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Adam P Gunn, Bruce X Wong, Timothy Johanssen, James C Griffith, Colin L Masters, Ashley I Bush, Kevin J Barnham, James A Duce, Robert A Cherny
Pyroglutamate-modified amyloid-β (pE-Aβ) is a highly neurotoxic amyloid-β (Aβ) isoform and is enriched in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease compared with healthy aged controls. Pyroglutamate formation increases the rate of Aβ oligomerization and alters the interactions of Aβ with Cu(2+) and lipids; however, a link between these properties and the toxicity of pE-Aβ peptides has not been established. We report here that Aβ3pE-42 has an enhanced capacity to cause lipid peroxidation in primary cortical mouse neurons compared with the full-length isoform (Aβ(1-42))...
March 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Seiichiro Sakao, Hideyuki Miyauchi, Norbert F Voelkel, Toshihiko Sugiura, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Yoshio Kobayashi, Koichiro Tatsumi
RATIONALE: In right ventricular hypertrophy associated with severe pulmonary hypertension (PH), a shift of energy metabolism toward glycolysis occurs. There are few investigations regarding fatty acid metabolism in patients with PH and right ventricular hypertrophy. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether there is fatty acid accumulation in the hypertrophied right ventricle in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and to determine whether this accumulation is related to hemodynamic variables obtained by right heart catheterization...
October 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Anders Larsson, Lena Carlsson, Anne-Li Lind, Torsten Gordh, Constantin Bodolea, Masood Kamali-Moghaddam, Måns Thulin
Cytokines and chemokines regulate many functions in the body including the brain. The interactions between adipose tissue and the central nervous system (CNS) are important for the regulation of energy balance. CNS function is also influenced by age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of body mass index (BMI) and age on cytokine and chemokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid samples (n=89) were collected from patients undergoing routine surgical procedures. The samples were analyzed using the multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) in which 92 different cytokines are measured simultaneously using minute sample volume...
December 2015: Cytokine
Vera S Bogdanova, Olga O Zaytseva, Anatoliy V Mglinets, Natalia V Shatskaya, Oleg E Kosterin, Gennadiy V Vasiliev
In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L.), nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict...
2015: PloS One
Ali Bouzari, Dirk Holstege, Diane M Barrett
Four vitamins were analyzed in several fruit and vegetable commodities to evaluate the differences between fresh and frozen produce. Ascorbic acid, riboflavin, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene were evaluated in corn, carrots, broccoli, spinach, peas, green beans, strawberries, and blueberries. Samples of each commodity were harvested, processed, and analyzed for nutrient content at three storage times per treatment. Ascorbic acid showed no significant difference for five of the eight commodities and was higher in frozen samples than fresh for the remaining three commodities...
January 28, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Francesca Fiory, Luca Parrillo, Gregory Alexander Raciti, Federica Zatterale, Cecilia Nigro, Paola Mirra, Roberta Falco, Luca Ulianich, Bruno Di Jeso, Pietro Formisano, Claudia Miele, Francesco Beguinot
The small scaffold protein PED/PEA-15 is involved in several different physiologic and pathologic processes, such as cell proliferation and survival, diabetes and cancer. PED/PEA-15 exerts an anti-apoptotic function due to its ability to interfere with both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in different cell types. Recent evidence shows that mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 present larger pancreatic islets and increased beta-cells mass. In the present work we investigated PED/PEA-15 role in hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in Ins-1E beta-cells...
2014: PloS One
Martha Grogan, Angela Dispenzieri
The natural history of immunoglobulin light chain associated amyloidosis (AL) is determined by the extent of cardiac involvement. Patients with cardiac AL and symptomatic heart failure have a median survival of approximately six months without successful treatment of the underlying plasma cell disorder The outcome in cardiac AL is determined by both the severity of cardiac involvement and the response to treatment. Staging systems using cardiac biomarkers, including NT- proBNP and troponin, have been found to be powerful predictors of prognosis and are used to guide treatment...
March 2015: Heart Failure Reviews
Giovanna Boschin, Anna Arnoldi
Grain legumes contain numerous phytochemicals useful for their nutritional or nutraceutical properties, such as tocopherols, involved in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and eye pathologies. In this work, tocopherols were quantified in soybean, chickpea, lentil, pea, common bean, broad bean, and three lupin species. In all samples, the gamma congener was the most abundant tocopherol, followed by minor quantities of alpha-tocopherol (with the exception of common bean lacking in this congener) and delta-tocopherol (with the exception of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus mutabilis)...
August 1, 2011: Food Chemistry
C Scuderi, C Stecca, M Valenza, P Ratano, M R Bronzuoli, S Bartoli, L Steardo, E Pompili, L Fumagalli, P Campolongo, L Steardo
Given the complex heterogeneity of pathological changes occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD), any therapeutic effort absolutely requires a multi-targeted approach, because attempts addressing only a single event may result ineffective. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a naturally occurring lipid amide between palmitic acid and ethanolamine, seems to be a compound able to fulfill the criteria of a multi-factorial therapeutic approach. Here, we describe the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities of systemic administration of PEA in adult male rats given intrahippocampal injection of beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ 1-42)...
2014: Cell Death & Disease
Irene Paterniti, Marika Cordaro, Michela Campolo, Rosalba Siracusa, Carolin Cornelius, Michele Navarra, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Emanuela Esposito
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Its neuropathological hallmarks include deposition of beta amyloid (Aβ) fibrils in senile plaques. Numerous biochemical events, leading to Aβ neurotoxicity in AD, have been proposed and it seems that neuroinflammation plays a prominent role among these. Thus, since inflammatory processes and oxidative stress are considered to play an important role in neuroinflammatory disorders and in AD pathology, in the present work we decided to test a new composite, which is a formulation constituted of an anti-inflammatory compound such as palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and the well recognized antioxidant flavonoid luteolin (Lut), subjected to an ultra-micronization process, here designated co-ultraPEALut...
