keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pricing

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343208/legal-features-of-the-drug-advertising
#1
Vitalii M Pashkov, Andrii A Olefir, Oleksiy Y Bytyak
INTRODUCTION: In the article discribed current trends of advertising in the pharmaceutical market and foreign experience of legal regulation of these relations. As for the advertising of medicines identified it's symptoms, types, basic rules and prohibitions. Modern pharmaceutical companies can not successfully carry out economic activities without advertising. Besides we can mention some fundamental changes in society (information overload, universal access to internet, social media, freedom of movement of goods, labor and finance), also self-medication becomes more popular...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340424/less-money-more-problems-how-changes-in-disposable-income-affect-child-maltreatment
#2
Michael McLaughlin
A number of research studies have documented an association between child maltreatment and family income. Yet, little is known about the specific types of economic shocks that affect child maltreatment rates. The paucity of information is troubling given that more than six million children are reported for maltreatment annually in the U.S. alone. This study examines whether an exogenous shock to families' disposable income, a change in the price of gasoline, predicts changes in child maltreatment. The findings of a fixed-effects regression show that increases in state-level gas prices are associated with increases in state-level child maltreatment referral rates, even after controlling for demographic and other economic variables...
March 21, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340145/human-abuse-potential-of-the-new-opioid-analgesic-molecule-nktr-181-compared-with-oxycodone
#3
Lynn Webster, Jack Henningfield, August R Buchhalter, Suresh Siddhanti, Lin Lu, Aleksandrs Odinecs, Carlo J Di Fonzo, Michael A Eldon
Objective.:  Evaluate the human abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of NKTR-181, a novel mu-opioid agonist molecule, relative to oxycodone. Design.:  This randomized, single-center, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled five-period crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, non-physically dependent recreational opioid users. Setting.:  Inpatient clinical research site. Subjects. : Forty-two randomized subjects (73...
March 10, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340117/an-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-dynamiker%C3%A2-fungus-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-to-assist-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-invasive-candidiasis-and-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#4
P Lewis White, Jessica S Price, Raquel B Posso, Rosemary A Barnes
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) can be caused by a range of pathogens. Conventional diagnosis has the capacity to detect most causes of IFD, but poor performance limits impact. The introduction of non-culture diagnostics, including the detection of (1-3)-β-D-Glucan (BDG), has shown promising performance for the detection of IFD in variety of clinical settings. Recently, the Dynamiker® Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan assay (D-BDG) was released as an IFD diagnostic test. This article describes an evaluation of the D-BDG assay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), invasive candidiasis (IC) and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) across several high-risk patient cohorts and provides comparative data with the Associates of Cape Cod Fungitell® and BioRad Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag (GM) assays...
March 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340034/estimating-demand-and-cross-price-elasticity-for-very-low-nicotine-content-vlnc-cigarettes-using-a-simulated-demand-task
#5
Megan R Tucker, Murray Laugesen, Randolph C Grace
Introduction: Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes might be useful as part of a tobacco control strategy, but relatively little is known about their acceptability as substitutes for regular cigarettes. We compared subjective effects and demand for regular cigarettes and Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes, and estimated cross-price elasticity for VLNC cigarettes, using simulated demand tasks. Methods: 40 New Zealand smokers sampled a VLNC cigarette and completed Cigarette Purchase Tasks to indicate their demand for regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes at a range of prices, and a cross-price task indicating how many regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes they would purchase at 0...
March 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340021/phenamil-an-amiloride-derivative-restricts-long-bone-growth-and-alters-keeled-sternum-bone-architecture-in-growing-chickens
#6
Tara R Price, Kristin Moncada, Hector Leyva-Jimenez, Kye Won Park, Peter Tontonoz, Rosemary L Walzem
"Broiler-type" chickens are fast-grow-ing, heavy-bodied birds with high demands on bone quality. Phenamil increased mineralization in cultured murine mesenchymal stem cells. Phenamil effects were tested in 2 groups of weight and gender matched day-old broiler chickens (n = 13). Oral administration of 30 mg phenamil/kg body weight d 1 to 13 reduced growth of chicks d 5 to 14 (P = 0.002); with phenamil-treated (PT) chick body weight being 84% of vehicle-treated (VT) chicks' body weight on d 14. Tissues collected on d 15 showed that femur lengths and widths did not differ, but tibias from PT chicks were 6% shorter (P = 0...
