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Poverty calculation

Andrea L Roberts, Norman J Johnson, Jarvis T Chen, Merit E Cudkowicz, Marc G Weisskopf
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality in the United States. METHODS: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), a United States-representative, multistage sample, collected race/ethnicity and socioeconomic data prospectively. Mortality information was obtained by matching NLMS records to the National Death Index (1979-2011). More than 2 million persons (n = 1,145,368 women, n = 1,011,172 men) were included, with 33,024,881 person-years of follow-up (1,299 ALS deaths , response rate 96%)...
October 14, 2016: Neurology
Mei Lin, Chien-Hsun Li, Liang Wei, Shillpa Naavaal, Shellie Kolavic Gray, Michael C Manz, Laurie Barker
OBJECTIVES: To compare estimated prevalence of past-year dental visit (PPYDV) among US adults aged ≥18 years from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimates from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: We estimated PPYDV adjusted for covariates (age, race/ethnicity, education level, poverty status, edentulism) using BRFSS, MEPS, and NHIS 1999-2010, and NHANES 1999-2004...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Stéphane Verguet, Arindam Nandi, Véronique Filippi, Donald A P Bundy
BACKGROUND: High levels of maternal mortality and large associated inequalities exist in low-income and middle-income countries. Adolescent pregnancies remain common, and pregnant adolescent women face elevated risks of maternal mortality and poverty. We examined the distribution across socioeconomic groups of maternal deaths and impoverishment among adolescent girls (15-19 years old) in Niger, which has the highest total fertility rate globally, and India, which has the largest number of maternal deaths...
2016: BMJ Open
Yuejen Zhao, Siva R Vemuri, Dinesh Arya
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the potential economic benefits of closing the Indigenous health gap by quantifying the economic burden associated with Indigenous health inequality in the Northern Territory. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cost-of-illness study was conducted from a societal perspective for NT residents for the period 2009-2013. The total cost of the Indigenous health gap was estimated by calculating the cost differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in health services, lost productivity and lost life-years on the basis of data from the 2011 census, as well as on burden of disease, health expenditure, welfare, taxation and other published financial data...
September 19, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins, Carlos Augusto Monteiro
BACKGROUND: The Bolsa Família Program was created in Brazil in 2003, by the joint of different social programs aimed at poor or very poor families with focus on income transfer to promote immediate poverty relief, conditionalities and complementary programs. Given the contributions of conditional cash transfer programs to poverty alleviation and their potential effects on nutrition and health, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food purchases of low-income households in Brazil...
2016: BMC Public Health
Eric M Roberts, Paul B English
BACKGROUND: Although ongoing, multi-topic surveys form the basis of public health surveillance in many countries, their utility for specific subject matter areas can be limited by high proportions of missing data. For example, the National Health and Examination Survey is the main resource for surveillance of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in US children, but key predictor variables are missing for as many as 35% of respondents. METHODS: Using a Bayesian framework, we formulate a t-distributed Heckman selection model applicable to the case of multiple missing-not-at-random variables in the context of a complex survey design...
August 15, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
José Pumarega, Magda Gasull, Duk-Hee Lee, Tomàs López, Miquel Porta
Human exposure to environmental chemicals as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is usually assessed considering each pollutant individually, with little attention to concentrations of mixtures in individuals or social groups. Yet, it may be relatively common for humans to have low and high concentrations of numerous POPs. The study objectives were to analyze the number of POPs detected per person at high concentrations in the U.S. population, and the associations between such type of indicators and socioeconomic factors as gender, race / ethnicity, education, and poverty level...
2016: PloS One
Garth Nyambi Walker, Suzanne McLone, Maryann Mason, Karen Sheehan
BACKGROUND: The United States reports the highest levels of firearm homicide incidences compared to other high income countries, and the focus and causes of these incidences within the US differ by demographic characteristics and location such as urban versus rural environment. Despite these findings, few studies have published on rates varied by region within a city. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide descriptive analysis of the rates of firearm homicide by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in each of the seven City of Chicago regions, and to determine if the rates of firearm homicide differ by demographics among the seven City of Chicago regions...
October 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Arjumand Siddiqi, Marcella K Jones, Donald J Bruce, Paul C Erwin
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have examined the association between income inequality and overall infant mortality rates (IMR). We examine effects of income inequality on racial inequities in IMR over the period 1992-2007 in the U.S. METHODS: Race-specific state IMR data were obtained from 1992 to 2007, from which absolute and relative IMR inequities were calculated. Fixed and random effects models, adjusted for state-level median income, percent poverty, percent high school graduates, and unemployment rate, were used to determine contemporaneous and lagged state-level associations between income inequality and racial IMR inequities...
September 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Andrew J Goodwin, Nandita R Nadig, James T McElligott, Kit N Simpson, Dee W Ford
BACKGROUND: Medically underserved areas are composed of vulnerable populations with reduced access to ambulatory care services. Our goal was to determine the association between residence in a medically underserved area and severe sepsis incidence and mortality. METHODS: Using administrative data, we identified adults admitted with severe sepsis to nonfederal hospitals in South Carolina. We determined whether each resident lived in a medically underserved area or nonmedically underserved area from US Census and Department of Health and Human Services data...
