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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782882/prolonged-increase-in-ser31-tyrosine-hydroxylase-phosphorylation-in-substantia-nigra-following-cessation-of-chronic-methamphetamine
#1
Michael F Salvatore, Vicki A Nejtek, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Methamphetamine (MA) exposure may increase the risk of motor or cognitive impairments similar to Parkinson's disease (PD) by middle age. Although damage to nigrostriatal or mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) neurons may occur during or early after MA exposure, overt PD-like symptoms at a younger age may not manifest due to compensatory mechanisms to maintain DA neurotransmission. One possible compensatory mechanism is increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation. In the rodent PD 6-OHDA model, nigrostriatal lesion decreases TH protein in both striatum and substantia nigra (SN)...
May 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780572/cognitive-training-and-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Blake J Lawrence, Natalie Gasson, Andrew R Johnson, Leon Booth, Andrea M Loftus
This study examined whether standard cognitive training, tailored cognitive training, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), standard cognitive training + tDCS, or tailored cognitive training + tDCS improved cognitive function and functional outcomes in participants with PD and mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI). Forty-two participants with PD-MCI were randomized to one of six groups: (1) standard cognitive training, (2) tailored cognitive training, (3) tDCS, (4) standard cognitive training + tDCS, (5) tailored cognitive training + tDCS, or (6) a control group...
2018: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779721/evaluation-of-an-ontology-based-system-for-computerized-cognitive-rehabilitation
#3
Anna Alloni, Silvana Quaglini, Silvia Panzarasa, Elena Sinforiani, Sara Bernini
OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the results of a randomized clinical trial about the effectiveness of a computerized rehabilitation treatment on a sample of 31 patients affected by Parkinson disease. METHODS: Computerized exercises were administered by the therapists to the intervention group (n = 17) through the CoRe tool, which automatically generates a big variety of exercises leveraging on a stimuli set (words, sounds and images) organized into a dedicated ontology...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779045/clinical-utility-of-fdg-pet-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-atypical-parkinsonism-associated-with-dementia
#4
REVIEW
Zuzana Walker, Federica Gandolfo, Stefania Orini, Valentina Garibotto, Federica Agosta, Javier Arbizu, Femke Bouwman, Alexander Drzezga, Peter Nestor, Marina Boccardi, Daniele Altomare, Cristina Festari, Flavio Nobili
PURPOSE: There are no comprehensive guidelines for the use of FDG PET in the following three clinical scenarios: (1) diagnostic work-up of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) at risk of future cognitive decline, (2) discriminating idiopathic PD from progressive supranuclear palsy, and (3) identifying the underlying neuropathology in corticobasal syndrome. METHODS: We therefore performed three literature searches and evaluated the selected studies for quality of design, risk of bias, inconsistency, imprecision, indirectness and effect size...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778803/age-affects-reinforcement-learning-through-dopamine-based-learning-imbalance-and-high-decision-noise-not-through-parkinsonian-mechanisms
#5
Ravi B Sojitra, Itamar Lerner, Jessica R Petok, Mark A Gluck
Probabilistic reinforcement learning declines in healthy cognitive aging. While some findings suggest impairments are especially conspicuous in learning from rewards, resembling deficits in Parkinson's disease, others also show impairments in learning from punishments. To reconcile these findings, we tested 252 adults from 3 age groups on a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, analyzed trial-by-trial performance with a Q-reinforcement learning model, and correlated both fitted model parameters and behavior to polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes...
April 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777676/cognitive-effects-of-rhythmic-auditory-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-p300-study
#6
Juan Lei, Nadine Conradi, Cornelius Abel, Stefan Frisch, Alla Brodski-Guerniero, Marcel Hildner, Christian A Kell, Jochen Kaiser, Maren Schmidt-Kassow
Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) may compensate dysfunctions of the basal ganglia (BG), involved with intrinsic evaluation of temporal intervals and action initiation or continuation. In the cognitive domain, RAS containing periodically presented tones facilitates young healthy participants' attention allocation to anticipated time points, indicated by better performance and larger P300 amplitudes to periodic compared to random stimuli. Additionally, active auditory-motor synchronization (AMS) leads to a more precise temporal encoding of stimuli via embodied timing encoding than stimulus presentation adapted to the participants' actual movements...