March 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339898/the-impact-of-the-psychoactive-substances-act-2016-on-the-online-availability-of-mdmb-chmica
#7
M Haden, D M Wood, P I Dargan
Background: In May 2016, the UK Government enacted the Psychoactive Substances Act which made it an offense to produce or supply many drugs including new psychoactive substances (NPS). Aim: We aimed to assess the impact of the Act on the availability of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist methyl 2-[[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (MDMB-CHMICA) from internet-based suppliers. Design: Internet snapshot availability study...
February 28, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339876/straight-run-vs-sex-separate-rearing-for-two-broiler-genetic-lines-part-2-economic-analysis-and-processing-advantages
#8
M J Da Costa, G Colson, T J Frost, J Halley, G M Pesti
The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of raising broilers under sex separate and straight-run conditions for 2 broiler genetic lines. One-day-old Ross 308 and Ross 708 chicks (n = 1,344) were sex separated and placed in 48 pens according to rearing type: sex separate (28 males or 28 females) or straight-run (14 males + 14 females). There were 3 dietary phases: starter (zero to 17 d), grower (17 to 32 d), and finisher (32 to 48 d). Bird individual BW and group feed intakes were measured at 12, 17, 25, 32, 42, and 48 d to evaluate performance...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339427/a-critical-analysis-of-obamacare-affordable-care-or-insurance-for-many-and-coverage-for-few
#9
Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Standiford Helm Ii, Ramsin M Benyamin, Joshua A Hirsch
The Affordable Care Act (ACA), of 2010, or Obamacare, was the most monumental change in US health care policy since the passage of Medicaid and Medicare in 1965. Since its enactment, numerous claims have been made on both sides of the aisle regarding the ACA's success or failure; these views often colored by political persuasion. The ACA had 3 primary goals: increasing the number of the insured, improving the quality of care, and reducing the costs of health care. One point often lost in the discussion is the distinction between affordability and access...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339320/basic-life-support-access-to-injectable-epinephrine-across-the-united-states
#10
Ian D Brasted, Michael W Dailey
BACKGROUND:  Aggressive epinephrine administration has growing support in the treatment of anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers are frequently in a position to provide the first care to someone experiencing an anaphylactic reaction. Intramuscular injection of epinephrine is the definitive pharmacologic treatment for many associated symptoms. While easy to use, epinephrine autoinjectors (EAI) are prohibitively expensive, having increased in price ten-fold in ten years...
March 24, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338707/sustained-10-year-gain-in-adult-life-expectancy-following-antiretroviral-therapy-roll-out-in-rural-malawi-july-2005-to-june-2014
#11
Alison J Price, Judith Glynn, Menard Chihana, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Sian Floyd, Emma Slaymaker, Georges Reniers, Basia Zaba, Estelle McLean, Fredrick Kalobekamo, Olivier Koole, Moffat Nyirenda, Amelia C Crampin
Background: Improved life expectancy in high HIV prevalence populations has been observed since antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. However, it is unclear if the benefits are sustained, and the mortality among HIV-positive individuals not (yet) on ART is not well described. We assessed temporal change in mortality over 9 years in rural Malawi. Methods: Within a demographic surveillance site in northern rural Malawi, we combined demographic, HIV and ART uptake data...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336677/the-ongoing-threat-of-rising-drug-prices-ashp-s-work-goes-on
#12
EDITORIAL
Paul W Abramowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336352/accessibility-and-affordability-of-supermarkets-associations-with-the-dash-diet
#13
Joreintje D Mackenbach, Thomas Burgoine, Jeroen Lakerveld, Nita G Forouhi, Simon J Griffin, Nicholas J Wareham, Pablo Monsivais
INTRODUCTION: It is unknown whether there is an interplay of affordability (economic accessibility) and proximity (geographic accessibility) of supermarkets in relation to having a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-accordant diet. METHODS: Data (collected: 2005-2015, analyzed: 2016) were from the cross-sectional, population-based Fenland Study cohort: 9,274 adults aged 29-64 years, living in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Dietary quality was evaluated using an index of DASH dietary accordance, based on recorded consumption of foods and beverages in a validated 130-item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335568/an-electricity-price-aware-open-source-smart-socket-for-the-internet-of-energy
#14
Óscar Blanco-Novoa, Tiago M Fernández-Caramés, Paula Fraga-Lamas, Luis Castedo
The Internet of Energy (IoE) represents a novel paradigm where electrical power systems work cooperatively with smart devices to increase the visibility of energy consumption and create safer, cleaner and sustainable energy systems. The implementation of IoE services involves the use of multiple components, like embedded systems, power electronics or sensors, which are an essential part of the infrastructure dedicated to the generation and distribution energy and the one required by the final consumer. This article focuses on the latter and presents a smart socket system that collects the information about energy price and makes use of sensors and actuators to optimize home energy consumption according to the user preferences...
