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Esther Torrent, Marta Planellas, Laura Ordeix, Josep Pastor, Jaume Rodon, Laia Solano-Gallego
The aims of the study were to determine whether symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) was increased in dogs with leishmaniosis and to assess its relationship with creatinine concentration and urinary protein : creatinine ratio (UPC) to determine its utility as a marker of early excretory dysfunction. Fifty-three dogs with leishmaniosis classified according to the LeishVet clinical staging (stage I, n = 5, stage II, n = 30; stage III, n = 12; stage IV, n = 6) were selected and compared with 41 clinically healthy dogs...
2018: Veterinary Medicine International
Mahmood Reza Gholamian-Shahabad, Kourosh Azizi, Qasem Asgari, Mohsen Kalantari, Mohammad Djaefar Moemenbellah-Fard
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniosis (ZCL) is a crucial public health challenge in Iran. Sandflies feed on reservoir rodents' blood infected with Leishmania parasite and transmit it to other hosts. This study was conducted to find out the composition and monthly activity of sandflies as well as to identify the protozoan pathogens ( Leishmania / Crithidia ) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in an emerging ZCL focus of Abarkooh, Yazd province, Iran, in 2016. A cross-sectional study was done in rural areas of Abarkooh...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Alvaro Oleaga, Stefania Zanet, Alberto Espí, Marcia Raquel Pegoraro de Macedo, Christian Gortázar, Ezio Ferroglio
Leishmaniosis is, to date, considered the second most important emerging vector-borne protozoal disease in the world after malaria. The form of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis found in the Mediterranean basin is caused by Leishmania infantum, and its life cycle includes the domestic dog and a phlebotomine sandfly vector. This complex epidemiological cycle and its high prevalence of subclinical infection, hinder the surveillance and control of L. infantum, and allows it to go unnoticed at the geographical endemicity limits of the parasite or in recently colonized areas...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Francisca Janaina Soares Rocha, Caroline Louise Diniz Pereira, Fabio Lopes de Melo, Cynthia Regina Pedrosa Soares, Silvania Tavares Paz, Selma Giorgio
Several immune markers have been studied in controlling American tegumentary leishmaniosis based on mouse models. However, there is a lack of studies regarding human tegumentary leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. In this study, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was found to be an important effector element in the localized control of human cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions.
2018: Annals of Parasitology
Roghiyeh Faridnia, Hamed Kalani, Mahdi Fakhar, Javad Akhtari
Cutaneous leishmaniosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by various Leishmania species. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of silibinin and silymarin on the in vitro growth and proliferation of promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania major compared to glucantime-treated parasites. The promastigotes and amastigotes of this parasite were treated with the two drugs, silibinin and silymarin, in several concentrations (25–100 μM). The highest effect on promastigotes was for silymarin in concentration of 100 μM with 90% and 91% death rate at hours 48 and 72, respectively...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
André Antonio Cutolo, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Elisangela de Souza Neves, Fabiano O Silva, S Theodore Chester, Becky Fankhauser
BACKGROUND: Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of canine and human visceral leishmaniosis in the Americas. Considering that the dog is the main domestic host of the parasite, repellent treatment is a measure that might contribute to the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniosis. The repellent efficacy of a single treatment of a new spot-on topical combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®, Merial, now part of Boehringer-Ingelheim) to repel Lu...
April 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Kelvinson Fernandes Viana, Giulia Lacerda, Natália Soares Teixeira, Alex Sander Rodrigues Cangussu, Raimundo Wagner Sousa Aguiar, Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti
A key goal in the control of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) has been the development of vaccines with a highly protective capability to interrupt the parasite transmission cycle. However, in addition to promising vaccine searches, researchers have sought to develop new drugs capable of eliminating parasites in humans and dogs. With that in mind, this study analyzed an immunotherapeutic approach in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Fourteen dogs were divided into two groups and received a protocol of immunotherapeutic treatment with five doses of total antigens of Leishmania amazonensis or total antigens of L...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Guadalupe Miró, Rogelio López-Vélez
The initiative One World, "One Health" tries to rapidly detect emerging or reemerging human and animal infectious diseases and prevent epidemiological situations such as deforestation, some agricultural practices or the appearance of new foci of leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum with alternative reservoirs. With this objective in mind, we here consider leishmaniosis in the Mediterranean basin and compare its current clinical management from two perspectives: that of a veterinarian specialized in infectious and parasitic diseases, and that of a physician specialized in infectious tropical diseases...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ana Cantos-Barreda, Damián Escribano, José J Cerón, Fernando Tecles, Luis J Bernal, Silvia Martínez-Subiela
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes in the concentration of anti-Leishmania antibodies in saliva samples from dogs with clinical leishmaniosis after short-term treatment. Twenty dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with canine leishmaniosis (CanL) were diagnosed and treated with a standard antimonial plus allopurinol therapy. The concentration of anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies in saliva was measured at the time of diagnosis (day 0) and after treatment (day 30) by time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TR-IFMAs) and results were compared with those of serum...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Vanete Thomaz-Soccol, André Luiz Gonçalves, Claudio Adriano Piechnik, Rafael Antunes Baggio, Walter Antônio Boeger, Themis Leão Buchman, Mario Sergio Michaliszyn, Demilson Rodrigues Dos Santos, Adão Celestino, José Aquino, André de Souza Leandro, Otacílio Lopes de Souza da Paz, Marcelo Limont, Alceu Bisetto, Jeffrey Jon Shaw, Zaida Estela Yadon, Oscar Daniel Salomon
