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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793153/effects-of-mg-2-on-recovery-of-nmda-receptors-from-inhibition-by-memantine-and-ketamine-reveal-properties-of-a-second-site
#1
Nathan G Glasgow, Madeleine R Wilcox, Jon W Johnson
Memantine and ketamine are NMDA receptor (NMDAR) open channel blockers that are thought to act via similar mechanisms at NMDARs, but exhibit divergent clinical effects. Both drugs act by entering open NMDARs and binding at a site deep within the ion channel (the deep site) at which the endogenous NMDAR channel blocker Mg2+ also binds. Under physiological conditions, Mg2+ increases the IC50 s of memantine and ketamine through competition for binding at the deep site. Memantine also can inhibit NMDARs after associating with a second site accessible in the absence of agonist, a process termed second site inhibition (SSI) that is not observed with ketamine...
May 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793061/microstructural-imaging-of-the-human-brain-with-a-super-scanner-10-key-advantages-of-ultra-strong-gradients-for-diffusion-mri
#2
D K Jones, D C Alexander, R Bowtell, M Cercignani, F Dell'Acqua, D J McHugh, K L Miller, M Palombo, G J M Parker, U S Rudrapatna, C M W Tax
The key component of a microstructural diffusion MRI 'super-scanner' is a dedicated high-strength gradient system that enables stronger diffusion weightings per unit time compared to conventional gradient designs. This can, in turn, drastically shorten the time needed for diffusion encoding, increase the signal-to-noise ratio, and facilitate measurements at shorter diffusion times. This review, written from the perspective of the National Facility for In Vivo MR Imaging of Human Tissue Microstructure, an initiative to establish a shared 300 mT/m-gradient facility amongst the microstructural imaging community, describes ten advantages of ultra-strong gradients for microstructural imaging...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793042/aminergic-neuromodulation-of-associative-visual-learning-in-harnessed-honey-bees
#3
Nino Mancini, Martin Giurfa, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Aurore Avarguès-Weber
The honey bee Apis mellifera is a major insect model for studying visual cognition. Free-flying honey bees learn to associate different visual cues with a sucrose reward and may deploy sophisticated cognitive strategies to this end. Yet, the neural bases of these capacities cannot be studied in flying insects. Conversely, immobilized bees are accessible to neurobiological investigation but training them to respond appetitively to visual stimuli paired with sucrose reward is difficult. Here we succeeded in coupling visual conditioning in harnessed bees with pharmacological analyses on the role of octopamine (OA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in visual learning...
May 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793001/health-literacy-in-chronic-disease-management-a-matter-of-interaction
#4
Iris van der Heide, Iraj Poureslami, Wayne Mitic, Jessica Shum, Irving Rootman, J Mark FitzGerald
Health literacy plays a crucial role in chronic disease management. To comprehensively manage chronic conditions on a daily basis, individuals must be able to assess, understand, evaluate and use health information. Several key publications emphasise that health literacy is not merely a matter of individual skills, but that it is highly dependent on the accessibility of healthcare systems, the communication skills of healthcare professionals, and the level of complexity of health information. However, the literature indicates that health literacy is mainly framed and measured as an individual attribute in research...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792905/together-means-more-happiness-relationship-status-moderates-the-association-between-brain-structure-and-life-satisfaction
#5
Xingxing Zhu, Kangcheng Wang, Li Chen, Aihua Cao, Qunlin Chen, Junchao Li, Jiang Qiu
Life satisfaction reflects an individual's general evaluation of their overall quality of life. It has been hypothesized that relationship status (i.e. state of intimate relationship such as marriage, unmarried cohabiting, dating with others, single or divorce) may influence individual life satisfaction. However, there is little accessible empirical evidence that allows us to explore this proposition. Using a large sample of young adults (n = 1031) from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), we showed that compared to other relationship statuses (e...
May 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792888/oral-vitamin-a-coupled-valsartan-nanomedicine-high-hepatic-stellate-cell-receptors-accessibility-and-prolonged-enterohepatic-residence
#6
Nesrine S El-Mezayen, Wessam F El-Hadidy, Wessam M El-Refaie, Thanaa I Shalaby, Mahmoud M Khattab, Aiman S El-Khatib
So far, liver fibrosis still has no clinically-approved treatment. The loss of stored vitamin-A (VA ) in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main regulators to hepatic fibrosis, can be applied as a mechanism for their targeting. Valsartan is a good candidate for this approach; it is a marketed oral-therapy with inverse- and partial-agonistic activity to the over-expressed angiotensin-II type1 receptor (AT1R) and depleted nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), respectively, in activated HSCs...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792836/medicare-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery-disparities-in-access-part-1
#7
Yisi D Ji, Zachary S Peacock, James R Hupp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792822/genetic-identity-in-genebanks-application-of-the-solcap-12k-snp-array-in-fingerprinting-and-diversity-analysis-in-the-global-in-trust-potato-collection
#8
David Ellis, Oswaldo Chavez, Joseph J Coombs, Julian V Soto, Rene Gomez, David S Douches, Ana Panta, Rocio Silvestre, Noelle Lynette Anglin
Breeders rely on genetic integrity of material from genebanks, however, mislabeling and errors in original data can occur. Paired samples of original material and their in vitro counterparts from 250 diverse potato landrace accessions from the International Potato Center (CIP), were fingerprinted using the Infinium 12K V2 Potato Array to confirm genetic identity and evaluate genetic diversity. Diploid, triploid, and tetraploid accessions were included representing seven cultivated potato taxa (Hawkes, 1990)...
