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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672930/clinical-and-imaging-correlates-of-amyloid-deposition-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#1
Paul C Donaghy, Michael J Firbank, Alan J Thomas, Jim Lloyd, George Petrides, Nicola Barnett, Kirsty Olsen, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Amyloid deposition is common in dementia with Lewy bodies, but its pathophysiological significance is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between amyloid deposition and clinical profile, gray matter volume, and brain perfusion in dementia with Lewy bodies. METHODS: Dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 37), Alzheimer's disease (n = 20), and controls (n = 20) underwent a thorough clinical assessment, 3T MRI, and early- and late-phase 18 F-Florbetapir PET-CT to assess cortical perfusion and amyloid deposition, respectively...
April 19, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666711/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-presenting-as-expressive-aphasia-and-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#2
Hafiz B Mahboob, Kazi H Kaokaf, Jeremy M Gonda
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the most common form of human prion diseases, is a fatal condition with a mortality rate reaching 85% within one year of clinical presentation. CJD is characterized by rapidly progressive neurological deterioration in combination with typical electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and positive cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) analysis for 14-3-3 proteins. Unfortunately, CJD can have atypical clinical and radiological presentation in approximately 10% of cases, thus making the diagnosis often challenging...
2018: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665982/oscillatory-activity-and-cortical-coherence-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#3
Muhammad Nazmuddin, D L Marinus Oterdoom, J Marc C van Dijk, Jonathan C van Zijl, Anne K Kampman, Gea Drost, Teus van Laar, Martijn Beudel
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) is a new potential treatment for Parkinson's Disease dementia (PDD) and other types of dementia. To get a better understanding of this structure, its local neurophysiological properties and cortical connectivity patterns were studied. METHODS: We simultaneously recorded DBS local field potentials (LFPs) and electroencephalography (EEG) in two patients with PDD. Both patients had DBS electrodes in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) with one or more distal contacts close to or inside the NBM...
March 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656031/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-risk-of-incident-stroke-dementia-and-depression-and-all-cause-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
S P Rensma, T T van Sloten, L J Launer, C D A Stehouwer
MRI features of cerebral small vessel disease, i.e. white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, microbleeds, perivascular spaces, and cerebral atrophy, may be associated with clinical events, but the strength of these associations remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between these features and incident ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, all-cause dementia and depression, and all-cause mortality. For the association with stroke, 36 studies were identified (number of individuals/events [n] = 37,987/4,087), for dementia 28 (n = 16,458/1,709), for depression nine (n = 9,538/1,746), and for mortality 28 (n = 23,031/2,558)...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648842/ethnoracial-differences-in-brain-structure-change-and-cognitive-change
#5
Brandon E Gavett, Evan Fletcher, Danielle Harvey, Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, John Olichney, Laurel Beckett, Charles DeCarli, Dan Mungas
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal associations between structural MRI and cognition in a diverse sample. METHOD: Older adults (n = 444; Mage = 74.5)-121 African Americans, 212 Whites, and 111 Hispanics-underwent an average of 5.3 annual study visits. Approximately half were cognitively normal at baseline (global Clinical Dementia Rating M = 0.5). Of the patients with dementia, most (79%) were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 12, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643688/simultaneous-18f-fdg-pet-mri-in-autoimmune-limbic-encephalitis
#6
Sangeeta Taneja, Vinit Suri, Aashim Ahuja, Amarnath Jena
Limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain with rapidly progressing dementia which requires definitive neurological evaluation. We describe both clinical as well as imaging findings in a case of limbic encephalitis using positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging.
April 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643322/metabolically-healthy-obesity-and-risk-of-leukoaraiosis-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#7
Takuro Okamura, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Masahide Hamaguchi, Akihiro Ohbora, Takao Kojima, Michiaki Fukui
Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individual is known to be defended from the metabolic complications of obesity. Leukoaraiosis, which is commonly detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is now recognized as a risk of stroke, dementia and death. However, the association between MHO and the prevalence of leukoaraiosis is unclear. In this cross-sectional study of 796 participants who received a medical examination program, we investigated the association between MHO and the prevalence of leukoaraiosis...
April 10, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629501/gray-matter-volume-covariance-patterns-associated-with-gait-speed-in-older-adults-a-multi-cohort-mri-study
#8
Helena M Blumen, Lucy L Brown, Christian Habeck, Gilles Allali, Emmeline Ayers, Olivier Beauchet, Michele Callisaya, Richard B Lipton, P S Mathuranath, Thanh G Phan, V G Pradeep Kumar, Velandai Srikanth, Joe Verghese
Accelerated gait decline in aging is associated with many adverse outcomes, including an increased risk for falls, cognitive decline, and dementia. Yet, the brain structures associated with gait speed, and how they relate to specific cognitive domains, are not well-understood. We examined structural brain correlates of gait speed, and how they relate to processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory in three non-demented and community-dwelling older adult cohorts (Overall N = 352), using voxel-based morphometry and multivariate covariance-based statistics...