2014: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Toshio Obata, Masahiro Aomine
The present study was examined the effect of the properties of monkey platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) based on inhibitor sensitivity. Monkey platelet showed a high MAO activity with beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA) as substrate and a very low A-form MAO activity with 5 hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) as substrate. Moreover, monkey platelet MAO was sensitive to the drugs deprenyl as B-form MAO inhibitor and less sensitive to clorgyline and harmaline as A form MAO inhibitor with beta-PEA as the B-form MAO substrate...
0: Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology
Jun-Lan Xiong, Xue Bai, Asfa Batool, Hai-Yan Kong, Rui-Yue Tan, Ya-Fu Wang, Zhi-Xiao Li, You-Cai Xiong
Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is a legume with various adverse adaptability and rich nutrition. However, it can lead to the human and animal neurotoxicity after long-term consumption due to its neurotoxin, beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP), limiting its utilization. This paper summarized the influences of beta-ODAP on osmotic adjustment and growth regulation in grass pea under drought stress, the research progress in analysis methods, toxicological mechanisms and practical utility of beta-ODAP, and the breeding strategies for low- and zero-beta-ODAP...
April 2014: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Irma E Cisneros, Anuja Ghorpade
Methamphetamine (METH) is abused by about 5% of the United States population with approximately 10-15% of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) patients reporting its use. METH abuse accelerates the onset and severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and astrocyte-induced neurotoxicity. METH activates G-protein coupled receptors such as trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in presynaptic cells of monoaminergic systems...
October 2014: Neuropharmacology
Michael W Donnino, Justin D Salciccioli, Michael D Howell, Michael N Cocchi, Brandon Giberson, Katherine Berg, Shiva Gautam, Clifton Callaway
OBJECTIVE: To determine if earlier administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) in patients with non-shockable cardiac arrest rhythms is associated with increased return of spontaneous circulation, survival, and neurologically intact survival. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data in a large multicenter registry of in-hospital cardiac arrests (Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation). SETTING: We utilized the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation database (formerly National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, NRCPR)...
May 20, 2014: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Kun Guo, Wei Wang, Lan Luo, Jun Chen, Ya Guo, Feng Cui
Aphids secrete saliva into the phloem during their infestation of plants. Previous studies have identified numerous saliva proteins, but little is known about the characteristics (physical and chemical) and functions of these proteins in aphid-plant interactions. This study characterized an unknown protein (ACYPI39568) that was predicted to be enriched in the salivary glands of pea aphid. This protein belongs to an aphid-specific, cysteine-rich protein family that contains 14 conserved cysteines. ACYPI39568 is a monomeric globular protein with a high beta strand extent...
May 2014: Biophysical Chemistry
Carsten W Israel
Worldwide, sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major problem. It is most frequently caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmias: Monomorphic and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT), torsade de pointes (TdP), and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Beta blockade, ACE inhibition, coronary reperfusion and other treatments have reduced the incidence of VT but pulseless electrical activity (PEA) is increasingly seen, particularly in patients with advanced chronic heart disease. From existing data, bradyarrhythmia in the form of asystole (usually complete heart block without escape rhythm) causes only a minor proportion (10-15%) of SCD...
January 2014: Indian Heart Journal
Fabio Gresta, Concetta Rocco, Grazia M Lombardo, Giovanni Avola, Giuseppe Ruberto
Ten accessions of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) from different Sicilian sites, cultivated in the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for their morphological and productive parameters and for the content of two non-protein amino acids: α- and β-ODAP (α- and β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid). The β-isomer is the neurotoxin responsible for the neuron disease known as lathyrism. This analysis was carried out using two common analytical methodologies never applied in their determination, an HPLC separation with evaporative light scattering (ELS) as detector, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
March 19, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bruce Doepker, William Healy, Eric Cortez, Eric J Adkins
BACKGROUND: Recently, high-dose insulin (HDI) and intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) have emerged as treatment options for severe toxicity from calcium-channel blocker (CCB) and beta blocker (BB). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the use and effectiveness of HDI and ILE for the treatment of CCB and BB overdose. CASE REPORTS: We describe 2 patients presenting to the emergency department after intentional ingestions of CCBs and BBs. A 35-year-old man presented in pulseless electrical activity after ingesting amlodopine, verapamil, and metoprolol...
April 2014: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Su Liu, Qing-Mei Liang, Wen-Wu Zhou, Yan-Dong Jiang, Qing-Zi Zhu, Hang Yu, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Geoff M Gurr, Zeng-Rong Zhu
BACKGROUND: NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is essential for numerous biological reactions catalysed by microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). Knockdown of CPR in several insects leads to developmental defects and increased susceptibility to insecticides. However, information about the role of CPR in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is still unavailable. RESULTS: A full-length cDNA encoding CPR was cloned from N. lugens (NlCPR). The deduced amino acid sequence showed marked features of classical CPRs, such as an N-terminus membrane anchor, conserved domains for flavin mononucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate binding, as well as an FAD-binding motif and catalytic residues...
January 2015: Pest Management Science
D M Fabijan, P P Dhindsa, D M Reid
The effects of growth retardants, 4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethylammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate (AMO-1618 or AMO) and 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CCC), applied with and without gibberellic acid (GA3), on β-[(3)H]alanine uptake and leakage from pea (Pisum sativum L.) and betacyanin efflux from beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) tissue were examined. Both compounds decreased the amount of β-[(3)H]alanine taken up into pea leaf discs, and increased the quantity of radioactive label that subsequently leaked out of this tissue...
October 1981: Planta
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