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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346484/a-neighborhood-wide-association-study-nwas-example-of-prostate-cancer-aggressiveness
#1
Shannon M Lynch, Nandita Mitra, Michelle Ross, Craig Newcomb, Karl Dailey, Tara Jackson, Charnita M Zeigler-Johnson, Harold Riethman, Charles C Branas, Timothy R Rebbeck
PURPOSE: Cancer results from complex interactions of multiple variables at the biologic, individual, and social levels. Compared to other levels, social effects that occur geospatially in neighborhoods are not as well-studied, and empiric methods to assess these effects are limited. We propose a novel Neighborhood-Wide Association Study(NWAS), analogous to genome-wide association studies(GWAS), that utilizes high-dimensional computing approaches from biology to comprehensively and empirically identify neighborhood factors associated with disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329388/healthcare-claims-data-an-underutilized-tool-for-pediatric-outpatient-antimicrobial-stewardship
#2
Joshua R Watson, Ling Wang, Jennifer Klima, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Sean Gleeson, Kelly Kelleher, Preeti Jaggi
Background: Healthcare claims are under-utilized to identify factors associated with high outpatient antibiotic use. Methods: We evaluated ambulatory encounter claims of Medicaid-insured children in 34 Ohio counties in 2014. 1) Rates of total antibiotic and azithromycin prescriptions dispensed were determined by county of patient residence. 2) Standardized treatment rates by county were estimated for uncomplicated upper respiratory tract encounters (acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, presumed viral infection) after adjusting for patient age and encounter provider type...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318873/factors-associated-with-changes-in-fruit-intake-during-young-adulthood-a-classification-and-regression-tree-analysis-of-longitudinal-data
#3
David Lohrmann, Wasantha Jayawardene, Mohammad Torabi
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether distinct participant groupings for changes in fruit intake (FI) levels between ages 23 and 31 years are identifiable based on both time-varying and time-invariant sociodemographic and behavioral variables. METHODS: Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1997, US. Change in FI frequency constituted the dependent variable. For 21 variables, changes and averages in 2007-2011 were calculated. Classification and regression tree analysis was conducted using Generalized, Unbiased, Interaction Detection, and Estimation software...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302918/the-heterogeneous-impact-of-a-successful-tobacco-control-campaign-a-case-study-of-mauritius
#4
Hana Ross, Leelmanee Moussa, Tom Harris, Rajive Ajodhea
BACKGROUND: Mauritius has one of the highest smoking prevalences in Africa, contributing to its high burden of non-communicable diseases. Mauritius implemented a series of tobacco control measures from 2009 to 2012, including tobacco tax increases. There is evidence that these policies reduced tobacco consumption, but it is not clear what impact they had across different socioeconomic groups. METHOD: The impact of tobacco control measures on different income groups was analysed by contrasting household tobacco expenditures reported in 2006-2007 and 2012 household expenditure surveys...
March 15, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292764/adult-and-adolescent-livestock-productive-asset-transfer-programmes-to-improve-mental-health-economic-stability-and-family-and-community-relationships-in-rural-south-kivu-province-democratic-republic-of-congo-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Anjalee Kohli, Nancy A Perrin, Mitima Mpanano Remy, Mirindi Bacikenge Alfred, Kajabika Binkurhorhwa Arsene, Mwinja Bufole Nadine, Banyewesize Jean Heri, Mitima Murhula Clovis, Nancy Glass
INTRODUCTION: People living in poverty have limited access to traditional financial institutions. Microfinance programmes are designed to meet this gap and show promise in improving income, economic productivity and health. Our Congolese-US community academic research partnership developed two livestock productive asset transfer programmes, Pigs for Peace (PFP) and Rabbits for Resilience (RFR), to address the interlinked health, social and economic well-being of individuals, their families and communities...
March 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268079/gender-disparities-in-the-food-insecurity-overweight-and-food-insecurity-obesity-paradox-among-low-income-older-adults
#6
Daphne C Hernandez, Layton Reesor, Rosenda Murillo
BACKGROUND: Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are increasing among older adults. Food insecurity is a nutrition-related factor that coexists with obesity among low-income individuals. The majority of the research on the food insecurity-obesity paradox has been conducted on low-income mothers and children, with research lacking on large diverse samples of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess gender disparities in the association between food insecurity and overweight and obesity among low-income older adults...
