Read by QxMD icon Read


Kiwoung Yang, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Manosh Kumar Biswas, Md Abdul Kayum, Go-Eun Yi, Jonghoon Lee, Tae-Jin Yang, Ill-Sup Nou
Plant mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) vary in sequence structure. We assembled the Brassica oleracea var. capitata mtDNA using a mean coverage depth of 25X whole genome sequencing (WGS) and confirmed the presence of eight contigs/fragments by BLASTZ using the previously reported KJ820683 and AP012988 mtDNA as reference. Assembly of the mtDNA sequence reads resulted in a circular structure of 219,975 bp. Our assembled mtDNA, NCBI acc. no. KU831325, contained 34 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 19 tRNA genes with similarity to the KJ820683 and AP012988 reference mtDNA...
2018: PloS One
Te-Sha Tsai, Sonika Tyagi, Justin C St John
STUDY QUESTION: What are the molecular differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-deficient and mtDNA-normal oocytes and how does mitochondrial supplementation alter these? SUMMARY ANSWER: Changes to DNA methylation in a 5' cytosine-phosphate-guanine 3' (CpG) island in the mtDNA-specific replication factor (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG)) of mtDNA-deficient oocytes mediates an increase in mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage that positively modulates the expression of nuclear genes, which affect cellular and metabolic processes, following autologous mitochondrial supplementation...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Qiongyuan Hu, Jianan Ren, Guanwei Li, Jie Wu, Xiuwen Wu, Gefei Wang, Guosheng Gu, Huajian Ren, Zhiwu Hong, Jieshou Li
Disruption of the mucosal barrier following intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) is life threatening in clinical practice. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress significantly contribute to the early phase of I/R injury and amplify the inflammatory response. MitoQ is a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant that exerts protective effects following I/R injury. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether and how MitoQ protects intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from I/R injury. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, we found that MitoQ pretreatment downregulated I/R-induced oxidative stress and stabilized the intestinal barrier, as evidenced by MitoQ-treated I/R mice exhibiting attenuated intestinal hyperpermeability, inflammatory response, epithelial apoptosis, and tight junction damage compared to controls...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Lishuang Shen, Marcella Attimonelli, Renkui Bai, Marie T Lott, Douglas C Wallace, Marni J Falk, Xiaowu Gai
Accurate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variant annotation is essential for the clinical diagnosis of diverse human diseases. Substantial challenges to this process include the inconsistency in mtDNA nomenclatures, the existence of multiple reference genomes, and a lack of reference population frequency data. Clinicians need a simple bioinformatics tool that is user-friendly, and bioinformaticians need a powerful informatics resource for programmatic usage. Here, we report the development and functionality of the MSeqDR mtDNA Variant Tool set (mvTool), a one-stop mtDNA variant annotation and analysis web service...
March 14, 2018: Human Mutation
Ioana Rusu, Alessandra Modi, Stefania Vai, Elena Pilli, Cristina Mircea, Claudia Radu, Claudia Urduzia, Zeno Karl Pinter, Vitalie Bodolică, Cătălin Dobrinescu, Montserrat Hervella, Octavian Popescu, Martina Lari, David Caramelli, Beatrice Kelemen
Given the paucity of archaeogenetic data available for medieval European populations in comparison to other historical periods, the genetic landscape of this age appears as a puzzle of dispersed, small, known pieces. In particular, Southeastern Europe has been scarcely investigated to date. In this paper, we report the study of mitochondrial DNA in 10th century AD human samples from Capidava necropolis, located in Dobruja (Southeastern Romania, Southeastern Europe). This geographical region is particularly interesting because of the extensive population flux following diverse migration routes, and the complex interactions between distinct population groups during the medieval period...
2018: PloS One
Guo Xiu-Xia, Cheng Peng, Liu Li-Juan, Zhang Chong-Xing, Wang Hai-Fang, Wang Huai-Wei, Gong Mao-Qing, Ma Jun
OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of gene sequence of mtDNA-COⅠ of Culex pipiens pallens from different geographical regions in Shandong Province and different resistant strains from the lab and five common mosquito species, and analyze the genetic diversity of these mosquitoes. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected from Jinan, Jining, Qingdao cities and other places in Shandong Province. The sensitive, dichlorvos-resistant, pyrethroid-resistant and propoxur-resistant strains were reared in the lab...