October 2016: Chest
Sharoda Dasgupta, Michael R Kramer, Eli S Rosenberg, Travis H Sanchez, Patrick S Sullivan
BACKGROUND: No existing measures of HIV care access consider both spatial proximity to services and provider-related characteristics in a single measure. We developed and applied a tool to: (1) quantify spatial access to HIV care services (supply) and (2) identify underserved areas with respect to HIV cases (demand), by travel mode, in Atlanta. METHODS: Building on a study of HIV care engagement, data from an HIV care provider database, and HIV case counts by zip code tabulation area (ZCTA) from AIDSVu...
2016: SpringerPlus
V D'Egidio, D Mipatrini, A P Massetti, V Vullo, G La Torre
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and its determinants among migrants in irregular situations in Italy. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was held in Rome in 2014. HRQoL was assessed through SF-12 questionnaire and physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) were calculated; socio-demographic information and medical conditions were collected. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the impact of demographic and pathological variables on the HRQoL...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Michel J Counotte, Gulnara Minbaeva, Jumagul Usubalieva, Kubanychbek Abdykerimov, Paul R Torgerson
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic disease (ZD) pose a serious threat to human health in low-income countries. In these countries the human burden of disease is often underestimated due to insufficient monitoring because of insufficient funding. Quantification of the impact of zoonoses helps in prioritizing healthcare needs. Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with 48% of the population employed in agriculture and one third of the population living below the poverty line. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have assessed the burden of zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan by conducting a systematic review...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Paul D Loprinzi, Robert E Davis
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effects of psychological,socioeconomic, biological and behavioral parameters on mortality. METHODS: A prospective design was employed. Data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (analyzed in 2015); follow-up mortality status evaluated in 2011. Psychological function was assessed from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as a measure of depression...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Maikutlo Kebaetse, Gaonyadiwe George Mokone, Ludo Badlangana, Loeto Mazhani
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has a greater share of the global burden of disease, poverty, and inadequate human resources for health compared with other regions of the world. Botswana, as other regional countries, is failing to successfully recruit and retain academics at its medical school. OBJECTIVES: To document the medical school's staff recruitment and retention trends and challenges, and to propose possible solutions. METHODS: This was a descriptive research study involving review and analysis of the University of Botswana medical school's staff number targets, actual numbers on post, and other relevant publicly available university documents...
July 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Mariel A Aviña-Barrera, Octelina Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco Vázquez-Nava, Adriana Perales-Torres, Sanjuana Aleman-Castillo
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition and obesity coexist among Mexican children due to poverty, sedentariness and inadequate food intake. AIM: To assess the nutritional status of school age children in a Mexican city located in the frontier with United States. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross sectional assessment of children from 28 basic schools in 2005, 2008 and 2013. Using a cluster sampling methodology, 5 children per course were selected in each school, reaching a final sample 840 children aged 7 to 12 years old...
March 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Regina S Wright, Shari R Waldstein, Marie Fanelli Kuczmarski, Ryan T Pohlig, Constance S Gerassimakis, Beatrice Gaynor, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
OBJECTIVE: Poor diet quality contributes to morbidity, including poor brain health outcomes such as cognitive decline and dementia. African Americans and individuals living in poverty may be at greater risk for cognitive decrements from poor diet quality. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Baltimore, MD, USA. SUBJECTS: Participants were 2090 African Americans and Whites (57 % female, mean age=47·9 years) who completed two 24 h dietary recalls...
June 3, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Rebecca A Kasl, Philip R Brinson, Lola B Chambless
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive malignancy, but there is marked heterogeneity in survival time. Health care disparities have demonstrated significance in oncologic outcomes but have not been clearly examined in this patient population. We investigated the role of sociodemographic variables in the prognosis of adult patients diagnosed with GBM. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of GBM, who underwent resection or biopsy at a single institution from 2000 to 2014...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Luis Huicho, Eddy R Segura, Carlos A Huayanay-Espinoza, Jessica Niño de Guzman, Maria Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Yvonne Tam, Aluisio J D Barros, Cesar G Victora
BACKGROUND: Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply. We did a country case study with the aim of documenting Peru's progress in reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health from 2000-13, and explored the potential determinants. METHODS: We examined the outcomes of health interventions coverage, under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, and prevalence of under-5 stunting...
June 2016: Lancet Global Health
Bethany Boggess, Hilda Ochoa Bogue
Migratory and seasonal agricultural workers (MSAWs) are a historically under-served population that experience poor access to health care. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, socioeconomic, and health status of U.S. agricultural workers and their dependents who were patients of a Migrant Health Center in 2012. The authors used the Uniform Data System to examine demographic, socioeconomic, and health variables for 793,188 patients of 164 Migrant Health Centers during 2012. Means, proportions, and period prevalence was calculated for all variables...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
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