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Poverty calculation

Dipen D Patel, Marta Rosenberg, Laura Rosenberg, Guillermo Foncerrada, Clark R Andersen, Karel D Capek, Jesus Leal, Jong O Lee, Carlos Jimenez, Ludwik Branski, Walter J Meyer, David N Herndon
INTRODUCTION: Children 5 and younger are at risk for sustaining serious burn injuries. The causes of burns vary depending on demographic, cultural and socioeconomic variables. At this pediatric burn center we provided medical care to children from Mexico with severe injuries. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of demographic distribution and modifiable risk factors of burns in young children to help guide prevention. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed with children 5 and younger from Mexico who were injured from 2000-2013...
March 7, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Salma Oktaria, Norma Sofisa Hurif, Wardiansyah Naim, Hok Bing Thio, Tamar E C Nijsten, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: Poverty has long been considered a risk factor for leprosy and is related to nutritional deficiencies. In this study, we aim to investigate the association between poverty-related diet and nutrition with leprosy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In rural leprosy-endemic areas in Indonesia, we conducted a household-based case-control study using two controls for each case patient (100 recently diagnosed leprosy patients and 200 controls), matched for age and gender...
March 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mariyam Suzana, Helen Walls, Richard Smith, Johanna Hanefeld
BACKGROUND: In resource-constrained health systems medical travel is a common alternative to seeking unavailable health services. This paper was motivated by the need to understand better the impact of such travel on households and health systems. METHODS: We used primary data from 344 subsidized and 471 non-subsidized inbound medical travellers during June to December 2013 drawn from the North, Centre and South regions of the Maldives where three international airports are located...
March 6, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Katarzyna Orlewska, Andrzej Sliwczynski, Ewa Orlewska
OBJECTIVES: To assess the link between the risks of most frequent cancer sites in Poland and selected socioeconomic variables that potentially affect health outcomes throughout the life course. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional ecological study. Incidence of lung, breast, and colon cancer by voivodeships in 2014 was calculated based on Polish National Cancer Registry. Socioeconomic variables in individual voivodeships were assessed based on Polish Social Cohesion Survey for 2015...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Caroline Walker, Chaitanya Allamneni, Jordan Orr, Huifeng Yun, Paul Fitzmorris, Fenglong Xie, Talha A Malik
Racial disparities are observed clinically in Crohn's Disease (CD) with research suggesting African Americans (AA) have worse outcomes than Caucasian Americans (CA). The aim of this study is to assess whether socioeconomic status (SES) rather than race is the major predictor of worse outcomes. We designed a retrospective cohort study of 944 CD patients seen at our center. Patients' billing zip codes were collected and average income and percent of population living above or below poverty level (PL) for each zip code calculated...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kaaren Mathias, Hira Pant, Manju Marella, Lawrence Singh, Gvs Murthy, Nathan Grills
OBJECTIVES: This study used a population-based cross-sectional survey to describe the prevalence of psychosocial disability and unmet need for access to services in North India. SETTING: This study was conducted in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, in 2014. PARTICIPANTS: A population-based sample of 2441 people over the age of 18 years. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The Rapid Assessment of Disability survey tool identified people with disability and used an adapted version of the Kessler scale to identify those with psychosocial disability...
February 27, 2018: BMJ Open
Vikram Rangan, Shuji Mitsuhashi, Prashant Singh, Sarah Ballou, William Hirsch, Thomas Sommers, Judy Nee, Johanna Iturrino, Anthony Lembo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fecal urgency is a common symptom among patients with gastrointestinal disorders, but can also occur in healthy individuals with normal bowel habits. There have been few studies of fecal urgency in the general population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nurition Examination Survey (NHANES) to analyze the prevalence of and risk factors for this symptom. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4,676 persons who completed the Bowel Health Questionnaire from the NHANES, from 2009 through 2010...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ihab Mikati, Adam F Benson, Thomas J Luben, Jason D Sacks, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant
OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter (PM)-emitting facilities by the characteristics of the surrounding residential population and to illustrate various spatial scales at which to consider such disparities. METHODS: We assigned facilities emitting PM in the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to nearby block groups across the 2009 to 2013 American Community Survey population. We calculated the burden from these emissions for racial/ethnic groups and by poverty status...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
John R Marshall, Stephen F Gassner, Craig L Anderson, Richelle J Cooper, Shahram Lotfipour, Bharath Chakravarthy
Background Reports indicate a geographic effect of socioeconomic inequalities on the occurrence of opioid-related fatal overdoses. We aim to (1) estimate the rates of opioid-related overdoses, (2) estimate the association of benzodiazepine co-ingestion with opioid-related deaths, (3) estimate associations between socioeconomic indicators and opioid-related deaths, and (4) map the distribution of fatal overdoses, in Orange County (OC), California. Methods We conducted an ecologic study of all opioid related deaths (1205 total) obtained from the OC Coroner Division database from 2010-2014 (1065 OC residents, 55 non-residents, 85 OC homeless) (analyzed 2016-2017)...
February 21, 2018: Substance Abuse
Lily D Yan, Jonas Mwale, Samantha Straitz, Godfrey Biemba, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Julia F Ross, Lawrence Myananyanda, Mary Nambao, Paul Ngwakum, Eleonora Genovese, Bowen Banda, Nadia Akseer, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Peter Rockers, Davidson H Hamer
OBJECTIVE: To assess how quality and availability of reproductive, maternal, neonatal (RMNH) services vary by district wealth and urban/rural status in Zambia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from the Millennium Development Goal Acceleration Initiative baseline assessment of 117 health facilities in 9 districts. Quality was assessed through a composite score of 23 individual RMNH indicators, ranging from 0 to 1. Availability was evaluated by density of providers and facilities...
