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cognition parkinson's disease

Inbal Maidan, Freek Nieuwhof, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Bastiaan R Bloem, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Jurgen A H R Claassen, Anat Mirelman
BACKGROUND: In a randomized control trial conducted in patients with Parkinson's disease, a treadmill training program combined with virtual reality that targeted motor and cognitive aspects of safe ambulation led to fewer falls, compared with treadmill training alone. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the 2 types of training differentially affected prefrontal activation and if this might explain differences in fall rates after the intervention. METHODS: Sixty-four patients with Parkinson's disease were randomized into the treadmill training arm (n = 34, mean age 73...
March 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Elisa Pelosin, Ambra Bisio, Thierry Pozzo, Giovanna Lagravinese, Oscar Crisafulli, Roberta Marchese, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Laura Avanzino
Postural reactions can be influenced by concomitant tasks or different contexts and are modulated by a higher order motor control. Recent studies investigated postural changes determined by motor contagion induced by action observation (chameleon effect) showing that observing a model in postural disequilibrium induces an increase in healthy subjects' body sway. Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with postural instability and impairments in cognitively controlled balance tasks. However, no studies investigated if viewing postural imbalance might influence postural stability in PD and if patients are able to inhibit a visual postural perturbation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Damiano Terenzi, Raffaella I Rumiati, Mauro Catalan, Lucia Antonutti, Giovanni Furlanis, Paolo Garlasco, Paola Polverino, Claudio Bertolotti, Paolo Manganotti, Marilena Aiello
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy are at risk of developing impulse control disorders (ICDs) (such as gambling, binge eating, and others). According to recent evidence, compulsive reward seeking in ICDs may arise from an excessive attribution of incentive salience (or 'wanting') to rewards. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested this hypothesis in patients with PD who developed binge eating (BE). METHODS: Patients with BE, patients without BE, and healthy controls performed different experimental tasks assessing food liking and wanting...
March 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Julia E Gerson, Kathleen M Farmer, Natalie Henson, Diana L Castillo-Carranza, Mariana Carretero Murillo, Urmi Sengupta, Alan Barrett, Rakez Kayed
BACKGROUND: We have evaluated the efficacy of targeting the toxic, oligomeric form of tau protein by passive immunotherapy in a mouse model of synucleinopathy. Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia are two of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and are primarily characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies. However, evidence shows that smaller, oligomeric aggregates are likely the most toxic form of the protein. Moreover, a large body of research suggests that α-synuclein interacts with tau in disease and may act in a synergistic mechanism, implicating tau oligomers as a potential therapeutic target...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Daniel Weintraub, Alexander I Tröster, Connie Marras, Glenn Stebbins
The focus on cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases, including PD, is shifting from the dementia stage to earlier stages of impairment, including mild cognitive impairment. This shift is driven primarily by the desire to improve long-term outcomes by delivering therapeutic interventions earlier in the clinical course, even presymptomatically in those at highest risk, and at the initial stage in the pathophysiological cascade that underpins common dementia syndromes. This article focuses on key findings and challenges in studying earliest stages of cognitive decline in PD, including a detailed examination of neuropsychological testing, cognitive performance in early and prodromal PD, epidemiological research for PD mild cognitive impairment to date, and expert recommendations for assessment...
March 15, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Ondrej Bezdicek, Tommaso Ballarini, Filip Růžička, Jan Roth, Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Matthias L Schroeter
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects approximately one-third of non-demented Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients. We aimed at investigating the neural correlates of MCI in PD combining multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with large-scale data from the literature. We analyzed 31 PD patients and 30 matched controls. The standard neuropsychological assessment of PD-MCI covered memory, attention, executive functions, language and visuospatial abilities. Following validated criteria, 16 patients were classified as showing MCI...
March 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Anand Rughani, Jason M Schwalb, Christos Sidiropoulos, Julie Pilitsis, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Jennifer A Sweet, Sandeep Mittal, Alberto J Espay, Jorge Gonzalez Martinez, Aviva Abosch, Emad Eskandar, Robert Gross, Ron Alterman, Clement Hamani
QUESTION 1: Is bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) more, less, or as effective as bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as measured by improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III (UPDRS-III) scores? RECOMMENDATION: Given that bilateral STN DBS is at least as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (as measured by improvements in UPDRS-III scores), consideration can be given to the selection of either target in patients undergoing surgery to treat motor symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Fan Lou, Ming Li, Xiaoguang Luo, Yan Ren
Background: The clock genes controlling biological rhythm play an important role in the pathophysiology of aging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between a variant of the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) gene and circadian dysfunction of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Six hundred and forty-six cases of Parkinson's disease from consecutive outpatients and inpatients ward from our hospital were included in this study...
2018: Parkinson's Disease
Rodrigo Novaes Ferreira, Aline Silva de Miranda, Natalia Pessoa Rocha, Ana Cristina Simoes E Silva, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Elizabeth Ribeiro da Silva Camargos
BACKGROUND: Parkinson´s Disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive condition, being the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. The classical features include: bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and festination. These neurological alterations are probably due to the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and consequent reduction of dopamine input into the striatum. The decrease of dopamine levels may also be involved in the emergence of non-motor symptoms, including cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Fabian Blasberg, Lars Wojtecki, Saskia Elben, Philipp Jörg Slotty, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Stefan Jun Groiss
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually performed as awake surgery allowing sufficient intraoperative testing. Recently, outcomes after asleep surgery have been assumed comparable. However, direct comparisons between awake and asleep surgery are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference between awake and asleep surgery comparing motor and nonmotor outcome after subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS in a large single center PD population...
