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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723937/electricity-system-based-on-100-renewable-energy-for-india-and-saarc
#1
Ashish Gulagi, Piyush Choudhary, Dmitrii Bogdanov, Christian Breyer
The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable, universally accessible, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy system is simulated for SAARC for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid connections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675874/source-apportionment-of-fine-particulate-matter-and-risk-of-term-low-birth-weight-in-california-exploring-modification-by-region-and-maternal-characteristics
#2
Connie Ng, Brian Malig, Sina Hasheminassab, Constantinos Sioutas, Rupa Basu, Keita Ebisu
Previous studies have demonstrated associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and risk of term low birth weight (TLBW; birth weight<2500g and gestational weeks≥37weeks). However, it remains unclear which PM2.5 sources mainly contribute to these associations, and which subgroups (e.g. by residential region and maternal characteristics) may be more susceptible to these exposures. Using California birth records and PM2.5 data from eight monitoring sites from 2002 to 2009, we examined the relationship between exposures to total PM2...
July 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642231/secondhand-smoke-exposure-among-community-dwelling-adult-cancer-survivors-in-the-united-states-1999-2012
#3
Oladimeji Akinboro, Odunayo Olorunfemi, Prasanta Basak, Elizabeth Phillips, Daniel Pomerantz, Bernard Bernhardt, Rasim Gucalp, Stephen Jesmajian, Jamie S Ostroff
Background: Little is known about the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among cancer survivors. We sought to determine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of SHSe among nonsmoking adult cancer survivors in the United States.Methods: Interview and serum cotinine data for nonsmoking adults, age 20 years and older, with a history of cancer (N = 686) were obtained from consecutive two-year cross-sectional cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2012. SHSe was defined as serum cotinine 0...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637649/measuring-the-distribution-of-adolescent-births-among-15-19-year-olds-in-chile-an-ecological-study
#4
Marissa Velarde, Fernando Zegers-Hochschild
BACKGROUND: Although within Latin America Chile has one of the lowest birth rates among adolescents, it has a high rate in comparison to other developed nations. AIM: To explore trends in birth rates among adolescents by selected demographics in Chile. METHODS: The national trend in birth rates was examined for women aged 15-19 years between 1992 and 2012. The birth rates for regions and communes were calculated using birth and census data and were analysed to determine its relationship to the regional or communal poverty rate, which were obtained from the Casen Survey...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633661/prevalence-of-arthritis-according-to-age-sex-and-socioeconomic-status-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries-analysis-of-data-from-the-world-health-organization-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health-sage-wave-1
#5
Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, S Cook, M T Leech, S J Bowe, P Kowal, N Naidoo, I N Ackerman, R S Page, S M Hosking, J A Pasco, M Mohebbi
BACKGROUND: In higher income countries, social disadvantage is associated with higher arthritis prevalence; however, less is known about arthritis prevalence or determinants in low to middle income countries (LMICs). We assessed arthritis prevalence by age and sex, and marital status and occupation, as two key parameters of socioeconomic position (SEP), using data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). METHODS: SAGE Wave 1 (2007-10) includes nationally-representative samples of older adults (≥50 yrs), plus smaller samples of adults aged 18-49 yrs...
June 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623451/neighborhood-inequalities-in-hepatitis-c-mortality-spatial-and-temporal-patterns-and-associated-factors
#6
Mary M Ford, Payal S Desai, Gil Maduro, Fabienne Laraque
Deaths attributable to hepatitis C (HCV) infection are increasing in the USA even as highly effective treatments become available. Neighborhood-level inequalities create barriers to care and treatment for many vulnerable populations. We seek to characterize citywide trends in HCV mortality rates over time and identify and describe neighborhoods in New York City (NYC) with disproportionately high rates and associated factors. We used a multiple cause of death (MCOD) definition for HCV mortality. Cases identified between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014, were geocoded to NYC census tracts (CT)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617681/psychotropic-drugs-prescription-in-undocumented-migrants-and-indigent-natives-in-italy
#7
Cesare Cerri, Gianfrancesco Fiorini, Silvia Bini, Antonello E Rigamonti, Nicoletta Marazzi, Alessandro Sartorio, Silvano G Cella
To evaluate psychotropic drug use in undocumented migrants and natives in the same conditions of poverty. We studied drug dispensation by a nongovernmental organization during the year 2014. Drugs were identified according to the Anatomical Chemical Therapeutic classification and their quantity was measured in defined daily doses (DDD). We determined the percentage of patients taking at least one medicine with psychotropic activity in relation to the total number of patients receiving medicines of any class...
