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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432994/assessment-of-temporal-variation-for-the-risk-of-particulate-matters-on-asthma-hospitalization
#1
Hyomi Kim, Honghyok Kim, Yoon-Hyung Park, Jong-Tae Lee
Increased ambient concentration of particulate matters are considered as one of major causes for increased prevalence or exacerbation of asthma or asthma like symptoms. Recently, possible temporal variation in risks of PM on mortality has been suggested. We investigated short-term effect of both PM10 and PM2.5 on asthma hospitalization, and assessed temporal variation of PM risks in Seoul, Korea, 2003-2011. Generalized additive model was used to estimate PM risks on asthma hospitalization with consideration by long-term trend, influenza epidemic, day of week, meteorological factors...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432652/blood-ties-and-trust-a-comparative-history-of-policy-on-family-consent-in-japan-and-the-united-states
#2
Hiroyuki Nagai
Informed consent honors the autonomous decisions of patients, and family consent places importance on decisions made by their families. However, there is little understanding of the relationship between these two medical decision-making approaches. Both approaches exist in Japan as part of its truth disclosure policy. What is the status of family consent in the United States, from which Japan introduced informed consent? This paper compares the situation in the United States with that in Japan, where family consent has been combined with informed consent...
April 21, 2017: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432643/out-of-pocket-payments-and-subjective-unmet-need-of-healthcare
#3
Erik Schokkaert, Jonas Steel, Carine Van de Voorde
We present a critical review of the literature that discusses the link between the level of out-of-pocket payments in developed countries and the share of people in these countries reporting that they postpone or forgo healthcare for financial reasons. We discuss the pros and cons of measuring access problems with this subjective variable. Whereas the quantitative findings in terms of numbers of people postponing care must be interpreted with utmost caution, the picture for the vulnerable groups in society is reasonably robust and unsurprising: people with low incomes and high morbidity and incomplete (or non-existent) insurance coverage are most likely to postpone or forgo healthcare for financial reasons...
April 21, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432511/environmental-management-zoning-for-coal-mining-in-mainland-china-based-on-ecological-and-resources-conditions
#4
Haiqing Geng, Fan Chen, Zhiyuan Wang, Jie Liu, Weihua Xu
The purpose of this research is to establish an environmental management zoning for coal mining industry which is served as a basis for making environmental management policies. Based on the specific impacts of coal mining and regional characteristics of environment and resources, the ecological impact, water resources impact, and arable land impact are chose as the zoning indexes to construct the index system. The ecological sensitivity is graded into three levels of low, medium, and high according to analytical hierarchy processes and gray fixed weight clustering analysis, and the water resources sensitivity is divided into five levels of lower, low, medium, high, and higher according to the weighted sum of sub-indexes, while only the arable land sensitive zone was extracted on the basis of the ratio of arable land to the county or city...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432508/estimation-of-environmental-flow-incorporating-water-quality-and-hypothetical-climate-change-scenarios
#5
Bendangtola Walling, Shushobhit Chaudhary, C T Dhanya, Arun Kumar
Environmental flows (Eflow, hereafter) are the flows to be maintained in the river for its healthy functioning and the sustenance and protection of aquatic ecosystems. Estimation of Eflow in any river stretch demands consideration of various factors such as flow regime, ecosystem, and health of river. However, most of the Eflow estimation studies have neglected the water quality factor. This study urges the need to consider water quality criterion in the estimation of Eflow and proposes a framework for estimating Eflow incorporating water quality variations under present and hypothetical future scenarios of climate change and pollution load...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432483/what-s-in-a-gold-standard-in-defence-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#6
Marius Backmann
The standardised randomised clinical trial (RCT) has been exceedingly popular in medical research, economics, and practical policy making. Recently, RCTs have faced criticism. First, it has been argued by John Worrall that we cannot be certain that our sample is not atypical with regard to possible confounding factors. I will argue that at least in the case of medical research, we know enough about the relevant causal mechanisms to be justified to ignore a number of factors we have good reason not to expect to be disruptive...