March 13, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Yi-Qi Lin, Sheng-Di Chen
Increasing evidence indicates a strong association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and Parkinson's disease - cognitive impairment (PD-CI). Numerous longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have shown that RBD may be an important risk factor and predictor of Parkinson's disease - mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD); which may be explained by the association of mechanisms between RBD and PD-CI, including neurotransmitter alterations, genetic mutation, neuroinflammation, alpha-synuclein inclusion, abnormal cerebral metabolism and cortical activity slowing...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Martin Paucar, Åsa Bergendal, Peter Gustavsson, Magnus Nordenskjöld, José Laffita-Mesa, Irina Savitcheva, Per Svenningsson
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 19 (SCA19), allelic with spinocerebellar ataxia type 22 (SCA22), is a rare syndrome caused by mutations in the KCND3 gene which encodes the potassium channel Kv4.3. Only 18 SCA19/22 families and sporadic cases of different ethnic backgrounds have been previously reported. As in other SCAs, the SCA19/22 phenotype is variable and usually consists of adult-onset slowly progressive ataxia and cognitive impairment; myoclonus and seizures; mild Parkinsonism occurs in some cases. Here we describe a Swedish SCA19/22 family spanning five generations and harboring the T377M mutation in KCND3...
March 12, 2018: Cerebellum
María Díez-Cirarda, Antonio P Strafella, Jinhee Kim, Javier Peña, Natalia Ojeda, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
The objective was to assess dynamic functional connectivity (FC) and local/global connectivity in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and with normal cognition (PD-NC). The sample included 35 PD patients and 26 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive assessment followed an extensive neuropsychological battery. For resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) analysis, independent component analysis (ICA) was performed and components were located in 7 networks: Subcortical (SC), Auditory (AUD), Somatomotor (SM), visual (VI), cognitive-control (CC), default-mode (DMN), and cerebellar (CB)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Shu-Hong Jia, Kai Li, Wen Su, Shu-Hua Li, Hai-Bo Chen
Objective: Patients with Parkinson's disease have prospective memory impairments. However, little is known about distinct phases of prospective memory in these patients. This study was designed to elucidate the specific phase(s) of prospective memory that are impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: The study included 31 Parkinson's disease patients and 27 healthy controls. The four phases of prospective memory (intention formation, retention, initiation, and execution) were examined in a complex prospective memory task...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Jungsu S Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the relationship between the sub-regional pattern of striatal dopamine depletion and cognitive impairment in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD), and determine the effect of striatal dopamine density on cognitive prognosis. METHODS: Patients with drug-naïve non-demented PD were divided into mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI; n = 129) and cognitively normal (PD-CogN; n = 182) groups. Using quantification of the dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in each striatal sub-region with18 F-FP-CIT PET scans, we performed inter-group comparative analysis of DAT availability and multivariate linear regression analysis to assess the association between DAT availability and cognitive performance...
March 2, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Rimona S Weil, Alyssa A Costantini, Anette E Schrag
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mild cognitive impairment is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, even at the earliest disease stages, but there is variation in the nature and severity of cognitive involvement and in the risk of conversion to Parkinson's disease dementia. This review aims to summarise current understanding of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. We consider the presentation, rate of conversion to dementia, underlying pathophysiology and potential biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Emma Robson, Clare Tweedy, Nelson Manzanza, John-Paul Taylor, Peter Atkinson, Fiona Randall, Amy Reeve, Gavin J Clowry, Fiona E N LeBeau
Intracellular accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a key pathological process evident in Lewy body dementias (LBD), including Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). LBD results in marked cognitive impairments and changes in cortical networks. To assess the impact of abnormal α-syn expression on cortical network oscillations relevant to cognitive function, we studied changes in fast beta/gamma network oscillations in the hippocampus in a mouse line that over-expresses human mutant α-syn (A30P)...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Ryul Kim, Joongyub Lee, Yoon Kim, Aryun Kim, Mihee Jang, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon, Un Jung Kang, Stanley Fahn
INTRODUCTION: The current study was designed to determine whether the degree of presynaptic striatal dopamine depletion can predict the later development of freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 390 de novo patients with PD without FOG at baseline. The participants were divided into tertiles according to the baseline dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake of each striatal subregion, and the cumulative risk of FOG was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method...
February 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Morten Gersel Stokholm, Alex Iranzo, Karen Østergaard, Mónica Serradell, Marit Otto, Kristina Bacher Svendsen, Alicia Garrido, Dolores Vilas, Peter Parbo, Per Borghammer, Joan Santamaria, Arne Møller, Carles Gaig, David J Brooks, Eduardo Tolosa, Nicola Pavese
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD) progress over time to a Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy such as Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies. This in vivo molecular imaging study aimed to investigate if extrastriatal monoaminergic systems are affected in iRBD patients and if this coincides with neuroinflammation. METHODS: We studied twenty-one polysomnography-confirmed iRBD patients with18 F-DOPA and11 C-PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate extrastriatal monoaminergic function and microglial activation...
March 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Sujata Pradhan
Complexity of an animal's environment has been shown to affect structural and functional changes in the brain. Evidence from animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) suggests that exercising in an enriched environment may protect against the onset of Parkinsonian symptoms in rats that are exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. The variety of activities and visual interfaces that can be created using commercially available gaming devices provide cognitively stimulating as well as physically challenging environments for exercise...
March 9, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
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