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Poverty calculation

Tao Xue, Tong Zhu, Weiwei Lin, Evelyn O Talbott
Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy harm both maternal and infant health and have been linked to ambient particulate matter. However, existing studies are restricted to a local scale and remain inconsistent. A large-scale study is required to enrich the epidemiological evidence and explore the potential sources of the inconsistency. Making use of US birth certificates (1999-2004), and monitoring data from the environmental protection agency air quality networks, we associated hypertensive disorders in pregnancy with maternal exposure to fine particles or coarse particles using logistic regression analysis after adjusting for many covariates among >5 million subjects in the contiguous United States...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
Madeline Y Sutton, Wen Zhou, Emma L Frazier
Among 230,360 women with diagnosed HIV in the United States (U.S.), ~ 8,500 give birth annually, and unplanned pregnancies (as with HIV-negative women) are prevalent. However, unplanned pregnancies and contraceptive use among HIV-positive women have been understudied. To examine unplanned pregnancies and contraceptive use among HIV-positive women, we used 2013-2014 data from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), an HIV surveillance system that produces national estimates for HIV-positive adults in care in the U...
2018: PloS One
Syed Manzoor Ahmed Hanifi, Henrik Ravn, Peter Aaby, Abbas Bhuiya
BACKGROUND: Immunization is one of the most successful and effective health intervention to reduce vaccine preventable diseases for children. Recently, Bangladesh has made huge progress in immunization coverage. In this study, we compared the recent immunization coverage between boys and girls in a rural area of Bangladesh. SETTING: The study is based on data from Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of icddr,b, which covers a population of 90,000 individuals living in 16,000 households in 49 villages...
April 23, 2018: Vaccine
David C Lee, Qun Jiang, Bahman P Tabaei, Brian Elbel, Christian A Koziatek, Kevin J Konty, Winfred Y Wu
OBJECTIVE: Focusing health interventions in places with suboptimal glycemic control can help direct resources to neighborhoods with poor diabetes-related outcomes, but finding these areas can be difficult. Our objective was to use indirect measures versus a gold standard, population-based A1C registry to identify areas of poor glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Census tracts in New York City were characterized by race, ethnicity, income, poverty, education, diabetes-related emergency visits, inpatient hospitalizations, and proportion of adults with diabetes having poor glycemic control, based on A1C >9...
April 24, 2018: Diabetes Care
Israt Jahan, Mohammad Muhit, Tasneem Karim, Hayley Smithers-Sheedy, Iona Novak, Cheryl Jones, Nadia Badawi, Gulam Khandaker
PURPOSE: To assess the nutritional status and underlying risk factors for malnutrition among children with cerebral palsy in rural Bangladesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data from the Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register; a prospective population based surveillance of children with cerebral palsy aged 0-18 years in a rural subdistrict of Bangladesh (i.e., Shahjadpur). Socio-demographic, clinical and anthropometric measurements were collected using Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register record form...
April 16, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Esa-Pekka A Nykänen, Hanna E Dunning, Richmond N O Aryeetey, Aileen Robertson, Alexandr Parlesak
The Ghanaian population suffers from a double burden of malnutrition. Cost of food is considered a barrier to achieving a health-promoting diet. Food prices were collected in major cities and in rural areas in southern Ghana. Linear programming (LP) was used to calculate nutritionally optimized diets (food baskets (FBs)) for a low-income Ghanaian family of four that fulfilled energy and nutrient recommendations in both rural and urban settings. Calculations included implementing cultural acceptability for families living in extreme and moderate poverty (food budget under USD 1...
