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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081048/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-common-childhood-infections-in-south-african-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-unexposed-infants
#1
Amy L Slogrove, Monika M Esser, Mark F Cotton, David P Speert, Tobias R Kollmann, Joel Singer, Julie A Bettinger
BACKGROUND: Much evidence of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant infectious morbidity predates availability of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy and does not control for universal risk factors (preterm birth, low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding and poverty). METHODS: This prospective cohort study identified HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their newborns from South African community midwife unit. The primary outcome, infectious cause hospitalization or death before 6 months of age, was compared between HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) infants and classified for type and severity using validated study-specific case definitions...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045307/the-effects-of-economic-and-sociocultural-stressors-on-the-well-being-of-children-of-latino-immigrants-living-in-poverty
#2
Marina M Mendoza, Julia Dmitrieva, Krista M Perreira, Eliana Hurwich-Reiss, Sarah Enos Watamura
OBJECTIVE: This article explored whether preschoolers' physical (body mass index [BMI] and salivary cortisol levels) and psychological (internalizing/externalizing behaviors) well-being were predicted by economic hardship, as has been previously documented, and further, whether parental immigration-related stress and/or acculturation level moderated this relationship in low-income Latino families. METHOD: The sample for the current study included 71 children of Latino immigrants (M = 4...
January 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038389/adherence-to-antiepileptic-drugs-among-diverse-older-americans-on-part-d-medicare
#3
Kendra Piper, Joshua Richman, Edward Faught, Roy Martin, Ellen Funkhouser, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Chen Dai, Lucia Juarez, Maria Pisu
INTRODUCTION: Older minority groups are more likely to have poor AED adherence. We describe adherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) among older Americans with epilepsy. METHODS: In retrospective analyses of 2008-2010 Medicare claims for a 5% random sample of beneficiaries augmented by minority representation, epilepsy cases in 2009 were those with ≥1 claim with ICD-9345.x or ≥2 with 780.3x, and ≥1 AED. New-onset cases had no such claims or AEDs in the year before the 2009 index event...
December 27, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036053/connecting-the-dots-linking-environmental-justice-indicators-to-daily-dose-model-estimates
#4
Hongtai Huang, Timothy M Barzyk
Many different quantitative techniques have been developed to either assess Environmental Justice (EJ) issues or estimate exposure and dose for risk assessment. However, very few approaches have been applied to link EJ factors to exposure dose estimate and identify potential impacts of EJ factors on dose-related variables. The purpose of this study is to identify quantitative approaches that incorporate conventional risk assessment (RA) dose modeling and cumulative risk assessment (CRA) considerations of disproportionate environmental exposure...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997239/transgender-demographics-a-household-probability-sample-of-us-adults-2014
#5
Halley P Crissman, Mitchell B Berger, Louis F Graham, Vanessa K Dalton
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of US adults who identify as transgender and to compare the demographics of the transgender and nontransgender populations. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from states and territories in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System that asked about transgender status. The proportion of adults identified as transgender was calculated from affirmative and negative responses (n = 151 456). We analyzed data with a design-adjusted χ(2) test...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938418/growing-up-in-portugal-cape-verdean-ancestry-children-exhibit-low-overweight-and-obesity-compared-with-portuguese-in-urban-lisbon
#6
A L André, C Padez, V Rosado-Marques, P L Griffiths, M I Varela-Silva
Portugal has one of the highest rates of childhood overweight and obesity in Europe. However, little is known about the health of ethnic minorities living in its capital city, Lisbon. The Cape Verdean community in Lisbon tend to have low educational levels, material deprivation and struggle with discrimination and racism, factors that would probably be associated with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. Data for the Cape Verdean population were collected in three different time periods by three different research teams in 1993, 2009 and 2013 and included children aged 6-12 years living in the Cova da Moura neighbourhood of the Greater Lisbon Metro Area...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922188/oral-health-status-of-children-in-los-angeles-county-and-in-the-united-states-1999-2004
#7
Bruce A Dye, Clemencia M Vargas, Cheryl D Fryar, Francisco Ramos-Gomez, Robert Isman
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain and compare the oral health status and related sociodemographic risk indicators in children in Los Angeles (LA) County with children in the United States. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 were used to calculate prevalence estimates for children aged 2-13 years living in LA County and in the United States. Sociodemographic indicators were evaluated using multiple logistic regression modeling...