April 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614658/separating-symptomatic-alzheimer-s-disease-from-depression-based-on-structural-mri
#9
Stefan Klöppel, Maria Kotschi, Jessica Peter, Karl Egger, Lucrezia Hausner, Lutz Frölich, Alex Förster, Bernhard Heimbach, Claus Normann, Werner Vach, Horst Urbach, Ahmed Abdulkadir
Older patients with depression or Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the stage of early dementia or mild cognitive impairment may present with objective cognitive impairment, although the pathology and thus therapy and prognosis differ substantially. In this study, we assessed the potential of an automated algorithm to categorize a test set of 65 T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images (MRI). A convenience sample of elderly individuals fulfilling clinical criteria of either AD (n = 28) or moderate and severe depression (n = 37) was recruited from different settings to assess the potential of the pattern recognition method to assist in the differential diagnosis of AD versus depression...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614652/single-subject-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-using-anatomical-diffusion-tensor-and-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Mark J R J Bouts, Christiane Möller, Anne Hafkemeijer, John C van Swieten, Elise Dopper, Wiesje M van der Flier, Hugo Vrenken, Alle Meije Wink, Yolande A L Pijnenburg, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Tijn M Schouten, Frank de Vos, Rogier A Feis, Jeroen van der Grond, Mark de Rooij, Serge A R B Rombouts
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Overlapping clinical symptoms often complicate differential diagnosis between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reveals disease specific structural and functional differences that aid in differentiating AD from bvFTD patients. However, the benefit of combining structural and functional connectivity measures to-on a subject-basis-differentiate these dementia-types is not yet known...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614647/reduced-cerebrovascular-reserve-capacity-as-a-biomarker-of-microangiopathy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Barbora Soukupova Urbanova, Jaroslava Paulasova Schwabova, Hana Magerova, Petr Jansky, Hana Markova, Martin Vyhnalek, Jan Laczo, Jakub Hort, Ales Tomek
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microangiopathy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes chronic hypoperfusion and probably accelerates neurodegenerative changes. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize microvascular impairment could be present already in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and can be revealed using transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) and the breath-holding maneuver. METHODS: Three groups of subjects (AD in the stage of dementia, MCI, and cognitively normal controls) with detailed neuropsychological testing and low cerebrovascular burden (no history of stroke, no intra- or extracranial artery stenoses, and no severe vascular lesions on brain MRI), underwent a TCCS assessment of peak systolic (PSV), mean flow (MFV), and end diastolic velocities (EDV) and resistance and pulsatility indices (RI, PI) in large intracranial vessels bilaterally...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614645/structural-anatomical-investigation-of-long-term-memory-deficit-in-behavioral-frontotemporal-dementia
#12
Maxime Bertoux, Emma C Flanagan, Matthew Hobbs, Amparo Ruiz-Tagle, Carolina Delgado, Marcelo Miranda, Agustín Ibáñez, Andrea Slachevsky, Michael Hornberger
Although a growing body of work has shown that behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) could present with severe amnesia in approximately half of cases, memory assessment is currently the clinical standard to distinguish bvFTD from Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, the concept of "relatively preserved episodic memory" in bvFTD remains the basis of its clinical distinction from AD and a criterion for bvFTD's diagnosis. This view is supported by the idea that bvFTD is not characterized by genuine amnesia and hippocampal degeneration, by contrast to AD...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614640/diagnostic-value-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-positron-emission-tomography-in-early-stages-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#13
Julia Krämer, Gero Lueg, Patrick Schiffler, Alexis Vrachimis, Matthias Weckesser, Christian Wenning, Matthias Pawlowski, Andreas Johnen, Anja Teuber, Heike Wersching, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Duning
BACKGROUND: Due to suboptimal sensitivity and specificity of structural and molecular neuroimaging tools, the diagnosis of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) remains challenging. OBJECTIVE: Investigation of the sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to detect cerebral alterations in early stages of bvFTD despite inconspicuous conventional MRI. METHODS: Thirty patients with early stages of bvFTD underwent a detailed neuropsychological examination, cerebral 3T MRI with DTI analysis, and FDG-PET...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610105/cortical-thinning-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-without-dementia
#14
Lijun Zhang, Ming Wang, Nicholas W Sterling, Eun-Young Lee, Paul J Eslinger, Daymond Wagner, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Young Truong, F DuBois Bowman, Xuemei Huang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by motor dysfunction (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability), and pathologically by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Growing literature supports that cognitive deficits may also be present in PD, even in non-demented patients. Gray matter (GM) atrophy has been reported in PD and may be related to cognitive decline. This study investigated cortical thickness in non-demented PD subjects and elucidated its relationship to cognitive impairment using high-resolution T1-weighted brain MRI and comprehensive cognitive function scores from 71 non-demented PD and 48 control subjects matched for age, gender, and education...