April 21, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432335/policy-coherence-integration-and-proportionality-in-tobacco-control-should-tobacco-sales-be-limited-to-government-outlets
#7
Elizabeth A Smith, Patricia A McDaniel, Heikki Hiilamo, Ruth E Malone
Multiple factors, including marijuana decriminalization/legalization, tobacco endgame discourse, and alcohol industry pressures, suggest that the retail regulatory environment for psychoactive or addictive substances is a dynamic one in which new options may be considered. In most countries, the regulation of tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol is neither coherent, nor integrated, nor proportional to the potential harms caused by these substances. We review the possible consequences of restricting tobacco sales to outlets run by government-operated alcohol retail monopolies, as well as the likely obstacles to such a policy...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432196/the-case-against-libertarian-arguments-for-compulsory-vaccination
#8
Justin Bernstein
In a recent paper in this journal, Jason Brennan correctly notes that libertarians struggle to justify a policy of compulsory vaccination. The most straightforward argument that justifies compulsory vaccination is that such a policy promotes welfare. But libertarians cannot make this argument because they claim that the state is justified only in protecting negative rights, not in promoting welfare. I consider two representative libertarian attempts to justify compulsory vaccination, and I argue that such arguments are unsuccessful...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432051/impact-of-study-outcome-on-submission-and-acceptance-metrics-for-peer-reviewed-medical-journals-six-year-retrospective-review-of-all-completed-glaxosmithkline-human-drug-research-studies
#9
Gary Evoniuk, Bernadette Mansi, Barbara DeCastro, Jennie Sykes
Objectives To determine whether the outcome of drug studies influenced submission and/or acceptance rates for publication in peer reviewed medical journals.Design A six year retrospective review of publication status by study outcome for all human drug research studies conducted by a single industry sponsor (GlaxoSmithKline) that completed from 1 January 2009 to 30 June 2014 and were therefore due for manuscript submission (per the sponsor's policy) to peer reviewed journals within 18 months of study completion-that is, 31 December 2015...
April 21, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431951/public-health-impact-of-colonoscopy-use-on-colorectal-cancer-mortality-in-germany-and-the-united-states
#10
Chen Chen, Christian Stock, Michael Hoffmeister, Hermann Brenner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, and has been widely used for primary CRC screening in Germany and the United States. We performed a population-based analysis to evaluate and compare the public health impact of recent colonoscopy use on CRC deaths among adults aged 55 to 79 years in Germany and the United States from 2008 to 2011. METHODS: The epidemiologic metrics of attributable fraction and prevented fraction as well as the impact numbers were calculated using colonoscopy utilization data from nationally representative health surveys, relative risk estimates from medical literature, and CRC death registry data...
April 18, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431853/transmission-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-to-health-care-worker-gowns-and-gloves-during-care-of-residents-in-veterans-affairs-nursing-homes
#11
Lisa Pineles, Daniel J Morgan, Alison Lydecker, J Kristie Johnson, John D Sorkin, Patricia Langenberg, Natalia Blanco, Alan Lesse, John Sellick, Kalpana Gupta, Luci Leykum, Jose Cadena, Nickie Lepcha, Mary-Claire Roghmann
BACKGROUND: This was an observational study designed to estimate the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission to gowns and gloves worn by health care workers (HCWs) interacting with Veterans Affairs Community Living Center (VA nursing home) residents to inform MRSA prevention policies. METHODS: Participants included residents and HCWs from 7 VA nursing homes in 4 states and Washington, DC. Residents were cultured for MRSA at the anterior nares, perianal skin, and wound (if present)...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431811/potential-consequences-of-not-using-live-attenuated-in-%C3%A2-if-there-are-any-drug-dosages-in-your-article-please-verify-them-and-indicate-that-you-have-done-so-by-initialing-this-query-%C3%A2-please-review-and-confirm-the-accuracy-and-completeness-of-any-affiliations
#12
Kenneth J Smith, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Angela Wateska, Shawn T Brown, Jay V DePasse, Jonathan M Raviotta, Eunha Shim, Richard K Zimmerman
INTRODUCTION: Decreased live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) effectiveness in the U.S. prompted the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in August 2016 to recommend against this vaccine's use. However, overall influenza uptake increases when LAIV is available and, unlike the U.S., LAIV has retained its effectiveness in other countries. These opposing countercurrents create a dilemma. METHODS: To examine the potential consequences of the decision to not recommend LAIV, which may result in decreased influenza vaccination coverage in the U...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431794/challenging-the-addiction-health-binary-with-assemblage-thinking-an-analysis-of-consumer-accounts
#13
David Moore, Kiran Pienaar, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, Suzanne Fraser
Critical analyses of drug use and 'addiction' have identified a series of binary oppositions between addiction and free will, independence, self-control, responsibility, productivity and autonomy. This critical work has also examined how science, policy and popular discourses frequently characterise addiction as antithetical to health and well-being. Furthermore, those diagnosed with addiction are often understood as indifferent to health and well-being, or as lacking the knowledge or desire required to maintain them...
