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Poverty calculation

Bruce A Dye, Clemencia M Vargas, Cheryl D Fryar, Francisco Ramos-Gomez, Robert Isman
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain and compare the oral health status and related sociodemographic risk indicators in children in Los Angeles (LA) County with children in the United States. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 were used to calculate prevalence estimates for children aged 2-13 years living in LA County and in the United States. Sociodemographic indicators were evaluated using multiple logistic regression modeling...
December 6, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Angélica Paulos, Paulina Pino, Gabriel Cavada, Carolina Lagos, Valentina Broussain, Andrea Hasbún
BACKGROUND: The effect of food fortification with folic acid on the incidence of lip-palate fissures (FLP) is under discussion. AIM: To calculate the rate of hospital discharges due to cleft lip and palate (CLP) and explore whether they decreased after the start of folic acid fortification in Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The hospital discharge databases published by the Chilean Ministry of Health were analyzed. The trends of discharge rates due to CLP of children of less than one year of life (ICD-10 Q350-379 code) and live births (lb) were calculated from 1986 to 2012...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Gene H Brody, Joshua C Gray, Tianyi Yu, Allen W Barton, Steven R H Beach, Adrianna Galván, James MacKillop, Michael Windle, Edith Chen, Gregory E Miller, Lawrence H Sweet
Importance: This study was designed to determine whether a preventive intervention focused on enhancing supportive parenting could ameliorate the association between exposure to poverty and brain development in low socioeconomic status African American individuals from the rural South. Objective: To determine whether participation in an efficacious prevention program designed to enhance supportive parenting for rural African American children will ameliorate the association between living in poverty and reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in adulthood...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Carrie J Nobles, Sarah E Valentine, E David Zepeda, Ye Wang, Emily M Ahles, Derri L Shtasel, Luana Marques
BACKGROUND: Among Latinos, living in a locality with greater Latino ethnic density may be protective for mental health, although findings vary by Latino subgroup, gender and birthplace. Although little studied, Latino residential segregation may capture different pathways linking risk and protective environmental factors to mental health than local ethnic density. METHODS: This study evaluated the association between residential segregation and mental distress as measured by the Kessler-10 (K10) among Latino participants in the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
William C Kerr, Mark S Kaplan, Nathalie Huguet, Raul Caetano, Norman Giesbrecht, Bentson H McFarland
INTRODUCTION: Suicide rates and the proportion of alcohol-involved suicides rose during the 2008-2009 recession. Associations between county-level poverty, foreclosures, and unemployment and suicide rates and proportion of alcohol-involved suicides were investigated. METHODS: In 2015, National Violent Death Reporting System data from 16 states in 2005-2011 were utilized to calculate suicide rates and a measure of alcohol involvement in suicides at the county level...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Akiko Mizuta, Takeo Fujiwara, Toshiyuki Ojima
BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight and obesity is a growing health challenge in Japan and might be associated with childhood poverty. We aimed to investigate the association between low economic status and body mass index (BMI) and to reveal the mediators of this association among junior high school students in Japan. METHODS: Junior high school students (N = 2968) from two cities in Shizuoka, Japan, were surveyed. Questionnaires assessed subjective economic status, weight, and height...
2016: BMC Obesity
Paul Henry Brodish, Jahn K Hakes
Policy makers would benefit from being able to estimate the likely impact of potential interventions to reverse the effects of rapidly rising income inequality on mortality rates. Using multiple cohorts of the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), we estimate the absolute income effect on premature mortality in the United States. A multivariate Poisson regression using the natural logarithm of equivilized household income establishes the magnitude of the absolute income effect on mortality. We calculate mortality rates for each income decile of the study sample and mortality rate ratios relative to the decile containing mean income...
October 24, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Paula Lindgren, Jean Johnson, Allan Williams, Barbara Yawn, Gregory C Pratt
BACKGROUND: The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) is a unique community-based medical record data linkage system that provides individual patient address, diagnosis and visit information for all hospitalizations, as well as emergency department, urgent care and outpatient clinic visits for asthma. Proximity to traffic is known to be associated with asthma exacerbations and severity. Our null hypothesis was that there is no association between residential proximity to traffic and asthma exacerbations over eleven years of REP data...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Casey M Rebholz, Adrienne Tin, Yang Liu, Marie Fanelli Kuczmarski, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman, Deidra C Crews
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that certain aspects of the diet related to magnesium intake, such as dietary acid load, protein intake and dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables, may impact kidney disease risk. We hypothesized that lower dietary magnesium intake would be prospectively associated with more rapid kidney function decline. METHODS: Among participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1...
2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Andrea L Roberts, Norman J Johnson, Jarvis T Chen, Merit E Cudkowicz, Marc G Weisskopf
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality in the United States. METHODS: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), a United States-representative, multistage sample, collected race/ethnicity and socioeconomic data prospectively. Mortality information was obtained by matching NLMS records to the National Death Index (1979-2011). More than 2 million persons (n = 1,145,368 women, n = 1,011,172 men) were included, with 33,024,881 person-years of follow-up (1,299 ALS deaths , response rate 96%)...