September 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Laxman Khanal, Mukesh K Chalise, Kai He, Bipin K Acharya, Yoshi Kawamoto, Xuelong Jiang
Genetic diversity of a species is influenced by multiple factors, including the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and geophysical barriers. Such factors are not yet well documented for fauna from the southern border of the Himalayan region. This study used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to explore how the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex geography of the Himalayan region have shaped genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the Nepalese population of Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) in the Himalayan foothills...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Lata Singh, Neeru Saini, Neelam Pushker, Sameer Bakhshi, Seema Sen, Tapas C Nag, Seema Kashyap
Alteration in mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer. The Displacement Loop (D-loop) region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the regulatory region for its replication and transcription. Therefore, we aimed to characterize mutations in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA along with the morphological changes and analyzed their impact on survival in retinoblastoma patients. mtDNA D-loop region was amplified by Nested-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) and mutations were analyzed in 60 tumor samples from retinoblastoma patients by DNA sequencing...
March 12, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Wilawan Thongda, Honggang Zhao, Dongdong Zhang, Lauren N Jescovitch, Ming Liu, Ximing Guo, Meagan Schrandt, Sean P Powers, Eric Peatman
Culture of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is rapidly expanding. Combined with their continuing role as an environmental sentinel species and ecological model, this trend necessitates improved molecular tools for breeding and selection, as well as population assessment and genetic conservation. Here, we describe the development and validation of two panels of 58 single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) for the species. Population analyses revealed three distinct populations, based on FST values and STRUCTURE, among wild oysters sampled from Delaware Bay (1), northwest Florida (2), Alabama (2), Louisiana (2), and the Texas Gulf Coast (3), consistent with previous microsatellite and mtDNA analyses...
March 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
John F Wolters, Guillaume Charron, Alec Gaspary, Christian R Landry, Anthony C Fiumera, Heather L Fiumera
Genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) provides adaptive potential although the underlying genetic architecture of fitness components within mtDNAs is not known. To dissect functional variation within mtDNAs, we first identified naturally occurring mtDNAs that conferred high or low fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by comparing growth in strains containing identical nuclear genotypes but different mtDNAs. During respiratory growth under temperature and oxidative stress conditions, mitotype effects were largely independent of nuclear genotypes even in the presence of mitonuclear interactions...
March 12, 2018: Genetics
Viktorija Kirillova, Petras Prakas, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Inese Gavarāne, José Luis Fernández-García, Manuel Martínez-González, Eglė Rudaitytė-Lukošienė, Miguel Ángel Habela Martínez-Estéllez, Dalius Butkauskas, Muza Kirjušina
BACKGROUND: Typically, carnivores serve as definitive hosts for Sarcocystis spp. parasites; currently, their role as intermediate hosts is being elucidated. The present study aimed to identify and molecularly characterize Sarcocystis cysts detected in striated muscle of red foxes from different populations in Latvia, Lithuania and Spain. METHODS: Muscle samples from 411 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 269 racoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Latvia, 41 red foxes from Lithuania and 22 red foxes from Spain were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis sarcocysts by light microscopy (LM)...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Dana Szabóová, Ivan Hapala, Pavol Sulo
The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence from Kazachstania sinensis was analyzed and compared to mtDNA from related yeasts. It contained the same set of genes; however, it only contained 23 tRNAs, as the trnR2 gene was absent. Most of the 12 introns within cox1, cob and rnl genes were inserted in the same sites as in other yeasts; however, two introns in rnl were in unusual positions. Traits such as gene order and GC cluster number were more related to Saccharomyces than to the other Kazachstania or linked clades...
March 8, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Shang Yin Vanson Liu, Shoou Jeng Joung, Chi-Ju Yu, Hua-Hsun Hsu, Wen-Pei Tsai, Kwang Ming Liu
The megamouth shark ( Megachasma pelagios ) was described as a new species in 1983. Since then, only ca . 100 individuals have been observed or caught. Its horizontal migration, dispersal, and connectivity patterns are still unknown due to its rarity. Two genetic markers were used in this study to reveal its genetic diversity and connectivity pattern. This approach provides a proxy to indirectly measure gene flow between populations. Tissues from 27 megamouth sharks caught by drift nets off the Hualien coast (eastern Taiwan) were collected from 2013 to 2015...
