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SES calculation

Camillia K Lui, William C Kerr, Nina Mulia, Yu Ye
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with lower alcohol consumption, but also with heavier drinking. To explain this contradictory relationship, we examined SES differences in drinking patterns from an age-period-cohort (APC) perspective. METHODS: Data are from seven waves of the U.S. National Alcohol Surveys from 1979 to 2010. As a proxy for SES, educational attainment was used. Past-year alcohol volume was calculated from frequency (never-to-every day) and usual quantity (1-2, 3-4, or 5-6 drinks)...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Juliën N A P Wijers, Geneviève A F S van Liere, Christian J P A Hoebe, Jochen W L Cals, Petra F G Wolffs, Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers
BACKGROUND: For Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), a test of cure (TOC) within 3-5 weeks is not recommended. International guidelines differ in advising a Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) TOC. Retesting CT and NG positives within 3-12 months is recommended in international guidelines. We assessed TOC and retesting practices including extragenital testing in general practitioner (GP) practices located in different socioeconomic status (SES) areas to inform and optimize local test practices. METHODS: Laboratory data of 48 Dutch GP practices between January 2011 and July 2016 were used...
2018: PloS One
Jonas Nilsson, Georg Holgersson, Jacob Järås, Stefan Bergström, Michael Bergqvist
Socioeconomic status (SES) and its association with cancer in general have been thoroughly studied in the last decades. Several studies have shown associations between SES and many types of cancer such as lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. For gliomas, no clear occupational or exposure risk factors have been identified, although some possible risk factors such as use of cellular telephone are still controversial. The aim in the present study is to analyze whether there is an association between SES and development of brain cancer...
March 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
Dan Norbäck, Chan Lu, Juan Wang, Yinping Zhang, Baizhan Li, Zhuohui Zhao, Chen Huang, Xin Zhang, Hua Qian, Yuexia Sun, Jan Sundell, Qihong Deng
BACKGROUND: Few data exist on asthma and rhinitis across China in relation to indoor and outdoor air pollution, climate and socioeconomic factors. The main aim was to study associations between asthma, rhinitis and current respiratory symptoms among pre-school children across China and selected indoor and outdoor exposure and indicators of socio-economic status (SES) in mutually adjusted models. METHODS: Chinese children (3-6 yr.) (n = 39,782) were recruited from randomly selected day care centres in seven cities in China...
March 9, 2018: Environment International
Antonio Rispo, Nicola Imperatore, Anna Testa, Luigi Bucci, Gaetano Luglio, Giovanni Domenico De Palma, Matilde Rea, Olga Maria Nardone, Nicola Caporaso, Fabiana Castiglione
Background: In the management of Crohn's Disease (CD) patients, having a simple score combining clinical, endoscopic and imaging features to predict the risk of surgery could help to tailor treatment more effectively. AIMS: to prospectively evaluate the one-year risk factors for surgery in refractory/severe CD and to generate a risk matrix for predicting the probability of surgery at one year. Methods: CD patients needing a disease re-assessment at our tertiary IBD centre underwent clinical, laboratory, endoscopy and bowel sonography (BS) examinations within one week...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Katherine E Weisensee, M Katherine Spradley
This study examines levels of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in Mexican residents, U.S. residents, and undocumented border crossers (UBCs) from Mexico to the United States. Craniofacial structures develop symmetrically under ideal circumstances; however, during periods of developmental stress random deviations from perfect symmetry, or FA, can occur. It is hypothesized that the UBC sample would represent individuals of a lower socioeconomic status (SES) who experienced higher stress levels during development, and that these individuals would consequently have higher levels of FA...
February 24, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Richard H Epstein, Joni M Maga, Michael E Mahla, Eric S Schwenk, Marc J Bloom
BACKGROUND: Processed electroencephalogram (EEG) monitors help assess the hypnotic state during general anesthesia or sedation. Maintaining the bispectral index (BIS) or state entropy (SE) between 40 and 60 has been recommended to mitigate anesthesia awareness. Nonetheless, SEs > 70 were frequently observed at end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations unlikely to allow awareness. We sought to determine the prevalence of elevated discordant measurements during BIS and SE monitoring. METHODS: Electronic data collected over 11 months at two academic hospitals were retrospectively reviewed...