February 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Rachel S Bergmans, Mari Palta, Stephanie A Robert, Lawrence M Berger, Deborah B Ehrenthal, Kristen M Malecki
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests both that chronic inflammation mediates the association of food insecurity with adverse health outcomes and that diet may be a significant source of inflammation among food insecure individuals. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether food security status is associated with dietary inflammatory potential. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional data came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), cycles 2007 to 2014 (n=10,630)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
David G Weissman, Rand D Conger, Richard W Robins, Paul D Hastings, Amanda E Guyer
Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect brain function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) regions was influenced by mean family income and family income change. Parents of 68 Mexican-origin adolescents (35 females) reported family income annually when adolescents were 10-16 years old. Intercept and slope of income at each of these ages were calculated for each participant...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Rina Pradhan, Karen Wynter, Jane Fisher
Pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality are much more prevalent among adolescents than adults, particularly in low-income settings. Little is known about risk factors for pregnancy among adolescents in Nepal, but setting-specific evidence is needed to inform interventions. This study aimed to describe the prevalence, and identify factors associated with pregnancy among adolescents in Nepal between 2001 and 2011. Secondary analyses of Nepal Demographic Health Surveys (NDHS) data from 2001, 2006, and 2011 were completed...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Antonio Rizzoli-Córdoba, Laura Ibernia Vargas-Carrillo, Jorge Rodrigo Vásquez-Ríos, Hortensia Reyes-Morales, Miguel Ángel Villasís-Keever, Gabriel O'Shea-Cuevas, Daniel Aceves-Villagrán, Onofre Muñoz-Hernández, José Alberto García-Aranda
BACKGROUND: Early education program (EEP) was created to support parents with 1 to 3 year olds living in poverty situation in Mexico, and includes education and child daycare for 8h five days per week. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between length of stay in EEP and the level of development in children. METHODS: Cross sectional, population-based study conducted in two Mexican states. All children aged between 12 to 48 months enrolled in EEP from November 2014 to January 2015 were included...
March 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Josh Seim, Melody J Glenn, Joshua English, Karl Sporer
BACKGROUND: Are 9-1-1 ambulances relatively late to poorer neighborhoods? Studies suggesting so often rely on weak measures of neighborhood (e.g., postal zip code), limit the analysis to particular ambulance encounters (e.g., cardiac arrest responses), and do little to account for variations in dispatch priority or intervention severity. METHODS: We merged EMS ambulance contact records in a single California county (n = 87,554) with tract-level data from the American Community Survey (n = 300)...
January 30, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Thomas O Talbot, Douglas H Done, Gwen D Babcock
BACKGROUND: Life expectancy at birth (LE) has been calculated for states and counties. LE estimates at these levels mask health disparities in local communities. There are no nationwide estimates at the sub-county level. We present a stepwise approach for calculating LE using census tracts in New York state to identify health disparities. METHODS: Our study included 2751 census tracts in New York state, but excluded New York City. We used population data from the 2010 United States Census and 2008-2010 mortality data from the state health department...
January 26, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Ganga S Bey, Molly E Waring, Bill M Jesdale, Sharina D Person
Chronic stress stemming from social inequity has long been recognized as a risk factor for poor physical and psychological health, yet challenges remain in uncovering the mechanisms through which such exposures affect health outcomes and lead to racial and gender health disparities. Examination of sociocultural influences on group identity, coping, and the expression of stress may yield relevant insight into potential pathways of inequity's effect on risk for chronic disease. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic stress as measured by allostatic load (AL) and depression by gendered race group...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Andrea S Christopher, David U Himmelstein, Steffie Woolhandler, Danny McCormick
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of households' outlays for medical expenditures on income inequality and changes since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). METHODS: We analyzed data from the US Current Population Surveys for calendar years 2010 through 2014. We calculated the Gini index of income inequality before and after subtracting households' medical outlays (including insurance premiums and out-of-pocket costs) from income, the financial burden of medical outlays for each income decile, and the number of individuals pushed below poverty by medical outlays...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Oscar F Herran, Gonzalo A Patiño, Edna M Gamboa
BACKGROUND: This study characterizes the intake of sweetened beverages and establishes whether economic inequalities in their consumption exists. METHODS: Ecological study. Mixed methods using food frequency questionnaire and inequality indices. Based on the National Nutrition Survey, Colombia, 2010. The sweetened beverage intake of 17,514 subjects in 33 geodemographic units was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire and summarized. The calculation of inequality was based on the monetary poverty...
January 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Mónica Pinilla-Roncancio
BACKGROUND: Disability and poverty are interconnected and although this relationship has been recognised, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support any possible causal relationship in this topic, particularly in the context of Latin America (LA). HYPOTHESIS: This study tests the hypothesis "Disability increases the risk of multidimensional poverty of people living with disabilities and their families". METHODS: Using national census data from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica and Mexico, the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (Global MPI) was calculated with the aim of measuring and comparing the levels of multidimensional poverty of people living in households with and without disabled members in the five countries...
December 30, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
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