2018: PeerJ
Juliana Harumi Arita, Mário H Barros, Felipe Gustavo Ravagnani, Marcello Ziosi, Lívia Rentas Sanches, Fabíola Rosa Picosse, Tania Oliveira Lopes, Patrícia de Carvalho Aguiar, Carolina Habermann Macabelli, Marcos Chiaratti, José Luiz Pedroso, Catarina M Quinzi, Orlando Graziani Póvoas Barsottini, Claudia Cristina Ferreiro-Barros
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates many different metabolic pathways in eukaryote cells including mitochondria biogenesis and energy homeostasis. Here we identify a patient with hypotonia, weakness, delayed milestones and neurological impairment since birth harbouring a novel homozygous mutation in the AMPK catalytic α-subunit 1, encoded by the PRKAA1 gene. The homozygous mutation p.S487 L in isoform 1 present in the patient is in a cryptic residue for AMPK activity. In the present study, we performed the characterization of mitochondrial respiratory properties of the patient, in comparison to healthy controls, through the culture of skin fibroblasts in order to understand some of the cellular consequences of the PRKAA1 mutation...
March 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Michael Turelli, Brandon S Cooper, Kelly M Richardson, Paul S Ginsberg, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Chenling X Antelope, Kevin J Kim, Michael R May, Antoine Abrieux, Derek A Wilson, Michael J Bronski, Brian R Moore, Jian-Jun Gao, Michael B Eisen, Joanna C Chiu, William R Conner, Ary A Hoffmann
Maternally transmitted Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, and Cardinium bacteria are common in insects [1], but their interspecific spread is poorly understood. Endosymbionts can spread rapidly within host species by manipulating host reproduction, as typified by the global spread of wRi Wolbachia observed in Drosophila simulans [2, 3]. However, because Wolbachia cannot survive outside host cells, spread between distantly related host species requires horizontal transfers that are presumably rare [4-7]. Here, we document spread of wRi-like Wolbachia among eight highly diverged Drosophila hosts (10-50 million years) over only about 14,000 years (5,000-27,000)...
March 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
G L, Yuwei Wang, Zhenhua Wang, Wenna Zhou, Na Hu, Gang Li, Honglun Wang
Fenugreek is a well-known annual herb widely used in both medicine and food. Four flavonoid glycosides have been separated from fenugreek seeds in our previous study. In this study, the effects of the four flavonoid glycosides on regulating glycolipid metabolism and improving mitochondrial function was investigated. Isoorientin showed a very significant activity among these flavonoid glycosides. Firstly, isoorientin decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by reducing the expression of adipokines including PPARγ, C/EBPα and FAS...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
John S Berriman, Ryan A Ellingson, Jaymes D Awbrey, Diane M Rico, Ángel A Valdés, Nerida G Wilson, Andres Aguilar, David G Herbert, Yayoi M Hirano, Cynthia D Trowbridge, Patrick J Krug
Predicting biotic resistance to highly invasive strains of "killer algae" (Caulerpa spp.) requires understanding the diversity and feeding preferences of native consumers, including sea slugs in family Oxynoidae. Past studies reported low algal host specificity for Oxynoe (6 spp.) and Lobiger (4 spp.), but these taxonomically challenging slugs may represent species complexes of unrecognized specialists that prefer different Caulerpa spp. Here, we assess global diversity of these genera by integrating gene sequences with morphological data from microscopic teeth and internal shells, the only hard parts in these soft-bodied invertebrates...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Hok Khim Fam, Kunho Choi, Lauren Fougner, Chinten James Lim, Cornelius F Boerkoel
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) is a nuclear and mitochondrial protein that in nuclei and in vitro repairs blocked 3' DNA termini such as 3' phosphotyrosine conjugates resulting from stalling of topoisomerase I-DNA intermediates. Its mutation also causes spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy type 1 (SCAN1). Because Tdp1 colocalizes with mitochondria following oxidative stress, we hypothesized that Tdp1 repairs mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and that mtDNA damage mediates entry of Tdp1 into the mitochondria...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Miria Ricchetti
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is essential for mitochondrial and cell function, is replicated and transcribed in the organelle by proteins that are entirely coded in the nucleus. Replication of mtDNA is challenged not only by threats related to the replication machinery and orchestration of DNA synthesis, but also by factors linked to the peculiarity of this genome. Indeed the architecture, organization, copy number, and location of mtDNA, which are markedly distinct from the nuclear genome, require ad hoc and complex regulation to ensure coordinated replication...
February 1, 2018: Mutation Research
Nidhi Sharma, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Matthew J Longley, William C Copeland, Aishwarya Prakash
The 16.5 kb mitochondrial genome is subjected to damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the cell during normal cellular metabolism and external sources such as ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light. ROS cause harmful damage to DNA bases that could result in mutagenesis and various diseases, if not properly repaired. The base excision repair (BER) pathway is the primary pathway involved in maintaining the integrity of mtDNA. Several enzymes that partake in BER within the nucleus have also been identified in the mitochondria...
March 6, 2018: DNA Repair
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"