March 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335533/exploring-impacts-of-taxes-and-hospitality-bans-on-cigarette-prices-and-smoking-prevalence-using-a-large-dataset-of-cigarette-prices-at-stores-2001-2011-usa
#15
Lance S Ballester, Amy H Auchincloss, Lucy F Robinson, Stephanie L Mayne
In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001-2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973) were linked to state taxes (n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily)...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335491/health-and-wellbeing-of-occupants-in-highly-energy-efficient-buildings-a-field-study
#16
Peter Wallner, Peter Tappler, Ute Munoz, Bernhard Damberger, Anna Wanka, Michael Kundi, Hans-Peter Hutter
Passive houses and other highly energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, ventilation systems in such houses are regarded with a certain degree of skepticism by parts of the public due to alleged negative health effects. Within a quasi-experimental field study, we investigated if occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) experience different health, wellbeing and housing satisfaction outcomes and if associations with indoor air quality exist. We investigated 123 modern homes (test group: with mechanical ventilation; control group: naturally ventilated) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in the same geographic area and price range...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334820/high-resolution-time-course-mapping-of-early-transcriptomic-molecular-and-cellular-phenotypes-in-huntington-s-disease-cag-knock-in-mice-across-multiple-genetic-backgrounds
#17
Seth A Ament, Jocelynn R Pearl, Andrea Grindeland, Jason St Claire, John C Earls, Marina Kovalenko, Tammy Gillis, Jayalakshmi Mysore, James F Gusella, Jong-Min Lee, Seung Kwak, David Howland, Min Young Lee, David Baxter, Kelsey Scherler, Kai Wang, Donald Geman, Jeffrey B Carroll, Marcy E MacDonald, George Carlson, Vanessa C Wheeler, Nathan D Price, Leroy E Hood
Huntington's disease is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the HTT gene. In addition to the length of the CAG expansion, factors such as genetic background have been shown to contribute to the age at onset of neurological symptoms. A central challenge in understanding the disease progression that leads from the HD mutation to massive cell death in the striatum is the ability to characterize the subtle and early functional consequences of the CAG expansion longitudinally...
February 27, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334750/ctc1-mediated-c-strand-fill-in-is-an-essential-step-in-telomere-length-maintenance
#18
Xuyang Feng, Shih-Jui Hsu, Christopher Kasbek, Mary Chaiken, Carolyn M Price
To prevent progressive telomere shortening as a result of conventional DNA replication, new telomeric DNA must be added onto the chromosome end. The de novo DNA synthesis involves elongation of the G-rich strand of the telomere by telomerase. In human cells, the CST complex (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) also functions in telomere replication. CST first aids in duplication of the telomeric dsDNA. Then after telomerase has extended the G-rich strand, CST facilitates fill-in synthesis of the complementary C-strand. Here, we analyze telomere structure after disruption of human CTC1 and demonstrate that functional CST is essential for telomere length maintenance due to its role in mediating C-strand fill-in...
February 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334678/evaluating-the-effect-of-conservation-motivations-on-residential-water-demand
#19
Alexander Maas, Christopher Goemans, Dale Manning, Stephan Kroll, Mazdak Arabi, Mariana Rodriguez-McGoffina
Utilities and water suppliers in the southwestern United States have used education and conservation programs over the past two decades in an attempt to ameliorate the pressures of increasing water scarcity. This paper builds on a long history of water demand and environmental psychology literature and attempts to answer a simple question: do households primarily motivated by environmental and social (E&S) considerations consume water differently than households motivated primarily by cost and convenience (C&C)? We find that E&S consumers use less water than C&C consumers on average...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334460/social-costs-of-illegal-drugs-alcohol-and-tobacco-in-the-european-union-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Pablo Barrio, Jillian Reynolds, Anna García-Altés, Antoni Gual, Peter Anderson
ISSUES: Drug use accounts for one of the main disease groups in Europe, with relevant consequences to society. There is an increasing need to evaluate the economic consequences of drug use in order to develop appropriate policies. Here, we review the social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union. APPROACH: A systematic search of relevant databases was conducted. Grey literature and previous systematic reviews were also searched. Studies reporting on social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco were included...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
keyword
keyword
3438
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"