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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109068/the-impact-of-dermoscopy-on-melanoma-detection-in-the-practice-of-dermatologists-in-europe-results-of-a-pan-european-survey
#1
A M Forsea, P Tschandl, I Zalaudek, V Del Marmol, H P Soyer, G Argenziano, A C Geller
BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a widely used technique that can increase the sensitivity and specificity of melanoma detection. Information is lacking on the impact of dermoscopy use on the detection of melanoma in the real-life practice of European dermatologists. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that influence the benefit of using dermoscopy for increasing melanoma detection and lowering the number of unnecessary biopsies in the practice of European dermatologists. METHODS: We conducted a survey of dermatologists registered in 32 European countries regarding: the demographic and practice characteristics, dermoscopy training and use, opinions on dermoscopy and the self-estimated impact of dermoscopy use on the number of melanomas detected and the number of unnecessary biopsies performed in practice...
January 21, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109023/intraportal-islet-transplantation-the-impact-of-the-liver-micro-environment
#2
REVIEW
Vaihere Delaune, Thierry Berney, Stéphanie Lacotte, Christian Toso
The portal vein remains the preferred site for pancreatic islet transplantation due to its easy access and low morbidity. However, despite great progress in isolation and transplantation protocols over the past few years, it is still associated with the early loss of some 50-70% of transplanted islets. The complex liver micro-environment itself presumably plays an important role in this loss. The present review focuses on the specifics of the liver micro-environment, notably the localized hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury following transplantation, the low oxygenation of the portal vein, the instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR), the endogenous liver immune system, and the gut-liver axis, and how they can each have an impact on the transplanted islets...
January 21, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109021/affordable-orphan-drugs-a-role-for-not-for-profit-organisations
#3
E H Davies, E Fulton, D Brook, D A Hughes
The success of the Regulation on Orphan Medicinal Products in the European Union is evidenced by the 127 orphan drugs that have had market authorisation since 2000. However the incentives aimed to stimulate research and development have had the unintended consequence of increasing drug cost, resulting in many orphan drugs not being cost-effective. Orphan drugs command an increasing share of the pharmaceutical market and account for a disproportionate amount of healthcare expenditure. Orphan drug ownership by socially motivated, not-for-profit organisations may facilitate access to more affordable orphan drugs, for the benefit of patients and healthcare systems alike...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108993/experience-from-a-multi-country-initiative-to-improve-the-monitoring-of-selected-reproductive-health-indicators-in-africa
#4
Maria Barreix, Özge Tunçalp, Namuunda Mutombo, Ayotunde A Adegboyega, Lale Say
Universal access to sexual and reproductive health remains part of the unfinished business of global development in the Africa. To achieve it, health interventions should be monitored using programmatic indicators. WHO's Strengthening Measurement of Reproductive Health Indicators in Africa initiative, implemented in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe, aimed to improve national information systems for routine monitoring of reproductive health indicators. Participating countries developed action plans employing a two-pronged strategy: (1) revising, standardizing, and harmonizing existing information-system reproductive health indicators; and (2) building data-collection capacity through training and supervision at select pilot sites...
January 21, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108933/modelling-genome-wide-topological-associating-domains-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#5
REVIEW
Y Zhan, L Giorgetti, G Tiana
Chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based techniques such as chromosome conformation capture carbon copy (5C) and Hi-C revealed that the folding of mammalian chromosomes is highly hierarchical. A fundamental structural unit in the hierarchy is represented by topologically associating domains (TADs), sub-megabase regions of the genome within which the chromatin fibre preferentially interacts. 3C-based methods provide the mean contact probabilities between chromosomal loci, averaged over a large number of cells, and do not give immediate access to the single-cell conformations of the chromatin fibre...
January 20, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108879/patterns-of-social-affiliations-and-healthcare-engagement-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#6
Rachel L Behler, Benjamin T Cornwell, John A Schneider
Little work has examined how individuals' social affiliations-the venues in which they meet friends and engage in informal social interaction-influence their engagement with public health services. We investigate how links to these local places shape access to information and exposure to health-seeking behavior. Using longitudinal data from a respondent-driven sample of 618 young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in Chicago, we identify different sets of social venues that connect YBMSM. We then examine how YBMSM's connections within this network influence their receipt of HIV prevention and treatment services and knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)...
January 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108878/stigma-and-conspiracy-beliefs-related-to-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-and-interest-in-using-prep-among-black-and-white-men-and-transgender-women-who-have-sex-with-men
#7
Lisa A Eaton, Seth C Kalichman, Devon Price, Stephanie Finneran, Aerielle Allen, Jessica Maksut
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the US continues to persist, in particular, among race, sexual orientation, and gender minority populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), or using antiretroviral medications for HIV prevention, is an effective option, but uptake of PrEP has been slow. Sociocultural barriers to using PrEP have been largely underemphasized, yet have the potential to stall uptake and, therefore, warrant further understanding. In order to assess the relationships between potential barriers to PrEP (i...