March 3, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231177/the-goal-of-adequate-nutrition-can-it-be-made-affordable-sustainable-and-universal
#7
REVIEW
Ian McFarlane
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area...
November 30, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196405/psychosocial-interventions-for-supporting-women-to-stop-smoking-in-pregnancy
#8
REVIEW
Catherine Chamberlain, Alison O'Mara-Eves, Jessie Porter, Tim Coleman, Susan M Perlen, James Thomas, Joanne E McKenzie
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking remains one of the few preventable factors associated with complications in pregnancy, and has serious long-term implications for women and babies. Smoking in pregnancy is decreasing in high-income countries, but is strongly associated with poverty and is increasing in low- to middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy on smoking behaviour and perinatal health outcomes...
February 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173858/mortality-trends-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-the-state-of-sergipe-brazil-1980-2013
#9
Marcos Antônio Costa de Albuquerque, Danielle Menezes Dias, Lucas Teixeira Vieira, Carlos Anselmo Lima, Angela Maria da Silva
BACKGROUND: Neglected Tropical Diseases are a set of communicable diseases that affect the population so low socioeconomic status, particularly 1.4 billion people who are living below the poverty level. This study has investigated the magnitude and mortality time trends for these diseases in the state of Sergipe, Northeast Region of Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study of time series, based on secondary data derived from the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health...
February 8, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141840/poor-quality-for-poor-women-inequities-in-the-quality-of-antenatal-and-delivery-care-in-kenya
#10
Jigyasa Sharma, Hannah H Leslie, Francis Kundu, Margaret E Kruk
BACKGROUND: Quality of healthcare is an important determinant of future progress in global health. However, the distributional aspects of quality of care have received inadequate attention. We assessed whether high quality maternal care is equitably distributed by (1) mapping the quality of maternal care in facilities located in poorer versus wealthier areas of Kenya; and (2) comparing the quality of maternal care available to Kenyans in and not in poverty. METHODS: We assessed three measures of maternal care quality: facility infrastructure and clinical quality of antenatal care and delivery care, using indicators from the 2010 Kenya Service Provision Assessment (SPA), a standardized facility survey with direct observation of maternal care provision...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122530/via-vili-is-more-suitable-for-cervical-cancer-prevention-in-chinese-poverty-stricken-region-a-health-economic-evaluation
#11
Yu Xie, Xiaodong Tan, Haiyan Shao, Qing Liu, Jiyu Tou, Yuling Zhang, Qiong Luo, Qunying Xiang
BACKGROUND: Screening is the main preventive method for cervical cancer in developing countries, but each type of screening has advantages and disadvantages. To investigate the most suitable method for low-income areas in China, we conducted a health economic analysis comparing three methods: visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine (VIA/VILI), ThinPrep cytology test (TCT), and human papillomavirus (HPV) test. METHODS: We recruited 3086 women aged 35-65 years using cluster random sampling...
January 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109661/mapping-sites-of-high-tb-transmission-risk-integrating-the-shared-air-and-social-behaviour-of-tb-cases-and-adolescents-in-a-south-african-township
#12
Benjamin Patterson, Carl D Morrow, Daniel Kohls, Caroline Deignan, Samuel Ginsburg, Robin Wood
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in poverty-stricken areas of the world. Communal gathering places account for the majority of TB transmission in high burden settings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the social behaviour patterns of individuals who have developed TB disease and adolescents at risk of infection. To develop a cheap and effective method to locate transmission hot spots in high burden communities. DESIGN: Portable, combined CO2/GIS monitors and location diaries were given to individuals from a South African township...
April 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093436/burden-of-disease-associated-with-lower-levels-of-income-among-us-adults-aged-65-and-older
#13
Erica I Lubetkin, Haomiao Jia
BACKGROUND: Persons aged 65 years and older represent a heterogeneous group whose prevalence in the USA is expected to markedly increase. Few investigations have examined the total burden of disease attributable to lower levels of income in a single number that accounts for morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We ascertained respondents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores and mortality status from the 2003 to 2004, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010 cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with mortality follow-up through 31 December 2011...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093059/insurance-coverage-and-treatment-use-under-the-affordable-care-act-among-adults-with-mental-and-substance-use-disorders
#14
Brendan Saloner, Sachini Bandara, Marcus Bachhuber, Colleen L Barry
OBJECTIVE: Many adults who have mental or substance use disorders or both experience insurance-related barriers to care, contributing to low treatment utilization. Expanded insurance under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) could improve coverage and access. The study identified changes in coverage and treatment use following 2014 ACA insurance expansions. METHODS: Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to identify individuals ages 18-64 screening positive for any mental disorder (N=29,962) or substance use disorder (N=19,243) for two periods: 2011-2013 and 2014...
