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dementia MRI

Santiago Coelho, Jose M Pozo, Marina Costantini, J Robin Highley, Meghdoot Mozumder, Julie E Simpson, Paul G Ince, Alejandro F Frangi
This study aims to statistically describe histologically stained white matter brain sections to subsequently inform and validate diffusion MRI techniques. For the first time, we characterise volume fraction distributions of three of the main structures in deep subcortical white matter (axons, astrocytes, and myelinated axons) in a representative cohort of an ageing population for which well-characterized neuropathology data is available. We analysed a set of samples from 90 subjects of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS), stratified into three groups of 30 subjects each, in relation to the presence of age-associated deep subcortical lesions...
June 19, 2018: NeuroImage
Iman Beheshti, Norihide Maikusa, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: We present the Brain-Age Score (BAS) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based index for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed a fully automated framework for estimating the BAS in healthy controls (HCs) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD, using MRI scans. METHODS: We trained the proposed framework using 385 HCs from the IXI and OASIS datasets and evaluated 146 HCs, 102 stable-MCI (sMCI), 112 progressive-MCI (pMCI), and 147 AD patients from the J-ADNI dataset...
June 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Nebojša Milovanović, Aleksandar Damjanović, Laslo Puškaš, Srđan Milovanović, Dragana Duišin, Miloš Mališ, Gordana Stanković, Anka Ranković, Milan Latas, Branka F Filipović, Branislav R Filipović
INTRODUCTION: In schizophrenia patients the lateral ventricle enlargement has mostly been reported in relationship with smaller cortical and/or subcortical brain volumes; and it has been observed that ventricular system growth may be a consequence of the smaller caudate nucleus volume. Bicaudate parameters have been used in the Alzheimer dementia and Huntington's chorea diagnosing in order to evaluate brain changes and the enlargement of the lateral ventricles. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study has been carried out on 140 patients out of which 70 patients (30 men and 40 women) who met the ICD 10 criteria for schizophrenia and 70 healthy controls (30 men and 40 women) matched on sex and age with the studied group...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Anna Lisowska, Islem Rekik
Diagnosis of brain dementia, particularly early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI), is critical for early intervention to prevent the onset of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), where cognitive decline is severe and irreversible. There is a large body of machine-learning based research investigating how dementia alters brain connectivity, mainly using structural (derived from diffusion MRI) and functional (derived from resting-state functional MRI) brain connectomic data. However, how early dementia affects cortical brain connections in morphology remains largely unexplored...
June 21, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Antti Tolonen, Hanneke F M Rhodius-Meester, Marie Bruun, Juha Koikkalainen, Frederik Barkhof, Afina W Lemstra, Teddy Koene, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen, Tong Tong, Ricardo Guerrero, Andreas Schuh, Christian Ledig, Marta Baroni, Daniel Rueckert, Hilkka Soininen, Anne M Remes, Gunhild Waldemar, Steen G Hasselbalch, Patrizia Mecocci, Wiesje M van der Flier, Jyrki Lötjönen
Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) hold potential for the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. We developed a novel CDSS, the PredictND tool, designed for differential diagnosis of different types of dementia. It combines information obtained from multiple diagnostic tests such as neuropsychological tests, MRI and cerebrospinal fluid samples. Here we evaluated how the classifier used in it performs in differentiating between controls with subjective cognitive decline, dementia due to Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Nicola Salvadori, Mirella Russo, Leonardo Biscetti, Katia D' Andrea, Massimo Eugenio Dottorini, Lucilla Parnetti
A 68-year-old lawyer developed insidious disturbances in topographic orientation and apraxia. He underwent a geriatric evaluation, only documenting slight cognitive disturbances, and a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), showing mild right-lateralised frontoparietal hypometabolism. After 1 year, because of worsening in spatial orientation and the onset of dressing apraxia, he was referred to our memory clinic. The neuropsychological evaluation documented proeminent visuospatial, praxis deficits and dysgraphia...