January 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108861/in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-investigating-the-development-of-experimental-brain-metastases-due-to-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#8
Amanda M Hamilton, Paula J Foster
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), when associated with poor outcome, is aggressive in nature with a high incidence of brain metastasis and the shortest median overall patient survival after brain metastasis development compared to all other breast cancer subtypes. As therapies that control primary cancer and extracranial metastatic sites improve, the incidence of brain metastases is increasing and the management of patients with breast cancer brain metastases continues to be a significant clinical challenge...
January 21, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108834/unmet-health-care-needs-among-children-exposed-to-parental-incarceration
#9
Kristin Turney
Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs...
January 20, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108823/which-clinical-and-patient-factors-influence-the-national-economic-burden-of-hospital-readmissions-after-total-joint-arthroplasty
#10
Steven M Kurtz, Edmund C Lau, Kevin L Ong, Edward M Adler, Frank R Kolisek, Michael T Manley
BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act of 2010 advanced the economic model of bundled payments for total joint arthroplasty (TJA), in which hospitals will be financially responsible for readmissions, typically at 90 days after surgery. However, little is known about the financial burden of readmissions and what patient, clinical, and hospital factors drive readmission costs. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the incidence, payer mix, and demographics of THA and TKA readmissions in the United States? (2) What patient, clinical, and hospital factors are associated with the cost of 30- and 90-day readmissions after primary THA and TKA? (3) Are there any differences in the economic burden of THA and TKA readmissions between payers? (4) What types of THA and TKA readmissions are most costly to the US hospital system? METHODS: The recently developed Nationwide Readmissions Database from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (2006 hospitals from 21 states) was used to identify 719,394 primary TJAs and 62,493 90-day readmissions in the first 9 months of 2013 based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108734/valproic-acid-inhibits-glioblastoma-multiforme-cell-growth-via-paraoxonase-2-expression
#11
Jen-Ho Tseng, Cheng-Yi Chen, Pei-Chun Chen, Sheng-Huang Hsiao, Chi-Chen Fan, Yu-Chih Liang, Chie-Pein Chen
We studied the potential mechanisms of valproic acid (VPA) in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Using the human U87, GBM8401, and DBTRG-05MG GBM-derived cell lines, VPA at concentrations of 5 to 20 mM induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Stress-related molecules such as paraoxonase 2 (PON2), cyclin B1, cdc2, and Bcl-xL were downregulated, but p27, p21 and Bim were upregulated by VPA treatment. VPA response element on the PON2 promoter was localized at position -400/-1...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108698/genome-wide-analysis-of-fatty-acid-desaturation-and-its-response-to-temperature
#12
Guillaume Menard, Jose Martin Moreno, Fiona Bryant, Olaya Munoz-Azcarate, Amélie A Kelly, Keywan Hassani-Pak, Smita Kurup, Peter J Eastmond
Plants modify the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of their membrane and storage lipids in order to adapt to changes in temperature. In developing seeds this response is largely controlled by the activities of the microsomal ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, FAD2 and FAD3. Although temperature-regulation of desaturation has been studied at the molecular and biochemical level, the genetic control of this trait is poorly understood. Here we have characterised the response of Arabidopsis thaliana seed lipids to variation in ambient temperature and found that heat inhibits both ω-6 and ω-3 desaturation in phosphatidylcholine, leading to a proportional change in triacylglycerol composition...
January 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108657/risearch2-suffix-array-based-large-scale-prediction-of-rna-rna-interactions-and-sirna-off-targets
#13
Ferhat Alkan, Anne Wenzel, Oana Palasca, Peter Kerpedjiev, Anders Frost Rudebeck, Peter F Stadler, Ivo L Hofacker, Jan Gorodkin
Intermolecular interactions of ncRNAs are at the core of gene regulation events, and identifying the full map of these interactions bears crucial importance for ncRNA functional studies. It is known that RNA-RNA interactions are built up by complementary base pairings between interacting RNAs and high level of complementarity between two RNA sequences is a powerful predictor of such interactions. Here, we present RIsearch2, a large-scale RNA-RNA interaction prediction tool that enables quick localization of potential near-complementary RNA-RNA interactions between given query and target sequences...
January 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108573/transcatheter-mitral-valve-implantation-a-percutaneous-transapical-system
#14
Huangdong Dai, Katharina Huenges, Saskia Pokorny, Gunther Fischer, Jochen Cremer, Anja Metzner, Derk Frank, Georg Lutter
OBJECTIVES: Despite recent achievements, implantation of a transcatheter mitral valved stent remains challenging. In this study, we present a different approach for implantation of a percutaneous mitral valved stent. METHODS: Percutaneous transapical access is combined with, respectively, a left-transatrial, right-transatrial/transseptal or transfemoral/transseptal approach for mitral valve stent implantation and secure fixation. The apical fixation and occlusion are ensured with an Amplatzer occluder...