March 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608645/distinct-dynamic-profiles-of-microglial-activation-are-associated-with-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Lorraine Hamelin, Julien Lagarde, Guillaume Dorothée, Marie Claude Potier, Fabian Corlier, Bertrand Kuhnast, Fabien Caillé, Bruno Dubois, Ludovic Fillon, Marie Chupin, Michel Bottlaender, Marie Sarazin
Although brain neuroinflammation may play an instrumental role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, its actual impact on disease progression remains controversial, being reported as either detrimental or protective. This work aimed at investigating the temporal relationship between microglial activation and clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease. First, in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer's disease we analysed the predictive value of microglial activation assessed by 18F-DPA-714 PET imaging on functional, cognitive and MRI biomarkers outcomes after a 2-year follow-up...
March 28, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607919/-rapidly-deteriorated-lobar-intracerebral-hemorrhages-possible-association-of-varicella-zoster-virus-vasculopathy
#16
Jun Takeshita, Eiichi Nomura, Makoto Takemaru, Takahiro Himeno, Yutaka Shimoe, Masaru Kuriyama
A 75-year-old man having dementia and lifestyle related diseases developed a lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (LICH) in the left parietal and a small cerebellar infarction in the left occipital lobe. Many micro bleeds (MB) due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in the subcortical areas and multiple vascular stenosis were also found by MRI and MRA. He developed herpes zoster in his buttocks on day 6 of hospitalization and complicated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) meningitis with positive for VZV-DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid...
March 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606954/automatic-mri-quantifying-methods-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-diagnosis
#17
Antti Cajanus, Anette Hall, Juha Koikkalainen, Eino Solje, Antti Tolonen, Timo Urhemaa, Yawu Liu, Ramona M Haanpää, Päivi Hartikainen, Seppo Helisalmi, Ville Korhonen, Daniel Rueckert, Steen Hasselbalch, Gunhild Waldemar, Patrizia Mecocci, Ritva Vanninen, Mark van Gils, Hilkka Soininen, Jyrki Lötjönen, Anne M Remes
Aims: We assessed the value of automated MRI quantification methods in the differential diagnosis of behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from Alzheimer disease (AD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and subjective memory complaints (SMC). We also examined the role of the C9ORF72 -related genetic status in the differentiation sensitivity. Methods: The MRI scans of 50 patients with bvFTD (17 C9ORF72 expansion carriers) were analyzed using 6 quantification methods as follows: voxel-based morphometry (VBM), tensor-based morphometry, volumetry (VOL), manifold learning, grading, and white-matter hyperintensities...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604980/imaging-studies-of-the-hiv-infected-brain
#18
Linda Chang, Dinesh K Shukla
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain early after infecting humans and may remain in the central nervous system despite successful antiretroviral treatment. Many neuroimaging techniques were used to study HIV+ patients with or without opportunistic infections. These techniques assessed abnormalities in brain structures (using computed tomography, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion MRI) and function (using functional MRI at rest or during a task, and perfusion MRI with or without a contrast agent)...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602778/clinical-imaging-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#19
REVIEW
Ajenthan Surendranathan, John Tiernan O'Brien
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a common neurodegenerative dementia in older people; however, the clinical features, particularly cognitive fluctuations and rapid eye movement sleep disorder, are often hard to elicit, leading to difficulty in making the diagnosis clinically. Here we examine the literature for the evidence behind imaging modalities that could assist in making the diagnosis. Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging remains the best modality for differentiation from dementia of Alzheimer's type with high sensitivity and specificity reported based on pathological diagnoses...
March 29, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602212/a-more-randomly-organized-grey-matter-network-is-associated-with-deteriorating-language-and-global-cognition-in-individuals-with-subjective-cognitive-decline
#20
Sander C J Verfaillie, Rosalinde E R Slot, Ellen Dicks, Niels D Prins, Jozefien M Overbeek, Charlotte E Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Wiesje M van der Flier, Betty M Tijms
OBJECTIVES: Grey matter network disruptions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with worse cognitive impairment cross-sectionally. Our aim was to investigate whether indications of a more random network organization are associated with longitudinal decline in specific cognitive functions in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We included 231 individuals with SCD who had annually repeated neuropsychological assessment (3 ± 1 years; n = 646 neuropsychological investigations) available from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (54% male, age: 63 ± 9, MMSE: 28 ± 2)...
March 30, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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