June 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
L Raposo Rodríguez, D J Tovar Salazar, N Fernández García, L Pastor Hernández, Ó Fernández Guinea
OBJECTIVE: To describe and illustrate the key findings on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the most common dementias of neurodegenerative origin: Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, variants of frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, variants of multiple system atrophy, Parkinson dementia, and corticobasal degeneration. CONCLUSION: Today the role of MRI is no longer limited to ruling out underlying causes of cognitive deterioration...
June 11, 2018: Radiología
R F Galiano Blancart, G Fortea, A Pampliega Pérez, S Martí, V Parkhutik, A V Sánchez Cruz, C Soriano, D Geffner Sclarsky, M T Pérez Saldaña, N López Hernández, I Beltrán, A Lago Martín
INTRODUCTION: Cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH) has multiple aetiologies. No prospective study has reported the long-term progression of the condition. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical and aetiological characteristics of patients with cSAH and to gain insight into prognosis. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational, multi-centre study. Data on clinical and radiological variables were collected; during a one-year follow-up period, we recorded data on mortality, dependence, rebleeding, and the appearance of dementia...
June 11, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Lorenzo Carnevale, Valentina D'Angelosante, Alessandro Landolfi, Giovanni Grillea, Giulio Selvetella, Marianna Storto, Giuseppe Lembo, Daniela Carnevale
Aims: Hypertension is one of the main risk factor for dementia. The subtle damage provoked by chronic high blood pressure in the brain is usually evidenced by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in terms of white matter (WM) hyperintensities or cerebral atrophy. However, it is clear that by the time brain damage is visible, it may be too late hampering neurodegeneration. Aim of this study was to characterize a signature of early brain damage induced by hypertension, before the neurodegenerative injury manifests...
June 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Ahmed Abo Hagar, Yossri Ashour, Reda Abd El-Razek, Mohamed Elsamahy, Osama Shehab
Background: Cognitive decline could start or get worse among elderly patients with diabetes mellitus more than elderly without diabetes mellitus. So, those diabetic elderly patients have more risk to develop Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Patients and Methods: This study included 48 elderly, grouped into three equal groups. First group included patients with diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment. Second group included patients with diabetes mellitus and no cognitive impairment...
2018: The Egyptian journal of neurology, psychiatry and neurosurgery
Mirian Ecay-Torres, Ainara Estanga, Mikel Tainta, Andrea Izagirre, Maite Garcia-Sebastian, Jorge Villanua, Montserrat Clerigue, Ane Iriondo, Iratxe Urreta, Arantzazu Arrospide, Carmen Díaz-Mardomingo, Miia Kivipelto, Pablo Martinez-Lage
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cognitive profile of healthy individuals with increased Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) dementia risk score and to explore whether this association is related to vascular burden and CSF biomarkers of amyloidosis and neurodegeneration. METHOD: Cognitively normal participants (mean age 57.6 years) from the Gipuzkoa Alzheimer Project study were classified as having high risk (HR; n = 82) or low risk (LR; n = 293) for dementia according to a CAIDE score cutoff of 9...