November 29, 2016: Neurology
Mei Lin, Chien-Hsun Li, Liang Wei, Shillpa Naavaal, Shellie Kolavic Gray, Michael C Manz, Laurie Barker
OBJECTIVES: To compare estimated prevalence of past-year dental visit (PPYDV) among US adults aged ≥18 years from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimates from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: We estimated PPYDV adjusted for covariates (age, race/ethnicity, education level, poverty status, edentulism) using BRFSS, MEPS, and NHIS 1999-2010, and NHANES 1999-2004...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Stéphane Verguet, Arindam Nandi, Véronique Filippi, Donald A P Bundy
BACKGROUND: High levels of maternal mortality and large associated inequalities exist in low-income and middle-income countries. Adolescent pregnancies remain common, and pregnant adolescent women face elevated risks of maternal mortality and poverty. We examined the distribution across socioeconomic groups of maternal deaths and impoverishment among adolescent girls (15-19 years old) in Niger, which has the highest total fertility rate globally, and India, which has the largest number of maternal deaths...
2016: BMJ Open
Yuejen Zhao, Siva R Vemuri, Dinesh Arya
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the potential economic benefits of closing the Indigenous health gap by quantifying the economic burden associated with Indigenous health inequality in the Northern Territory. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cost-of-illness study was conducted from a societal perspective for NT residents for the period 2009-2013. The total cost of the Indigenous health gap was estimated by calculating the cost differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in health services, lost productivity and lost life-years on the basis of data from the 2011 census, as well as on burden of disease, health expenditure, welfare, taxation and other published financial data...
September 19, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins, Carlos Augusto Monteiro
BACKGROUND: The Bolsa Família Program was created in Brazil in 2003, by the joint of different social programs aimed at poor or very poor families with focus on income transfer to promote immediate poverty relief, conditionalities and complementary programs. Given the contributions of conditional cash transfer programs to poverty alleviation and their potential effects on nutrition and health, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food purchases of low-income households in Brazil...
2016: BMC Public Health
Eric M Roberts, Paul B English
BACKGROUND: Although ongoing, multi-topic surveys form the basis of public health surveillance in many countries, their utility for specific subject matter areas can be limited by high proportions of missing data. For example, the National Health and Examination Survey is the main resource for surveillance of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in US children, but key predictor variables are missing for as many as 35% of respondents. METHODS: Using a Bayesian framework, we formulate a t-distributed Heckman selection model applicable to the case of multiple missing-not-at-random variables in the context of a complex survey design...
December 20, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
José Pumarega, Magda Gasull, Duk-Hee Lee, Tomàs López, Miquel Porta
Human exposure to environmental chemicals as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is usually assessed considering each pollutant individually, with little attention to concentrations of mixtures in individuals or social groups. Yet, it may be relatively common for humans to have low and high concentrations of numerous POPs. The study objectives were to analyze the number of POPs detected per person at high concentrations in the U.S. population, and the associations between such type of indicators and socioeconomic factors as gender, race / ethnicity, education, and poverty level...
2016: PloS One
Garth Nyambi Walker, Suzanne McLone, Maryann Mason, Karen Sheehan
BACKGROUND: The United States reports the highest levels of firearm homicide incidences compared to other high income countries, and the focus and causes of these incidences within the US differ by demographic characteristics and location such as urban versus rural environment. Despite these findings, few studies have published on rates varied by region within a city. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide descriptive analysis of the rates of firearm homicide by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in each of the seven City of Chicago regions, and to determine if the rates of firearm homicide differ by demographics among the seven City of Chicago regions...
October 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Arjumand Siddiqi, Marcella K Jones, Donald J Bruce, Paul C Erwin
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have examined the association between income inequality and overall infant mortality rates (IMR). We examine effects of income inequality on racial inequities in IMR over the period 1992-2007 in the U.S. METHODS: Race-specific state IMR data were obtained from 1992 to 2007, from which absolute and relative IMR inequities were calculated. Fixed and random effects models, adjusted for state-level median income, percent poverty, percent high school graduates, and unemployment rate, were used to determine contemporaneous and lagged state-level associations between income inequality and racial IMR inequities...
September 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Andrew J Goodwin, Nandita R Nadig, James T McElligott, Kit N Simpson, Dee W Ford
BACKGROUND: Medically underserved areas are composed of vulnerable populations with reduced access to ambulatory care services. Our goal was to determine the association between residence in a medically underserved area and severe sepsis incidence and mortality. METHODS: Using administrative data, we identified adults admitted with severe sepsis to nonfederal hospitals in South Carolina. We determined whether each resident lived in a medically underserved area or nonmedically underserved area from US Census and Department of Health and Human Services data...
October 2016: Chest
Sharoda Dasgupta, Michael R Kramer, Eli S Rosenberg, Travis H Sanchez, Patrick S Sullivan
BACKGROUND: No existing measures of HIV care access consider both spatial proximity to services and provider-related characteristics in a single measure. We developed and applied a tool to: (1) quantify spatial access to HIV care services (supply) and (2) identify underserved areas with respect to HIV cases (demand), by travel mode, in Atlanta. METHODS: Building on a study of HIV care engagement, data from an HIV care provider database, and HIV case counts by zip code tabulation area (ZCTA) from AIDSVu...
2016: SpringerPlus
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