January 19, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108530/use-of-performance-metrics-for-the-measurement-of-universal-coverage-for-maternal-care-in-mexico
#15
Edson Serván-Mori, David Contreras-Loya, Octavio Gomez-Dantés, Gustavo Nigenda, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Rafael Lozano
This study provides evidence for those working in the maternal health metrics and health system performance fields, as well as those interested in achieving universal and effective health care coverage. Based on the perspective of continuity of health care and applying quasi-experimental methods to analyse the cross-sectional 2009 National Demographic Dynamics Survey (n = 14 414 women), we estimated the middle-term effects of Mexico's new public health insurance scheme, Seguro Popular de Salud (SPS) (vs women without health insurance) on seven indicators related to maternal health care (according to official guidelines): (a) access to skilled antenatal care (ANC); (b) timely ANC; (c) frequent ANC; (d) adequate content of ANC; (e) institutional delivery; (f) postnatal consultation and (g) access to standardized comprehensive antenatal and postnatal care (or the intersection of the seven process indicators)...
January 20, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108436/novel-approach-for-independent-control-of-brain-hypothermia-and-systemic-normothermia-cerebral-selective-deep-hypothermia-for-refractory-cardiac-arrest
#16
Chih-Hsien Wang, Yu-Ting Lin, Heng-Wen Chou, Yi-Chih Wang, Joey-Jen Hwang, John R Gilbert, Yih-Sharng Chen
A 38-year-old man was found unconscious, alone in the driver's seat of his car. The emergency medical team identified his condition as pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation was attempted but failed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was started in the emergency room 52 min after the estimated arrest following the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) protocol in our center. The initial prognosis under the standard protocol was <25% chance of survival. A novel adjunctive to our ECPR protocol, cerebral selective deep (<30°C) hypothermia (CSDH), was applied...
January 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108379/-dark-singlet-oxygen-and-epr-spin-trapping-as-convenient-tools-to-assess-photolytic-drug-degradation
#17
Peter Persich, Steven Hostyn, Céline Joie, Guy Winderickx, Jeroen Pikkemaat, Edwin P Romijn, Bert U W Maes
Forced degradation studies are an important tool for a systematic assessment of decomposition pathways and identification of reactive sites in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Two methodologies have been combined in order to provide a deeper understanding of singlet-oxygen related degradation pathways of APIs under light irradiation. Firstly, we report that a "dark" singlet oxygen test enables the investigation of drug reactivity towards singlet oxygen independently of photolytic irradiation processes...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108374/strategies-to-reduce-hospitalizations-of-children-with-medical-complexity-through-complex-care-expert-perspectives
#18
Ryan J Coller, Bergen B Nelson, Thomas S Klitzner, Adrianna A Saenz, Paul G Shekelle, Carlos F Lerner, Paul J Chung
OBJECTIVES: Interventions to reduce disproportionate hospital use among children with medical complexity (CMC) are needed. Our objective was to conduct a rigorous, structured process to develop intervention strategies aiming to reduce hospitalizations within a complex care program population. METHODS: A complex care medical home program used 1) semi-structured interviews of caregivers of CMC experiencing acute, unscheduled hospitalizations, and 2) literature review on preventing hospitalizations among CMC, to develop key drivers for lowering hospital utilization and link them with intervention strategies...
January 17, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108324/the-circle-nephrostomy-tube-an-attractive-nephrostomy-drainage-system-following-complex-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy
#19
Marawan M El Tayeb, Michael S Borofsky, James E Lingeman
OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with the circle NT (Cook® Medical), a drainage system uniquely designed for use after multiple access PNL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 1317 consecutive patients undergoing 1599 PNLs at IU Health Methodist Hospital was performed. All multiple access cases utilizing circle NTs were reviewed and analyzed. The method of insertion of circle NT is demonstrated. RESULTS: A total of 1843 accesses were obtained in 1599 renal units RUs: 380 upper, 129 mid, and 1334 lower...
January 17, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108246/engineered-cell-lines-for-fish-health-research
#20
Bertrand Collet, Catherine Collins, Katherine Lester
As fish farming continues to increase worldwide, the related research areas of fish disease and immunology are also expanding, aided by the revolution in access to genomic information and molecular technology. The genomes of most fish species of economic importance are now available and annotation based on sequence homology with characterised genomes is underway. However, while useful, functional homology is more difficult to determine, there being a lack of widely distributed and well characterised reagents such as monoclonal antibodies, traditionally used in mammalian studies, to help with confirming functions and cellular interactions of fish molecules...
January 17, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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