June 13, 2018: Neurology
Nicola M Payton, Grégoria Kalpouzos, Debora Rizzuto, Laura Fratiglioni, Miia Kivipelto, Lars Bäckman, Erika J Laukka
BACKGROUND: Cognitive and biological markers have shown varying degrees of success in identifying persons who will develop dementia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate different combinations of cognitive and biological markers and identify prediction models with the highest accuracy for identifying persons with increased dementia risk. METHODS: Neuropsychological assessment, genetic testing (apolipoprotein E -APOE), and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for 418 older individuals without dementia (60-97 years) from a population-based study (SNAC-K)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Urs Strohmaier, Felix Keller, Ingo Kilimann, Bernhard Michalowsky, Diana Wucherer, Ina Zwingmann, Stefan Teipel, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Jochen René Thyrian
BACKGROUND: The current guidelines imply that basic medical diagnostics for dementia should be provided by general practitioners in cooperation with other specialists such as neurologists and psychiatrists. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this paper were to 1) compare the dementia patients of general practice residents whose care is co-managed by neurology/psychiatry residents with those whose care is not; 2) identify the patient variables associated with the utilization of neurological and psychiatric specialists; and 3) describe the frequency of imaging use a for dementia patients in primary care...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Martina Bocchetta, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Marzia A Scelsi, David M Cash, Cardoso M Jorge, Marc Modat, Andre Altmann, Sebastien Ourselin, Warren D Jason, Jonathan D Rohrer
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, with a strong genetic component. Previous research has shown that medial temporal lobe atrophy is a common feature of FTD. However, no study has so far investigated the differential vulnerability of the hippocampal subfields in FTD. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate hippocampal subfield volumes in genetic FTD. METHODS: We in6/2/2018vestigated hippocampal subfield volumes in a cohort of 75 patients with genetic FTD (age: mean (standard deviation) 59...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Solène Moulin, Barbara Casolla, Grégory Kuchcinski, Gregoire Boulouis, Costanza Rossi, Hilde Hénon, Didier Leys, Charlotte Cordonnier
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), its clinical and neuroimaging associated markers, and its influence on the risk of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a prospective observational ICH cohort. METHODS: We investigated clinical and radiologic markers associated with cSS using multivariable analysis. In survival analyses, we used Cox models to identify predictors of recurrent ICH after adjusting for potential confounders...
June 8, 2018: Neurology
Kosuke Kusakabe, Akihiro Inoue, Shirabe Matsumoto, Mie Kurata, Riko Kitazawa, Hideaki Watanabe, Takeharu Kunieda
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri), a rare and treatable variant of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, lacks specific imaging and clinical features, and requires invasive brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) caused by CAA-ri in the right occipital lobe. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 78-year-old man with a history of hypertension and rheumatoid arthritis was admitted to our hospital following an episode of seizures...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Dongchao Shen, Bo Hou, Yinyan Xu, Bo Cui, Pan Peng, Xiaolu Li, Hongfei Tai, Kang Zhang, Shuangwu Liu, Hanhui Fu, Jing Gao, Mingsheng Liu, Feng Feng, Liying Cui
Objective: To characterize the patterns of brain atrophy and perfusion as measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with varying levels of cognitive deficit, including ALS with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: A total of 55 ALS patients and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were included, and all participants underwent neuropsychological assessments and MRI scans. According to their cognitive performance, ALS patients were further subclassified into ALS with normal cognition (ALS-Cn, n  = 27), ALS with cognitive impairment (ALS-Ci, n  = 17), and ALS-FTD ( n  = 11)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Christian Salvatore, Antonio Cerasa, Isabella Castiglioni
There is no disease-modifying treatment currently available for AD, one of the more impacting neurodegenerative diseases affecting more than 47.5 million people worldwide. The definition of new approaches for the design of proper clinical trials is highly demanded in order to achieve non-confounding results and assess more effective treatment. In this study, a cohort of 200 subjects was obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Subjects were followed-up for 24 months, and classified as AD (50), progressive-MCI to AD (50), stable-MCI (50), and cognitively normal (50)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Christian Hohenfeld, Cornelius J Werner, Kathrin Reetz
Biomarkers in whichever modality are tremendously important in diagnosing of disease, tracking disease progression and clinical trials. This applies in particular for disorders with a long disease course including pre-symptomatic stages, in which only subtle signs of clinical progression can be observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers hold particular promise due to their relative ease of use, cost-effectiveness and non-invasivity. Studies measuring resting-state functional MR connectivity have become increasingly common during recent years and are well established in neuroscience and related fields...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Pawan Raj, Anupama Ramakanth Pai, Neeraja Reddy
Introduction: Whipple's disease (WD) is a very rare systemic disease caused by the gram-positive bacillus Tropherymawhippleii 1st described in the year 1907. It is a disease with multisystem involvement and high degree of suspicion is needed for diagnosis. However the classical (OMM)oculomasticatory (OFMM)oculofacial-skeletal myorhythmia clubbed with dementia, head ache and other neurologic features should deserve an attempt to confirm whenever possible and therapeutic trial as it is one of the treatable dementias...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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