April 18, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431787/-campylobacter-jejuni-o-19-serotype-in-argentine-poultry-meat-supply-chain
#14
Eugenia Rossler, Estefanía M Fuhr, Guillermina Lorenzón, Analía Romero-Scharpen, Ayelén P Berisvil, Jesica E Blajman, Diego M Astesana, Jorge A Zimmermann, Marcia L Fusari, Marcelo L Signorini, Lorena P Soto, Laureano S Frizzo, María V Zbrun
Thermotolerant species of Campylobacter have been focus of attention in the last years because they are the major agent causing zoonotic foodborne diseases. In addition, Campylobacter jejuni O:19 serotype was associated with Guillain Barré syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of C. jejuni O:19 serotype isolated at different stages of three poultry meat supply chain in Santa Fe, Argentina. The analysis showed that 18% of isolated C. jejuni belong to serotype O:19. It was also determined that the presence of these strains is given in almost all production stages...
April 18, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431783/supplementary-health-insurance-from-the-consumer-point-of-view-are-israelis-consumers-doing-an-informed-rational-choice-when-purchasing-supplementary-health-insurance
#15
Giora Kaplan, Yael Shahar, Orna Tal
BACKGROUND: The National Health Insurance Law in Israel ensures basic health basket eligibility for all its citizens. A supplemental health insurance plan (SHIP) is offered for an additional fee. Over the years, the percentage of supplemental insurance's holders has risen considerably, ranking among the highest in OECD countries. The assumption that consumers implement an informed rational choice based on relevant information is doubtful. Are consumers sufficiently well informed to make market processes work well? OBJECTIVES: To examine perspectives, preferences and knowledge of Israelis in relation to SHIP...
April 8, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431584/monitoring-quality-and-coverage-of-harm-reduction-services-for-people-who-use-drugs-a-consensus-study
#16
Lucas Wiessing, Marica Ferri, Vendula Běláčková, Patrizia Carrieri, Samuel R Friedman, Cinta Folch, Kate Dolan, Brian Galvin, Peter Vickerman, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Viktor Mravčík, Mirjam Kretzschmar, Vana Sypsa, Ana Sarasa-Renedo, Anneli Uusküla, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Luis Mendão, Diana Rossi, Nadine van Gelder, Luke Mitcheson, Letizia Paoli, Cristina Diaz Gomez, Maitena Milhet, Nicoleta Dascalu, Jonathan Knight, Gordon Hay, Eleni Kalamara, Roland Simon, Catherine Comiskey, Carla Rossi, Paul Griffiths
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite advances in our knowledge of effective services for people who use drugs over the last decades globally, coverage remains poor in most countries, while quality is often unknown. This paper aims to discuss the historical development of successful epidemiological indicators and to present a framework for extending them with additional indicators of coverage and quality of harm reduction services, for monitoring and evaluation at international, national or subnational levels...
April 22, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431549/household-food-insecurity-is-associated-with-abdominal-but-not-general-obesity-among-iranian-children
#17
Fateme Jafari, Simin Ehsani, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Mahmood Noori-Shadkam, Amin Salehi-Abargouei
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is increasing all over the world. Food insecurity is mentioned as a possible risk factor; however, previous studies have led to inconsistent results in different societies while data are lacking for the Middle East. We aimed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and general or abdominal obesity in Iranian children in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Anthropometric data including height, weight, and waist circumference were measured by trained nutritionists...
April 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431546/health-care-public-reporting-utilization-user-clusters-web-trails-and-usage-barriers-on-germany-s-public-reporting-portal-weisse-liste-de
#18
Christoph Pross, Lars-Henrik Averdunk, Josip Stjepanovic, Reinhard Busse, Alexander Geissler
BACKGROUND: Quality of care public reporting provides structural, process and outcome information to facilitate hospital choice and strengthen quality competition. Yet, evidence indicates that patients rarely use this information in their decision-making, due to limited awareness of the data and complex and conflicting information. While there is enthusiasm among policy makers for public reporting, clinicians and researchers doubt its overall impact. Almost no study has analyzed how users behave on public reporting portals, which information they seek out and when they abort their search...
April 21, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431532/residents-satisfaction-with-primary-medical-and-health-services-in-western-china
#19
Weinan Dong, Qingyu Zhang, Chunsheng Yan, Wanling Fu, Linlin Xu
BACKGROUND: Currently, China is in the process of medical and health care reform, and the establishment of primary medical and health services covering urban and rural residents is an important aspect of this process. Studying the satisfaction of residents of underdeveloped areas with their primary medical and health services and identifying the factors that can increase the satisfaction of different groups may improve patient compliance and ultimately improve health. Moreover, such research may provide a reference for the development of medical and health undertakings in similarly underdeveloped areas...
April 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431505/using-evaluability-assessment-to-assess-local-community-development-health-programmes-a-scottish-case-study
#20
Melissa Belford, Tony Robertson, Ruth Jepson
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme's objectives (health or otherwise) is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback) can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations...
April 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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