronchial parameters that are provided by low-dose computed tomography (CT) to differentiate COPD and asthma from an imaging perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 69 COPD patients, 52 asthma patients, and 20 healthy subjects were recruited to participate in CT imaging and pulmonary function tests (PFTs)...
2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Douglas Mapel, François Laliberté, Melissa H Roberts, Susan R Sama, Devi Sundaresan, Dominic Pilon, Patrick Lefebvre, Mei Sheng Duh, Jeetvan Patel
INTRODUCTION: An incremental approach using open-triple therapy may improve outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is little sufficient, real-world evidence available identifying time to open-triple initiation. METHODS: This retrospective study of patients with COPD, newly initiated on long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) monotherapy or inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA) combination therapy, assessed baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and exacerbations during 12 months prior to first LAMA or ICS/LABA use...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Sundeep Santosh Salvi, Chittaranjan Sakerlal Yajnik, Ajay Ojha, Behzad Khafaie, Sharad Damodar Gore
Diabetics may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of ambient air pollutants than healthy individuals. But, the risk factors that lead to susceptibility to air pollution in diabetics have not yet been identified. We examined the effect of exposure to ambient PM10 on chronic symptoms and the pulmonary function tests (PFT) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Also, to investigate possible determinants of susceptibility, we recruited 400 type 2 diabetic and 465 healthy subjects who were investigated for chronic respiratory symptoms (CRSs) and then underwent measurement of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume 1 (FEV1) according to standard protocol...
June 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Desh Deepak, Akhila Prasad, Swapndeep Singh Atwal, Kshitij Agarwal
The small airways, once regarded as the silent zone in the air conducting system of the lungs are now known to be one of the initial sites of involvement in diseases like asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Identification of the involvement of distal airways in these diseases is often difficult to assess, clinically as well as by conventional pulmonary function tests and therefore, usually remains undiscovered in early stages. Early recognition of their involvement in asthma and COPD and timely management may reduce long term morbidity in these conditions...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Claudie Rodrigue, Marie-France Beauchesne, Valérie Mallette, Catherine Lemière, Pierre Larivée, Lucie Blais
Approximately 15-20% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) also display characteristics of asthma. In May 2014, the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) was briefly addressed in the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) strategy documents. We evaluated how pulmonologists diagnose and treat ACOS and how they assess its control. Pulmonologists from two university healthcare centers, having ≥ 1 year experience, treating patients with asthma, COPD, or ACOS, were invited to participate in focus groups...
June 2017: COPD
Prahlad Rai Gupta, Asif Feroz, Sachet Dawar, Harshdeep Bhangoo, Shivani Swami, T K Khublani
BACKGROUND: Assessment of functional status is vital for proper therapy and rehabilitation programs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Traditionally, 6 min walk test (6MWT) has been used but it by itself may not reflect the total functional status in these patients as it poorly correlates to the disease severity. A sit-to-stand test (STST) has been proposed as a better alternative to 6MWT but to test their ability to stand from the squatting position, i.e., a squat-to-stand test (SqTST) will be more appropriate in rural patients...
May 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Atsuro Fukuhara, Junpei Saito, Suguru Sato, Kazue Saito, Naoko Fukuhara, Yoshinori Tanino, Xintao Wang, Katsuaki Rinno, Hitoshi Suzuki, Mitsuru Munakata
The prevalence of COPD and asthma is increasing all over the world; however, their morbidities are thought to be greatly underestimated because of unawareness of patients' conditions and respiratory symptoms. Spirometry is useful for the early detection of COPD and asthma with airflow limitation (AL), although it is not yet widely used for screening in epidemiological and primary care settings. A simple predictive marker used in combination with spirometry for AL is expected to be established. In medical health check-ups, serum uric acid (s-UA) is measured when screening for gout and has recently been suggested to have an association with several respiratory disorders, including asthma and COPD...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Cécile Rotenberg, Marcel Bonay, Mostafa El Hajjam, Sandra Blivet, Alain Beauchet, Pascal Lacombe, Thierry Chinet
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are present in approximately 15-50% individuals with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). They may be isolated but more often are multiple. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of PAVMs on lung mechanical properties. METHODS: We reviewed the files of all adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) referred to our Center for evaluation of HHT between 2005 and 2013. The diagnosis of HHT was based on the Curacao criteria and/or the presence of a pathogenic mutation...
April 19, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Sujay Basu, Dinesh A Barawkar, Vidya Ramdas, Meena Patel, Yogesh Waman, Anil Panmand, Santosh Kumar, Sachin Thorat, Minakshi Naykodi, Arnab Goswami, B Srinivasa Reddy, Vandna Prasad, Sandhya Chaturvedi, Azfar Quraishi, Suraj Menon, Shalini Paliwal, Abhay Kulkarni, Vikas Karande, Indraneel Ghosh, Syed Mustafa, Siddhartha De, Vaibhav Jain, Ena Ray Banerjee, Sreekanth R Rouduri, Venkata P Palle, Anita Chugh, Kasim A Mookhtiar
Adenosine induces bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in asthmatics through activation of A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAdoR). Selective antagonists have been shown to attenuate airway reactivity and improve inflammatory conditions in pre-clinical studies. Hence, the identification of novel, potent and selective A2BAdoR antagonist may be beneficial for the potential treatment of asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Towards this effort, we explored several prop-2-ynylated C8-aryl or heteroaryl substitutions on xanthine chemotype and found that 1-prop-2-ynyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl moiety was better tolerated at the C8 position...
July 7, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Min Young Kim, Sungmin Boo, Mijung Yoo, Jonghyun Lee, Na Ree Kang
PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging issue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In COPD, loss of muscle mass is relatively common finding, and diagnosis of CKD should be based on measured or estimated GFR (Cavailles et al. Eur Respir Rev 22:454-475, 2013; Gosker et al. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1033-1047, 2000; Delanaye and Mariat Nat Rev Nephrol 9:513-522, 2013). We aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of CKD, defined by using chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, in COPD patients...
July 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
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