Every year about 3 million tourists from around the world visit Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay´s triple border region where the Iguaçu Falls are located. Unfortunately, in recent years an increasing number of autochthonous canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases have been reported. The parasite is Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and it is transmitted by sand flies (Phlebotominae). To assess the risk factors favorable for the establishment and spread of potential vectors the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap (CDC-light trap) collections were made in the Foz do Iguaçu (FI) and Santa Terezinha de Itaipu (STI) townships and along two transects between them...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Epke A Le Rutte, Roosmarijn van Straten, Paul A M Overgaauw
Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a parasitic disease affecting dogs and humans, which is transmitted by female sandflies. Over the last decade, disease prevalence has increased fivefold in parts of southern Europe, where an estimated 2.5 million dogs are infected. This increase is mainly due to an expansion in sandfly distribution due to climate change and to the greater numbers of dogs travelling among European countries. To combat the spread of ZVL in Europe, international guidelines have been drawn up that describe strategies to prevent, control and monitor the disease...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Maria Stefania Latrofa, Roberta Iatta, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Giada Annoscia, Simona Gabrielli, Marco Pombi, Luigi Gradoni, Domenico Otranto
Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania spp., among which Leishmania infantum is recognized as the main agent of human and canine leishmaniosis (CanL) in the Mediterranean area. In this study, females of Phlebotomus spp. (P. perniciosus, P. neglectus and P. papatasi) and Sergentomyia minuta were collected in a dog shelter of southern Italy, where CanL is endemic, and examined for Leishmania DNA. In total, 32 out of 56 of Phlebotomus spp. insects (57.1%) were found positive for L...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Fernanda G Grano, José Eduardo Dos S Silva, Guilherme D Melo, Milena S de Souza, Valéria M F Lima, Gisele F Machado
Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is a multisystem disease that affects domestic dogs and can have several clinical manifestations, including some rare reports of neurological clinical signs, or it may remain asymptomatic, depending on the individual immune response against the Leishmania parasite. VL involves immune system sensors, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), that are related to innate immunity and inflammation. Previously, we have reported the presence of brain inflammation in infected dogs. Here, we investigated the gene expression profile of TLRs 1-10 in the brain and the spleen of infected dogs, along with the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-6) with the aim of explaining the origin of brain inflammation...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Diana Di Mattia, Dolores Fondevila, Francesca Abramo, Alessandra Fondati
BACKGROUND: Head and neck ulcers in cats can arise from allergic and nonallergic disorders, including feline leishmaniosis (FeL). It is important to rule out this aetiological agent in regions that are endemic for canine leishmaniosis, because the drugs used to treat immune-mediated disorders of cats can be contraindicated in the setting of infection. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin of cats with ulcerative dermatitis of the head or neck for evidence of Leishmania infection using combined immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)...
June 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Ana Cantos-Barreda, Damián Escribano, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Luis Pardo-Marín, Sergi Segarra, José J Cerón
The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies measured by two time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TR-IFMAs) recently validated and by means of a commercially available ELISA test in dogs with leishmaniosis after treatment. Serum samples from 16 dogs with clinical leishmaniosis were obtained on days 0, 30 and 180 of treatment. In addition, these serological changes were compared with the clinical signs and selected analytes (total proteins, albumin, globulins and urinary protein:creatinine ratio)...
April 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Aruanai Kalú Rivas, Magdalena Alcover, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Mar Bardagí, Roser Fisa, Cristina Riera, Gad Baneth, Laia Solano-Gallego
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Gad Baneth, Gilad Segev, Michal Mazaki-Tovi, Hila Chen, Sharon Kuzi
BACKGROUND: Renal disease is considered the main cause of natural mortality in dogs with canine leishmaniosis. The pathological mechanisms associated with kidney injury in canine leishmaniosis include immune complex glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis and occasionally renal amyloidosis. Proteinuria is a frequent finding in canine leishmaniosis and its quantification by the urine protein-creatinine ratio (UPC) is an important parameter in the staging of canine lesihmaniosis as presented by the LeishVet group...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Guadalupe Miró, Amelia Troyano, Ana Montoya, Fernando Fariñas, Ma Luisa Fermín, Luís Flores, Carlos Rojo, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Cristina Fragío, Eva Martínez-Nevado
BACKGROUND: Some wild animals have been recognized as potential reservoirs of Leishmania infantum infection (e.g. carnivores, lagomorphs, rodents, etc.). Leishmania infantum was also identified infecting humans and lagomorphs (i.e. hares and rabbits) over the period of 2009-2016, with the latter acting as the main reservoirs involved in the human leishmaniosis outbreak in Madrid. RESULTS: Two cases of clinical leishmaniosis are reported in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) housed at two different centres in Madrid...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Charalampos Attipa, Laia Solano-Gallego, Kostas Papasouliotis, Francesca Soutter, David Morris, Chris Helps, Scott Carver, Séverine Tasker
BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean basin, Leishmania infantum is a major cause of disease in dogs, which are frequently co-infected with other vector-borne pathogens (VBP). However, the associations between dogs with clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL) and VBP co-infections have not been studied. We assessed the risk of VBP infections in dogs with ClinL and healthy controls. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study of dogs with ClinL (positive qPCR and ELISA antibody for L...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Marta Baxarias, Alejandra Álvarez-Fernández, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Laura Ordeix, Alicia Rojas, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Gad Baneth, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: The severity of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum might be affected by other vector-borne organisms that mimic its clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens based on serological and molecular techniques in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis living in Spain and to associate them with clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities as well as disease severity...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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