May 16, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777524/mercury-involvement-in-neuronal-damage-and-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Veronica Lanza Cariccio, Annalisa Samà, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis are characterized by a chronic and selective process of neuronal cell death. Although the causes of neurodegenerative diseases remain still unknown, it is now a well-established idea that more factors, such as genetic, endogenous, and environmental, are involved. Among environmental causes, the accumulation of mercury, a heavy metal considered a toxic agent, was largely studied as a probable factor involved in neurodegenerative disease course...
May 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776682/the-impact-of-apolipoprotein-e-alleles-on-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Anna Pierzchlińska, Monika Białecka, Mateusz Kurzawski, Jarosław Sławek
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a vital component of several lipoproteins and plays a major role in lipid metabolism. APOE gene comprises of three alleles determined by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs429358 and rs7412) resulting in the protein isoforms, among which ApoE4 is a confirmed risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease. However, the impact of APOE genotypes on Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD) is still inconclusive. The PDD diagnostic criteria are very inconsistent, and could be complemented with genetic factors...
May 5, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773512/increased-foot-strike-variability-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-freezing-of-gait
#9
Jesal Shah, Lakshmi Pillai, David K Williams, Shannon M Doerhoff, Linda Larson-Prior, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Tuhin Virmani
INTRODUCTION: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a debilitating, late motor complication of Parkinson's disease (PD) that occurs in 50-80% of patients. Gait freezing significantly worsens quality of life by decreasing mobility and increasing falls. Studies have shown that patients with episodic freezing episodes also have deficits in continuous gait. We evaluated whether there was an objective gait correlate to the increased stumbling reported by many patients with gait freezing. METHODS: PD subjects and healthy controls (HC) were enrolled after IRB approval...
May 1, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772521/myricetin-attenuates-neurodegeneration-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinsonism
#10
Vijayraja Dhanraj, Jeyaprakash Karuppaiah, Rengasamy Balakrishnan, Namasivayam Elangovan
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease due to dopaminergic neuron degeneration. It mostly affects the aged population, leads to memory decline and loss of motor coordination. The present study investigates the neuroprotective role of myricetin a flavonol isolated from the brown seaweed Turbinaria ornata in rotenone induced Drosophila model of PD. Rotenone administration led to dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, dopamine depletion, impaired muscular coordination, gait disturbances, memory decline oxidative stress and apoptosis...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769626/the-cholinergic-contribution-to-the-resting-state-functional-network-in-non-demented-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Yoonju Lee, Jee Hyun Ham, Jungho Cha, Yeong-Hun Park, Jae Jung Lee, Mun Kyung Sunwoo, Jin Yong Hong, Young H Sohn, Jong-Min Lee, Phil Hyu Lee
The cholinergic system arising from the basal forebrain plays an important role in cognitive performance in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we analyzed cholinergic status-dependent cortical and subcortical resting-state functional connectivity in PD. A total of 61 drug-naïve PD patients were divided into tertiles based on normalized substantia innominata (SI) volumes. We compared the resting-state network from seed region of interest in the caudate, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and SI between the lowest (PD-L) and highest tertile (PD-H) groups...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769545/short-term-temporal-memory-in-idiopathic-and-parkin-associated-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Bertrand Degos, Ilhame Ameqrane, Sophie Rivaud-Péchoux, Pierre Pouget, Marcus Missal
In a rapidly changing environment, we often know when to do something before we have to do it. This preparation in the temporal domain is based on a 'perception' of elapsed time and short-term memory of previous stimulation in a similar context. These functions could be perturbed in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we investigated their role in eye movement preparation in sporadic Parkinson's disease and in a very infrequent variant affecting the Parkin gene. We used a simple oculomotor task where subjects had to orient to a visual target and movement latency was measured...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768473/impaired-serial-ordering-in-nondemented-patients-with-mild-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Jinghong Ma, Shaoyang Ma, Haiqiang Zou, Yizhi Zhang, Piu Chan, Zheng Ye
The ability to arrange thoughts and actions in an appropriate serial order (the problem of serial order) is essential to complex behaviors such as language, reasoning and cognitive planning. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) perform poorly in tasks that rely on the successful rearrangement of working memory representations. We hypothesized that serial ordering is impaired in nondemented patients with mild PD. We recruited 49 patients with mild idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr Scale 1-2.5) and 51 matched healthy adults...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767379/individual-cognitive-change-after-dbs-surgery-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-using-reliable-change-index-methodology
#14
Thomas Foki, Daniela Hitzl, Walter Pirker, Klaus Novak, Gisela Pusswald, Johann Lehrner
Long-term therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD) with levodopa (L-DOPA) is associated with a high risk of developing motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in PD patients of the subthalamic nucleus can improve these motor complications. Although the positive effect on motor symptoms has been proven, postoperative cognitive decline has been documented. To tackle the impact of PD-DBS on cognition, 18 DBS patients were compared to 25 best medically treated Parkinson's patients, 24 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients and 12 healthy controls using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna-long (NTBV-long) for cognitive outcome 12 months after first examination...