June 14, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613395/clozapine-dose-for-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
Selvizhi Subramanian, Birgit A Völlm, Nick Huband
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and related disorders such as schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorder are serious mental illnesses characterised by profound disruptions in thinking and speech, emotional processes, behaviour and sense of self. Clozapine is useful in the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders, particularly when other antipsychotic medications have failed. It improves positive symptoms (such as delusions and hallucinations) and negative symptoms (such as withdrawal and poverty of speech)...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588108/cross-sectional-analysis-of-two-social-determinants-of-health-in-california-cities-racial-ethnic-and-geographic-disparities
#9
Dulce Bustamante-Zamora, Neil Maizlish
OBJECTIVE: To study the magnitude and direction of city-level racial and ethnic differences in poverty and education to characterise health equity and social determinants of health in California cities. DESIGN: We used data from the American Community Survey, United States Census Bureau, 2006-2010, and calculated differences in the prevalence of poverty and low educational attainment in adults by race/ethnicity and by census tracts within California cities. For race/ethnicity comparisons, when the referent group (p2) to calculate the difference (p1-p2) was the non-Hispanic White population (considered a historically advantaged group), a positive difference was considered a health inequity...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575415/catastrophic-healthcare-expenditure-and-poverty-related-to-out-of-pocket-payments-for-healthcare-in-bangladesh-an-estimation-of-financial-risk-protection-of-universal-health-coverage
#10
Jahangir A M Khan, Sayem Ahmed, Timothy G Evans
The Sustainable Development Goals target to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), including financial risk protection (FRP) among other dimensions. There are four indicators of FRP, namely incidence of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE), mean positive catastrophic overshoot, incidence of impoverishment and increase in the depth of poverty occur for high out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare spending. OOP spending is the major payment strategy for healthcare in most low-and-middle-income countries, such as Bangladesh...
May 30, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557719/community-poverty-and-child-abuse-fatalities-in-the-united-states
#11
Caitlin A Farrell, Eric W Fleegler, Michael C Monuteaux, Celeste R Wilson, Cindy W Christian, Lois K Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Child maltreatment remains a problem in the United States, and individual poverty is a recognized risk factor for abuse. Children in impoverished communities are at risk for negative health outcomes, but the relationship of community poverty to child abuse fatalities is not known. Our objective was to evaluate the association between county poverty concentration and rates of fatal child abuse. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of child abuse fatalities in US children 0 to 4 years of age from 1999 to 2014 by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Compressed Mortality Files...
May 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550462/a-case-control-study-of-the-risk-factors-for-obstetric-fistula-in-tigray-ethiopia
#12
L Lewis Wall, Shewaye Belay, Tesfahun Haregot, Jonathan Dukes, Eyoel Berhan, Melaku Abreha
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We tested the null hypothesis that there were no differences between patients with obstetric fistula and parous controls without fistula. METHODS: A unmatched case-control study was carried out comparing 75 women with a history of obstetric fistula with 150 parous controls with no history of fistula. Height and weight were measured for each participant, along with basic socio-demographic and obstetric information. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differences between the groups were analyzed using Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test where appropriate, and Chi-squared or Fisher's exact test, along with backward stepwise logistic regression analyses to detect predictors of obstetric fistula...
May 26, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545743/tdap-vaccination-among-healthcare-personnel-internet-panel-survey-2012-2014
#13
Anup Srivastav, Carla L Black, Peng-Jun Lu, Jun Zhang, Jennifer L Liang, Stacie M Greby
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk for pertussis infection exposure or transmitting the disease to patients in their work settings. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination for HCP to minimize these risks. This study assessed Tdap vaccination coverage among U.S. HCP by sociodemographic and occupation-related characteristics. METHODS: The 2012, 2013, and 2014 Internet Panel Surveys were analyzed in 2015 to assess HCP Tdap vaccination...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544421/inter-prefecture-disparity-in-under-5-mortality-115-year-trend-in-japan
#14
Chie Nagata, Akinori Moriichi, Naho Morisaki, Ruoyan Gai-Tobe, Akira Ishiguro, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Child poverty is a growing, serious issue in Japan, where various social disparities are increasing. Numerous reports have focused on the relationship between social inequity and health, but few studies have assessed how the overall magnitude of disparities in child health has changed in the course of drastic social and economic transitions from 1899 to more recent times. In this study, we assessed the trend of the under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) and its inter-prefecture disparity in Japan...