May 24, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792769/the-evidence-of-early-specialist-palliative-care-on-patient-and-caregiver-outcomes
#9
Claude Chidiac
Although there are many differences regarding what palliative care is and to whom it should be delivered, its delivery and integration earlier in the disease trajectory have been advocated since 1990. More recently, there has been a heightened interest in early access to specialist palliative care through its provision earlier in the disease trajectory to improve patient and caregiver outcomes. This article explores the challenges in understanding and defining 'early' specialist palliative care. It also examines the available evidence on early specialist palliative care interventions and their association with patient and caregiver outcomes...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792720/-experimental-processing-of-corrosion-casts-of-large-animal-organs
#10
R Pálek, V Liška, L Eberlová, H Mírka, M Svoboda, S Haviar, M Emingr, O Brzoň, P Mik, V Třeška
INTRODUCTION: Corrosion casts (CCs) are used for the visualization and assessment of hollow structures. CCs with filled capillaries enable (with the help of imaging methods) to obtain data for mathematical organ perfusion modelling. As the processing is more difficult in case of organs with greater volume of the vasculature, mainly organs from small animals have been cast up to now. The aim of this study was to optimize the protocol of corrosion casting of different organs of pig. Porcine organs are relatively easily accessible and frequently used in experimental medicine...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792698/site-selective-switching-strategies-to-functionalize-polyazines
#11
Ryan D Dolewski, Patrick J Fricke, Andrew McNally
Many drug fragments and therapeutic compounds contain multiple pyridines and diazines. Developing site-selective reactions where specific C-H bonds can be transformed in polyazine structures would enable rapid access to valuable derivatives. We present a study that addresses this challenge by selectively installing a phosphonium ion as a versatile functional handle. Inherent factors that control site-selectivity are described along with mechanistically driven approaches for site-selective switching, where the C-+PPh3 group can be predictably installed at other positions in the polyazine system...
May 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792667/control-of-selectivity-in-palladium-ii-catalyzed-oxidative-transformations-of-allenes
#12
Bin Yang, Youai Qiu, Jan-E Bäckvall
Oxidation reactions play a central role in organic synthesis, and it is highly desirable that these reactions are mild and occur under catalytic conditions. In Nature, oxidation reactions occur under mild conditions via cascade processes, and furthermore, they often occur in an enantioselective manner with many of them involving molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant. Inspired by the reactions in Nature, we have developed a number of Pd(II)-catalyzed cascade reactions under mild oxidative conditions...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792595/brg1-governs-glucocorticoid-receptor-interactions-with-chromatin-and-pioneer-factors-across-the-genome
#13
Jackson A Hoffman, Kevin W Trotter, James M Ward, Trevor K Archer
The Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) alters transcriptional activity in response to hormones by interacting with chromatin at GR binding sites (GBSs) throughout the genome. Our work in human breast cancer cells identifies three classes of GBSs with distinct epigenetic characteristics and reveals that BRG1 interacts with GBSs prior to hormone exposure. The GBSs pre-occupied by BRG1 are more accessible and transcriptionally active than other GBSs. BRG1 is required for a proper and robust transcriptional hormone response and knockdown of BRG1 blocks recruitment of the pioneer factors FOXA1 and GATA3 to GBSs...
May 24, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792549/analysis-of-the-effects-of-individual-and-community-level-predictors-on-migrant-children-s-primary-immunization-in-yiwu-city-east-china
#14
Yu Hu, Yaping Chen, Liang Hui, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects of a wide range of individual- and community-level factors on migrant children's primary immunization. METHODS: Migrant children aged 13-24 months (born from 1 June 2013 to 31 May 2014) were surveyed in Yiwu city, in June 2015. Social-demographic factors and vaccination records were collected. Five factors at community-level including community wealth, distance to the nearest immunization clinic, maternal education, antenatal clinic (ANC) visits, and hospital delivery were constructed...