May 16, 2018: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766510/ineffectiveness-of-saxagliptin-as-a-neuroprotective-drug-in-6-ohda-lesioned-rats
#15
Joelle de Melo Turnes, Taysa Bervian Bassani, Leonardo C Souza, Maria A B F Vital
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the drug saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor which is utilized for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus, has neuroprotective effects in the animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (weighing 280-300 g) received a bilateral infusion of 6-OHDA in the substantia nigra. Twenty-four hours later, they were treated with saxagliptin (1 mg/kg, p.o) once daily, for 21 days...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765316/noradrenergic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-an-overview-of-imaging-studies
#16
REVIEW
Andrew C Peterson, Chiang-Shan R Li
Noradrenergic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Conventional therapeutic strategies seek to enhance cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in AD and PD, respectively, and few studies have examined noradrenergic dysfunction as a target for medication development. We review the literature of noradrenergic dysfunction in AD and PD with a focus on human imaging studies that implicate the locus coeruleus (LC) circuit. The LC sends noradrenergic projections diffusely throughout the cerebral cortex and plays a critical role in attention, learning, working memory, and cognitive control...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761296/neuroimaging-in-lewy-body-dementia
#17
REVIEW
Tayyabah Yousaf, George Dervenoulas, Polytimi-Eleni Valkimadi, Marios Politis
Lewy body dementia (DLB) is a common form of cognitive impairment, accounting for 30% of dementia cases in ages over 65 years. Early diagnosis of DLB has been challenging; particularly in the context of differentiation with Parkinson's disease dementia and other forms of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease and rapidly progressive dementias. Current practice involves the use of [123 I]FP-CIT-SPECT, [18 F]FDG PET and [123 I]MIBG molecular imaging to support diagnostic procedures. Structural imaging techniques have an essential role for excluding structural causes, which could lead to a DLB-like phenotype, as well as aiding differential diagnosis through illustrating disease-specific patterns of atrophy...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760562/tau-a-common-denominator-and-therapeutic-target-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#18
Alexander Maxan, Francesca Cicchetti
There is compelling evidence that a number of neurodegenerative diseases share common pathogenic mechanisms. Better understanding these mechanisms will allow us to develop new therapeutic strategies. This commentary follows up on our recent findings that tau pathology can be found in healthy fetal tissue transplanted into the brain of patients with either Huntington or Parkinson disease. We will examine how tau appears to be shared in a number of different conditions and how its expression relates to cognitive decline and disease progression...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758946/gut-microbiome-is-altered-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Zhen-Qian Zhuang, Lin-Lin Shen, Wei-Wei Li, Xue Fu, Fan Zeng, Li Gui, Yang Lü, Min Cai, Chi Zhu, Yin-Ling Tan, Peng Zheng, Hui-Yun Li, Jie Zhu, Hua-Dong Zhou, Xian-Le Bu, Yan-Jiang Wang
Previous studies suggest that gut microbiota is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and depression. However, whether the composition and diversity of gut microbiota is altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unknown. In the present study, we collected fecal samples from 43 AD patients and 43 age- and gender-matched cognitively normal controls. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the microbiota composition in feces...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756356/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-individuals-exhibiting-parkinson-s-disease-risk-markers
#20
Marcus Heldmann, Janna Heeren, Christine Klein, Linus Rauch, Johann Hagenah, Thomas F Münte, Meike Kasten, Norbert Brüggemann
BACKGROUND: The concept of prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD) involves variable combinations of nonmotor features and subtle motor abnormalities as a result of ongoing neurodegeneration in the brain stem including substantia nigra (SN) and abnormal findings upon transcranial sonography and nuclear imaging. Except for nuclear imaging, the predictive value of risk markers for the conversion to overt PD is low. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether PD risk markers are associated with changes in brain structure and to what extent cognitive changes are risk markers for PD...
May 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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