April 7, 2018: Nutrients
Ivaneliza Simionato de Assis, Marcos Augusto Moraes Arcoverde, Antônio Carlos Viera Ramos, Luana Seles Alves, Thais Zamboni Berra, Luiz Henrique Arroyo, Ana Angélica Rêgo de Queiroz, Danielle Talita Dos Santos, Aylana de Souza Belchior, Josilene Dália Alves, Flávia Meneguetti Pieri, Reinaldo Antônio Silva-Sobrinho, Ione Carvalho Pinto, Clodis Maria Tavares, Mellina Yamamura, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Pedro Fredemir Palha, Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio
BACKGROUND: Brazil is the only country in Latin America that has adopted a national health system. This causes differences in access to health among Latin American countries and induces noticeable migration to Brazilian regions to seek healthcare. This phenomenon has led to difficulties in the control and elimination of diseases related to poverty, such as leprosy. The aim of this study was to evaluate social determinants and their relationship with the risk of leprosy, as well as to examine the temporal trend of its occurrence in a Brazilian municipality located on the tri-border area between Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Caroline Hensley, Pamela C Heaton, Robert S Kahn, Heidi R Luder, Stacey M Frede, Andrew F Beck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Variability in primary medication nonadherence (PMN), or failure to fill a new prescription, influences disparities and widens equity gaps. This study sought to evaluate PMN across 1 metropolitan area and assess relationships with underlying zip code-level measures. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study using data extracted from 1 regional community pharmacy market-share leader (October 2016-April 2017). Data included patient age, sex, payer, medication type, and home zip code...
April 2018: Pediatrics
Andrew F Beck, Carley L Riley, Stuart C Taylor, Cole Brokamp, Robert S Kahn
Building a culture of health in hospitals means more than participating in community partnerships. It also requires an enhanced capacity to recognize and respond to disparities in utilization patterns across populations. We identified all pediatric hospitalizations at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, in the period 2011-16. Each hospitalized child's address was geocoded, allowing us to calculate inpatient bed-day rates for each census tract in Hamilton County, Ohio, across all causes and for specific conditions and pediatric subspecialties...
April 2018: Health Affairs
Stefanie Rosumeck, Alexander Nast, Corinna Dressler
BACKGROUND: Scabies is an intensely itchy parasitic infection of the skin. It occurs worldwide, but is particularly problematic in areas of poor sanitation, overcrowding, and social disruption. In recent years, permethrin and ivermectin have become the most relevant treatment options for scabies. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of topical permethrin and topical or systemic ivermectin for scabies in people of all ages. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to 25 April 2017: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and IndMED...
April 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Elizabeth L Tung, Kristen E Wroblewski, Kelly Boyd, Jennifer A Makelarski, Monica E Peek, Stacy Tessler Lindau
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between several types of police-recorded crime (violent, nonviolent, and homicide) and cardiometabolic health (obesity and elevated blood pressure [BP]), and to determine if associations were modified by age and sex. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed cross-sectional data (N=14 799 patients) from 3 primary care clinics at an academic medical center in Chicago, IL. Patient-level health data were obtained from the electronic health record (June 1, 2014-May 31, 2015), including body mass index and BP, and linked to the City of Chicago Police Data Portal...
March 24, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Dipen D Patel, Marta Rosenberg, Laura Rosenberg, Guillermo Foncerrada, Clark R Andersen, Karel D Capek, Jesus Leal, Jong O Lee, Carlos Jimenez, Ludwik Branski, Walter J Meyer, David N Herndon
INTRODUCTION: Children 5 and younger are at risk for sustaining serious burn injuries. The causes of burns vary depending on demographic, cultural and socioeconomic variables. At this pediatric burn center we provided medical care to children from Mexico with severe injuries. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of demographic distribution and modifiable risk factors of burns in young children to help guide prevention. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed with children 5 and younger from Mexico who were injured from 2000-2013...