March 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Rachel Margaret Coyle, Ada Rose Miltz, Fiona C Lampe, Janey Sewell, Andrew N Phillips, Andrew Speakman, Jyoti Dhar, Lorraine Sherr, S Tariq Sadiq, Stephen Taylor, Daniel R Ivens, Simon Collins, Jonathan Elford, Jane Anderson, Alison Rodger
OBJECTIVES: In the UK, people of black ethnicity experience a disproportionate burden of HIV and STI. We aimed to assess the association of ethnicity with sexual behaviour and sexual health among women and heterosexual men attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in England. METHODS: The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV is a cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire study of HIV negative people recruited from 20 GUM clinics in England, 2013-2014...
March 8, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
R Karimbeiki, M Pourmasoumi, A Feizi, B Abbasi, A Hadi, N Rafie, S M Safavi
OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to compare dietary diversity score (DDS) among overweight, obese, and normal-weight adults. STUDY DESIGN: This case-control study was conducted with a total of 200 cases (100 participants with obesity and 100 participants with overweight) and 300 controls (normal weight) matched by socio-economic status (SES), older than 18 years. METHODS: Dietary intakes were assessed using a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire...
March 5, 2018: Public Health
M N Khan, M M Islam, M M Rahman
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the inequality in cesarean section (CS) utilization and its socio-economic contributors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective two-stage stratified sample design. METHODS: Data were extracted from two rounds of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2004 and 2014. Concentration Index of CS utilization was calculated using the wealth quintile. Regression-based decomposition method was applied to assess the socio-economic contributors of inequality in CS utilization...
March 5, 2018: Public Health
Caroline Walker, Chaitanya Allamneni, Jordan Orr, Huifeng Yun, Paul Fitzmorris, Fenglong Xie, Talha A Malik
Racial disparities are observed clinically in Crohn's Disease (CD) with research suggesting African Americans (AA) have worse outcomes than Caucasian Americans (CA). The aim of this study is to assess whether socioeconomic status (SES) rather than race is the major predictor of worse outcomes. We designed a retrospective cohort study of 944 CD patients seen at our center. Patients' billing zip codes were collected and average income and percent of population living above or below poverty level (PL) for each zip code calculated...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Naoko Miyagawa, Nagako Okuda, Hideaki Nakagawa, Toshiro Takezaki, Nobuo Nishi, Naoyuki Takashima, Akira Fujiyoshi, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Aya Kadota, Tomonori Okamura, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Akira Okayama, Katsuyuki Miura
BACKGROUND: Although socioeconomic status (SES) may affect food and nutrient intakes, few studies have reported on sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intakes among individuals with various SESs in Japan. We investigated associations of SES with Na and K intake levels using urinary specimens in a representative Japanese population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 2,560 men and women (the NIPPON DATA2010 cohort) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan in 2010...
2018: Journal of Epidemiology
Marko Popovic, Matthew B Schlenker, Xavier Campos-Möller, Austin Pereira, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed
PURPOSE: To externally validate the Wang-Koch method for optimization of intraocular lens (IOL) formulas. SETTING: TLC Laser Eye Centre, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Consecutive cataract patients with an axial length (AL) of 25.0 mm or longer were recruited. The predicted postoperative spherical equivalents (SEs) calculated from the Holladay 1 formula were compared with the 3-week postoperative SEs to yield prediction errors for Wang-Koch adjusted and unadjusted ALs...
January 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Raj S Bhopal, Laurence Gruer, Genevieve Cezard, Anne Douglas, Markus F C Steiner, Andrew Millard, Duncan Buchanan, S Vittal Katikireddi, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Migrant and ethnic minority groups are often assumed to have poor health relative to the majority population. Few countries have the capacity to study a key indicator, mortality, by ethnicity and country of birth. We hypothesized at least 10% differences in mortality by ethnic group in Scotland that would not be wholly attenuated by adjustment for socio-economic factors or country of birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We linked the Scottish 2001 Census to mortality data (2001-2013) in 4...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Ioana Popescu, Erin Duffy, Joshua Mendelsohn, José J Escarce
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between racial residential segregation, a prominent manifestation of systemic racism, and the White-Black survival gap in a contemporary cohort of adults, and to assess the extent to which socioeconomic inequality explains this association. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study of White and Black men and women aged 35-75 living in 102 large US Core Based Statistical Areas. The main outcome was the White-Black survival gap...