May 24, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792514/a-flow-procedure-for-linearization-of-genome-sequence-graphs
#15
David Haussler, Maciej Smuga-Otto, Jordan M Eizenga, Benedict Paten, Adam M Novak, Sergei Nikitin, Maria Zueva, Dmitrii Miagkov
Efforts to incorporate human genetic variation into the reference human genome have converged on the idea of a graph representation of genetic variation within a species, a genome sequence graph. A sequence graph represents a set of individual haploid reference genomes as paths in a single graph. When that set of reference genomes is sufficiently diverse, the sequence graph implicitly contains all frequent human genetic variations, including translocations, inversions, deletions, and insertions. In representing a set of genomes as a sequence graph, one encounters certain challenges...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792439/the-power-of-triplet-and-singlet-oxygen-in-synthesis-2-oxindoles-3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles-and-isatins-from-furans
#16
Myron Triantafyllakis, Kalliopi Sfakianaki, Dimitris Kalaitzakis, Georgios Vassilikogiannakis
A straightforward synthesis of substituted 2-oxindoles, 3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles, and isatins has been developed. Easily accessible furans were transformed into tetrahydropyranopyrrolones by a singlet oxygen initiated cascade reaction sequence. An acid-catalyzed rearrangement, followed by aromatization, gave access to a variety of 2-oxindole motifs, which were oxidized to 3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles or isatins using methylene blue as a radical initiator and molecular oxygen as a terminal oxidant.
May 24, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792427/native-chemical-ligation-photodesulfurization-in-flow
#17
Timothy S Chisholm, Daniel Clayton, Luke J Dowman, Jessica Sayers, Richard J Payne
Native chemical ligation (NCL) combined with desulfurization chemistry has revolutionized the way in which large polypeptides and proteins are accessed by chemical synthesis. Herein, we outline the use of flow chemistry for the ligation-based assembly of polypeptides. We also describe the development of a novel photodesulfurization transformation that, when coupled with flow NCL, enables efficient access to native polypeptides on time scales up to 2 orders of magnitude faster than current batch NCL-desulfurization methods...
May 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792401/synthetic-single-domain-antibodies-for-the-conformational-trapping-of-membrane-proteins
#18
Iwan Zimmermann, Pascal Egloff, Cedric Aj Hutter, Fabian M Arnold, Peter Stohler, Nicolas Bocquet, Melanie N Hug, Sylwia Huber, Martin Siegrist, Lisa Hetemann, Jennifer Gera, Samira Gmür, Peter Spies, Daniel Gygax, Eric R Geertsma, Roger Jp Dawson, Markus A Seeger
Mechanistic and structural studies of membrane proteins require their stabilization in specific conformations. Single domain antibodies are potent reagents for this purpose, but their generation relies on immunizations, which impedes selections in the presence of ligands typically needed to populate defined conformational states. To overcome this key limitation, we developed an in vitro selection platform based on synthetic single domain antibodies named sybodies. To target the limited hydrophilic surfaces of membrane proteins, we designed three sybody libraries that exhibit different shapes and moderate hydrophobicity of the randomized surface...
May 24, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792390/mental-health-crisis-resolution-teams-and-crisis-care-systems-in-england-a-national-survey
#19
Brynmor Lloyd-Evans, Danielle Lamb, Joseph Barnby, Michelle Eskinazi, Amelia Turner, Sonia Johnson
Aims and methodA national survey investigated the implementation of mental health crisis resolution teams (CRTs) in England. CRTs were mapped and team managers completed an online survey. RESULTS: Ninety-five per cent of mapped CRTs (n = 233) completed the survey. Few CRTs adhered fully to national policy guidelines. CRT implementation and local acute care system contexts varied substantially. Access to CRTs for working-age adults appears to have improved, compared with a similar survey in 2012, despite no evidence of higher staffing levels...
May 24, 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792315/genomic-variation-among-and-within-six-juglans-species
#20
Kristian A Stevens, Keith Woeste, Sandeep Chakraborty, Marc W Crepeau, Charles A Leslie, Pedro J Martínez-García, Daniela Puiu, Jeanne Romero-Severson, Mark Coggeshall, Abhaya M Dandekar, Daniel Kluepfel, David B Neale, Steven L Salzberg, Charles H Langley
Genomic analysis in Juglans (walnuts) is expected to transform the breeding and agricultural production of both nuts and lumber. To that end, we report here the determination of reference sequences for six additional relatives of Juglans regia : Juglans sigillata (also from section Dioscaryon ), Juglans nigra , Juglans microcarpa, Juglans hindsii (from section Rhysocaryon ) , Juglans cathayensis (from section Cardiocaryon ), and the closely related Pterocarya stenoptera. While these are 'draft' genomes, ranging in size between 640Mbp and 990Mbp, their contiguities and accuracies can support powerful annotations of genomic variation that are often the foundation of new avenues of research and breeding...
May 23, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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