December 6, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905647/-cleft-lip-palate-and-flour-fortification-with-folic-acid-in-chile
#8
Angélica Paulos, Paulina Pino, Gabriel Cavada, Carolina Lagos, Valentina Broussain, Andrea Hasbún
BACKGROUND: The effect of food fortification with folic acid on the incidence of lip-palate fissures (FLP) is under discussion. AIM: To calculate the rate of hospital discharges due to cleft lip and palate (CLP) and explore whether they decreased after the start of folic acid fortification in Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The hospital discharge databases published by the Chilean Ministry of Health were analyzed. The trends of discharge rates due to CLP of children of less than one year of life (ICD-10 Q350-379 code) and live births (lb) were calculated from 1986 to 2012...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893880/protective-prevention-effects-on-the-association-of-poverty-with-brain-development
#9
Gene H Brody, Joshua C Gray, Tianyi Yu, Allen W Barton, Steven R H Beach, Adrianna Galván, James MacKillop, Michael Windle, Edith Chen, Gregory E Miller, Lawrence H Sweet
Importance: This study was designed to determine whether a preventive intervention focused on enhancing supportive parenting could ameliorate the association between exposure to poverty and brain development in low socioeconomic status African American individuals from the rural South. Objective: To determine whether participation in an efficacious prevention program designed to enhance supportive parenting for rural African American children will ameliorate the association between living in poverty and reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in adulthood...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885049/residential-segregation-and-mental-health-among-latinos-in-a-nationally-representative-survey
#10
Carrie J Nobles, Sarah E Valentine, E David Zepeda, Ye Wang, Emily M Ahles, Derri L Shtasel, Luana Marques
BACKGROUND: Among Latinos, living in a locality with greater Latino ethnic density may be protective for mental health, although findings vary by Latino subgroup, gender and birthplace. Although little studied, Latino residential segregation may capture different pathways linking risk and protective environmental factors to mental health than local ethnic density. METHODS: This study evaluated the association between residential segregation and mental distress as measured by the Kessler-10 (K10) among Latino participants in the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856114/economic-recession-alcohol-and-suicide-rates-comparative-effects-of-poverty-foreclosure-and-job-loss
#11
William C Kerr, Mark S Kaplan, Nathalie Huguet, Raul Caetano, Norman Giesbrecht, Bentson H McFarland
INTRODUCTION: Suicide rates and the proportion of alcohol-involved suicides rose during the 2008-2009 recession. Associations between county-level poverty, foreclosures, and unemployment and suicide rates and proportion of alcohol-involved suicides were investigated. METHODS: In 2015, National Violent Death Reporting System data from 16 states in 2005-2011 were utilized to calculate suicide rates and a measure of alcohol involvement in suicides at the county level...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843560/association-between-economic-status-and-body-mass-index-among-adolescents-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study-in-japan
#12
Akiko Mizuta, Takeo Fujiwara, Toshiyuki Ojima
BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight and obesity is a growing health challenge in Japan and might be associated with childhood poverty. We aimed to investigate the association between low economic status and body mass index (BMI) and to reveal the mediators of this association among junior high school students in Japan. METHODS: Junior high school students (N = 2968) from two cities in Shizuoka, Japan, were surveyed. Questionnaires assessed subjective economic status, weight, and height...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821301/quantifying-the-individual-level-association-between-income-and-mortality-risk-in-the-united-states-using-the-national-longitudinal-mortality-study
#13
Paul Henry Brodish, Jahn K Hakes
Policy makers would benefit from being able to estimate the likely impact of potential interventions to reverse the effects of rapidly rising income inequality on mortality rates. Using multiple cohorts of the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), we estimate the absolute income effect on premature mortality in the United States. A multivariate Poisson regression using the natural logarithm of equivilized household income establishes the magnitude of the absolute income effect on mortality. We calculate mortality rates for each income decile of the study sample and mortality rate ratios relative to the decile containing mean income...