2018: PloS One
Charlotte Probst, Charles D H Parry, Jürgen Rehm
OBJECTIVES: To quantify HIV/AIDS mortality attributable to alcohol use in the adult general population of South Africa in 2012 by socioeconomic status (SES). DESIGN: Comparative risk assessment based on secondary individual data, aggregate data and risk relations reported in the literature. SETTING: South African adult general population. PARTICIPANTS: For metrics of alcohol use by SES, sex and age: 27 070 adults that participated in a nationally representative survey in 2012...
February 21, 2018: BMJ Open
John R Marshall, Stephen F Gassner, Craig L Anderson, Richelle J Cooper, Shahram Lotfipour, Bharath Chakravarthy
Background Reports indicate a geographic effect of socioeconomic inequalities on the occurrence of opioid-related fatal overdoses. We aim to (1) estimate the rates of opioid-related overdoses, (2) estimate the association of benzodiazepine co-ingestion with opioid-related deaths, (3) estimate associations between socioeconomic indicators and opioid-related deaths, and (4) map the distribution of fatal overdoses, in Orange County (OC), California. Methods We conducted an ecologic study of all opioid related deaths (1205 total) obtained from the OC Coroner Division database from 2010-2014 (1065 OC residents, 55 non-residents, 85 OC homeless) (analyzed 2016-2017)...
February 21, 2018: Substance Abuse
Augusto Cesar Ferreira De Moraes, Elsie C O Forkert, Regina Célia Vilanova-Campelo, Laura Inés González-Zapata, Leticia Azzaretti, Isabel Iguacel, Luis Huicho, Paula Moliterno, Luis Alberto Moreno, Heráclito Barbosa Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to test the reliability of two questionnaires in studies involving children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) in seven South American cities. One assesses socioeconomic status (SES) and the other measures environmental factors. METHODS: The SES questionnaire was composed of 14 questions, which included the presence of several consumer goods, domestic services, family income, parental education level, and current parental occupation status...
March 2018: Obesity
Jan Hovanec, Jack Siemiatycki, David I Conway, Ann Olsson, Isabelle Stücker, Florence Guida, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Hermann Pohlabeln, Wolfgang Ahrens, Irene Brüske, Heinz-Erich Wichmann, Per Gustavsson, Dario Consonni, Franco Merletti, Lorenzo Richiardi, Lorenzo Simonato, Cristina Fortes, Marie-Elise Parent, John McLaughlin, Paul Demers, Maria Teresa Landi, Neil Caporaso, Adonina Tardón, David Zaridze, Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Peter Rudnai, Jolanta Lissowska, Eleonora Fabianova, John Field, Rodica Stanescu Dumitru, Vladimir Bencko, Lenka Foretova, Vladimir Janout, Hans Kromhout, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Boffetta, Kurt Straif, Joachim Schüz, Benjamin Kendzia, Beate Pesch, Thomas Brüning, Thomas Behrens
BACKGROUND: An association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and lung cancer has been observed in several studies, but often without adequate control for smoking behavior. We studied the association between lung cancer and occupationally derived SES, using data from the international pooled SYNERGY study. METHODS: Twelve case-control studies from Europe and Canada were included in the analysis. Based on occupational histories of study participants we measured SES using the International Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status (ISEI) and the European Socio-economic Classification (ESeC)...
2018: PloS One
Juan P Rey-López, Rawan Hashem, Mark Hamer, Anne McMUNN, Peter H Whincup, Christopher G Owen, Emmanuel Stamatakis
BACKGROUND: Kuwait is one of the Arab countries with the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity. However, few studies have described the prevalence of obesity in this country. AIM: To describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Kuwaiti adolescents; and to examine the association of overweight and obesity status with familial socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 591 adolescent students (47% boys, median age: 16 years) from the Study of Health and Activity among Adolescents in Kuwait in 2012 and 2013...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
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