March 7, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Salma Oktaria, Norma Sofisa Hurif, Wardiansyah Naim, Hok Bing Thio, Tamar E C Nijsten, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: Poverty has long been considered a risk factor for leprosy and is related to nutritional deficiencies. In this study, we aim to investigate the association between poverty-related diet and nutrition with leprosy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In rural leprosy-endemic areas in Indonesia, we conducted a household-based case-control study using two controls for each case patient (100 recently diagnosed leprosy patients and 200 controls), matched for age and gender...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mariyam Suzana, Helen Walls, Richard Smith, Johanna Hanefeld
BACKGROUND: In resource-constrained health systems medical travel is a common alternative to seeking unavailable health services. This paper was motivated by the need to understand better the impact of such travel on households and health systems. METHODS: We used primary data from 344 subsidized and 471 non-subsidized inbound medical travellers during June to December 2013 drawn from the North, Centre and South regions of the Maldives where three international airports are located...
March 6, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Katarzyna Orlewska, Andrzej Sliwczynski, Ewa Orlewska
OBJECTIVES: To assess the link between the risks of most frequent cancer sites in Poland and selected socioeconomic variables that potentially affect health outcomes throughout the life course. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional ecological study. Incidence of lung, breast, and colon cancer by voivodeships in 2014 was calculated based on Polish National Cancer Registry. Socioeconomic variables in individual voivodeships were assessed based on Polish Social Cohesion Survey for 2015...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Caroline Walker, Chaitanya Allamneni, Jordan Orr, Huifeng Yun, Paul Fitzmorris, Fenglong Xie, Talha A Malik
Racial disparities are observed clinically in Crohn's Disease (CD) with research suggesting African Americans (AA) have worse outcomes than Caucasian Americans (CA). The aim of this study is to assess whether socioeconomic status (SES) rather than race is the major predictor of worse outcomes. We designed a retrospective cohort study of 944 CD patients seen at our center. Patients' billing zip codes were collected and average income and percent of population living above or below poverty level (PL) for each zip code calculated...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kaaren Mathias, Hira Pant, Manjula Marella, Lawrence Singh, Gvs Murthy, Nathan Grills
OBJECTIVES: This study used a population-based cross-sectional survey to describe the prevalence of psychosocial disability and unmet need for access to services in North India. SETTING: This study was conducted in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, in 2014. PARTICIPANTS: A population-based sample of 2441 people over the age of 18 years. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The Rapid Assessment of Disability survey tool identified people with disability and used an adapted version of the Kessler scale to identify those with psychosocial disability...
February 27, 2018: BMJ Open
Vikram Rangan, Shuji Mitsuhashi, Prashant Singh, Sarah Ballou, William Hirsch, Thomas Sommers, Judy Nee, Johanna Iturrino, Anthony Lembo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fecal urgency is a common symptom among patients with gastrointestinal disorders, but can also occur in healthy individuals with normal bowel habits. There have been few studies of fecal urgency in the general population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to analyze the prevalence of and risk factors for this symptom. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4676 persons who completed the Bowel Health Questionnaire from the NHANES, from 2009 through 2010...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ihab Mikati, Adam F Benson, Thomas J Luben, Jason D Sacks, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant
OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter (PM)-emitting facilities by the characteristics of the surrounding residential population and to illustrate various spatial scales at which to consider such disparities. METHODS: We assigned facilities emitting PM in the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to nearby block groups across the 2009 to 2013 American Community Survey population. We calculated the burden from these emissions for racial/ethnic groups and by poverty status...
April 2018: American Journal of Public Health
John R Marshall, Stephen F Gassner, Craig L Anderson, Richelle J Cooper, Shahram Lotfipour, Bharath Chakravarthy
BACKGROUND: Reports indicate a geographic effect of socioeconomic inequalities on the occurrence of opioid-related fatal overdoses. This study aims to (1) estimate the rates of opioid-related overdoses, (2) estimate the association of benzodiazepine co-ingestion with opioid-related deaths, (3) estimate associations between socioeconomic indicators and opioid-related deaths, and (4) map the distribution of fatal overdoses, in Orange County (OC), California. METHODS: An ecologic study was conducted of all opioid- related deaths (1205 total) from 2010 to 2014 obtained from the OC Coroner Division database (1065 OC residents, 55 nonresidents, 85 OC homeless) (analyzed 2016-2017)...
February 21, 2018: Substance Abuse
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