October 24, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809853/asthma-exacerbations-and-traffic-examining-relationships-using-link-based-traffic-metrics-and-a-comprehensive-patient-database
#14
Paula Lindgren, Jean Johnson, Allan Williams, Barbara Yawn, Gregory C Pratt
BACKGROUND: The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) is a unique community-based medical record data linkage system that provides individual patient address, diagnosis and visit information for all hospitalizations, as well as emergency department, urgent care and outpatient clinic visits for asthma. Proximity to traffic is known to be associated with asthma exacerbations and severity. Our null hypothesis was that there is no association between residential proximity to traffic and asthma exacerbations over eleven years of REP data...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771720/dietary-magnesium-and-kidney-function-decline-the-healthy-aging-in-neighborhoods-of-diversity-across-the-life-span-study
#15
Casey M Rebholz, Adrienne Tin, Yang Liu, Marie Fanelli Kuczmarski, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman, Deidra C Crews
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that certain aspects of the diet related to magnesium intake, such as dietary acid load, protein intake and dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables, may impact kidney disease risk. We hypothesized that lower dietary magnesium intake would be prospectively associated with more rapid kidney function decline. METHODS: Among participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1...
2016: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742817/race-ethnicity-socioeconomic-status-and-als-mortality-in-the-united-states
#16
Andrea L Roberts, Norman J Johnson, Jarvis T Chen, Merit E Cudkowicz, Marc G Weisskopf
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality in the United States. METHODS: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), a United States-representative, multistage sample, collected race/ethnicity and socioeconomic data prospectively. Mortality information was obtained by matching NLMS records to the National Death Index (1979-2011). More than 2 million persons (n = 1,145,368 women, n = 1,011,172 men) were included, with 33,024,881 person-years of follow-up (1,299 ALS deaths , response rate 96%)...
November 29, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701758/prevalence-of-past-year-dental-visit-among-us-adults-1999-2010-comparison-of-trends-and-estimates-between-the-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-and-three-national-surveys
#17
Mei Lin, Chien-Hsun Li, Liang Wei, Shillpa Naavaal, Shellie Kolavic Gray, Michael C Manz, Laurie Barker
OBJECTIVES: To compare estimated prevalence of past-year dental visit (PPYDV) among US adults aged ≥18 years from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimates from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: We estimated PPYDV adjusted for covariates (age, race/ethnicity, education level, poverty status, edentulism) using BRFSS, MEPS, and NHIS 1999-2010, and NHANES 1999-2004...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670517/maternal-related-deaths-and-impoverishment-among-adolescent-girls-in-india-and-niger-findings-from-a-modelling-study
#18
Stéphane Verguet, Arindam Nandi, Véronique Filippi, Donald A P Bundy
BACKGROUND: High levels of maternal mortality and large associated inequalities exist in low-income and middle-income countries. Adolescent pregnancies remain common, and pregnant adolescent women face elevated risks of maternal mortality and poverty. We examined the distribution across socioeconomic groups of maternal deaths and impoverishment among adolescent girls (15-19 years old) in Niger, which has the highest total fertility rate globally, and India, which has the largest number of maternal deaths...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627937/the-economic-benefits-of-eliminating-indigenous-health-inequality-in-the-northern-territory
#19
Yuejen Zhao, Siva R Vemuri, Dinesh Arya
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the potential economic benefits of closing the Indigenous health gap by quantifying the economic burden associated with Indigenous health inequality in the Northern Territory. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cost-of-illness study was conducted from a societal perspective for NT residents for the period 2009-2013. The total cost of the Indigenous health gap was estimated by calculating the cost differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in health services, lost productivity and lost life-years on the basis of data from the 2011 census, as well as on burden of disease, health expenditure, welfare, taxation and other published financial data...
September 19, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538516/impact-of-the-bolsa-fam%C3%A3-lia-program-on-food-availability-of-low-income-brazilian-families-a-quasi-experimental-study
#20
Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins, Carlos Augusto Monteiro
BACKGROUND: The Bolsa Família Program was created in Brazil in 2003, by the joint of different social programs aimed at poor or very poor families with focus on income transfer to promote immediate poverty relief, conditionalities and complementary programs. Given the contributions of conditional cash transfer programs to poverty alleviation and their potential effects on nutrition and health, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food purchases of low-income households in Brazil...
2016: BMC Public Health
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