January 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081048/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-common-childhood-infections-in-south-african-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-unexposed-infants
#15
Amy L Slogrove, Monika M Esser, Mark F Cotton, David P Speert, Tobias R Kollmann, Joel Singer, Julie A Bettinger
BACKGROUND: Much evidence of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant infectious morbidity predates availability of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy and does not control for universal risk factors (preterm birth, low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding and poverty). METHODS: This prospective cohort study identified HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their newborns from South African community midwife unit. The primary outcome, infectious cause hospitalization or death before 6 months of age, was compared between HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) infants and classified for type and severity using validated study-specific case definitions...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045307/the-effects-of-economic-and-sociocultural-stressors-on-the-well-being-of-children-of-latino-immigrants-living-in-poverty
#16
Marina M Mendoza, Julia Dmitrieva, Krista M Perreira, Eliana Hurwich-Reiss, Sarah Enos Watamura
OBJECTIVE: This article explored whether preschoolers' physical (body mass index [BMI] and salivary cortisol levels) and psychological (internalizing/externalizing behaviors) well-being were predicted by economic hardship, as has been previously documented, and further, whether parental immigration-related stress and/or acculturation level moderated this relationship in low-income Latino families. METHOD: The sample for the current study included 71 children of Latino immigrants (M = 4...
January 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038389/adherence-to-antiepileptic-drugs-among-diverse-older-americans-on-part-d-medicare
#17
Kendra Piper, Joshua Richman, Edward Faught, Roy Martin, Ellen Funkhouser, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Chen Dai, Lucia Juarez, Maria Pisu
INTRODUCTION: Older minority groups are more likely to have poor AED adherence. We describe adherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) among older Americans with epilepsy. METHODS: In retrospective analyses of 2008-2010 Medicare claims for a 5% random sample of beneficiaries augmented by minority representation, epilepsy cases in 2009 were those with ≥1 claim with ICD-9345.x or ≥2 with 780.3x, and ≥1 AED. New-onset cases had no such claims or AEDs in the year before the 2009 index event...
January 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036053/connecting-the-dots-linking-environmental-justice-indicators-to-daily-dose-model-estimates
#18
Hongtai Huang, Timothy M Barzyk
Many different quantitative techniques have been developed to either assess Environmental Justice (EJ) issues or estimate exposure and dose for risk assessment. However, very few approaches have been applied to link EJ factors to exposure dose estimate and identify potential impacts of EJ factors on dose-related variables. The purpose of this study is to identify quantitative approaches that incorporate conventional risk assessment (RA) dose modeling and cumulative risk assessment (CRA) considerations of disproportionate environmental exposure...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997239/transgender-demographics-a-household-probability-sample-of-us-adults-2014
#19
Halley P Crissman, Mitchell B Berger, Louis F Graham, Vanessa K Dalton
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of US adults who identify as transgender and to compare the demographics of the transgender and nontransgender populations. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from states and territories in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System that asked about transgender status. The proportion of adults identified as transgender was calculated from affirmative and negative responses (n = 151 456). We analyzed data with a design-adjusted χ(2) test...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938418/growing-up-in-portugal-cape-verdean-ancestry-children-exhibit-low-overweight-and-obesity-compared-with-portuguese-in-urban-lisbon
#20
A L André, C Padez, V Rosado-Marques, P L Griffiths, M I Varela-Silva
Portugal has one of the highest rates of childhood overweight and obesity in Europe. However, little is known about the health of ethnic minorities living in its capital city, Lisbon. The Cape Verdean community in Lisbon tend to have low educational levels, material deprivation and struggle with discrimination and racism, factors that would probably be associated with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. Data for the Cape Verdean population were collected in three different time periods by three different research teams in 1993, 2009 and 2013 and included children aged 6-12 years living in the Cova da Moura neighbourhood of the Greater Lisbon Metro Area...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
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