May 23, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537460/beyond-body-mass-index-using-anthropometric-measures-and-body-composition-indicators-to-assess-odds-of-an-endometriosis-diagnosis
#15
Uba Backonja, Mary L Hediger, Zhen Chen, Diane R Lauver, Liping Sun, C Matthew Peterson, Germaine M Buck Louis
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476461/adding-social-determinant-data-changes-children-s-hospitals-readmissions-performance
#16
Marion R Sills, Matthew Hall, Gretchen J Cutler, Jeffrey D Colvin, Laura M Gottlieb, Michelle L Macy, Jessica L Bettenhausen, Rustin B Morse, Evan S Fieldston, Jean L Raphael, Katherine A Auger, Samir S Shah
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether social determinants of health (SDH) risk adjustment changes hospital-level performance on the 30-day Pediatric All-Condition Readmission (PACR) measure and improves fit and accuracy of discharge-level models. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all hospital discharges meeting criteria for the PACR from 47 hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information database from January to December 2014. We built four nested regression models by sequentially adding risk adjustment factors as follows: chronic condition indicators (CCIs); PACR patient factors (age and sex); electronic health record-derived SDH (race, ethnicity, payer), and zip code-linked SDH (families below poverty level, vacant housing units, adults without a high school diploma, single-parent households, median household income, unemployment rate)...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422923/a-cross-sectional-study-of-emergency-care-utilization-and-associated-costs-of-violent-related-assault-injuries-in-the-united-states
#17
Michael C Monuteaux, Eric W Fleegler, Lois K Lee
BACKGROUND: Violent-related (assault) injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Many violent injury victims seek treatment in the emergency department (ED). Our objectives were to (1) estimate rates of violent-related injuries evaluated in United States EDs, (2) estimate linear trends in ED visits for violent-related injuries from 2000 to 2010, and (3) to determine the associated health care and work-loss costs. METHODS: We examined adults 18 years and older from a nationally representative survey (the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) of ED visits, from 2000 to 2010...
August 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414685/association-of-state-mandated-abstinence-only-sexuality-education-with-rates-of-adolescent-hiv-infection-and-teenage-pregnancy
#18
L M Elliot, M M Booth, G Patterson, M Althoff, C K Bush, M A Dery
INTRODUCTION: Abstinence-only sexuality education (AOSE); is required in the public school systems of many states, raising public health concerns and perpetuating health disparities through school systems. This study aimed to determine the correlations between state-mandated AOSE and the rates of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy. METHODS: Using publicly available data on all 50 United States' laws and policies on AOSE, states were ranked according to their level of abstinence emphasis on sexuality education (Level 0 - Level 3);...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406233/changes-in-prevalence-awareness-treatment-and-control-of-hypertension-in-disadvantaged-french-caribbean-populations-2003-to-2014
#19
P Carrère, N Halbert, S Lamy, J Inamo, A Atallah, T Lang
In 2003, the PHDG (Prevalence of Hypertension among Disadvantaged Guadeloupeans) study highlighted poor management of hypertension in an unemployed French Caribbean population. New processes of health-care coordination and a pay-for-performance system have since been developed. We aimed to assess changes in hypertension characteristics in disadvantaged French Caribbean populations in the last 10 years. Using PHDG 2003 data, in 2014 we undertook a cross-sectional study with identical methods. The source population comprised all Guadeloupeans having undergone periodic heath checks offered by the Social Security insurance at these dates...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398654/survival-disparities-associated-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#20
Cynthia F Hinton, Csaba Siffel, Adolfo Correa, Stuart K Shapira
BACKGROUND: We assessed sociodemographic and clinical factors that are associated with survival among infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: Using data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, we ascertained 150 infants born with CDH between 1979 and 2003 and followed via linkage with state vital records and the National Death Index. Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for socioeconomic and clinical characteristics...
July 3, 2017: Birth defects research
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