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Leishmaniosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661207/repellent-efficacy-of-a-new-combination-of-fipronil-and-permethrin-against-lutzomyia-longipalpis
#1
André Antonio Cutolo, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Elisangela de Souza Neves, Fabiano O Silva, S Theodore Chester, Becky Fankhauser
BACKGROUND: Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of canine and human visceral leishmaniosis in the Americas. Considering that the dog is the main domestic host of the parasite, repellent treatment is a measure that might contribute to the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniosis. The repellent efficacy of a single treatment of a new spot-on topical combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®, Merial, now part of Boehringer-Ingelheim) to repel Lu...
April 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657019/therapeutic-vaccine-of-killed-leishmania-amazonensis-plus-saponin-reduced-parasite-burden-in-dogs-naturally-infected-with-leishmania-infantum
#2
Kelvinson Fernandes Viana, Giulia Lacerda, Natália Soares Teixeira, Alex Sander Rodrigues Cangussu, Raimundo Wagner Sousa Aguiar, Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti
A key goal in the control of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) has been the development of vaccines with a highly protective capability to interrupt the parasite transmission cycle. However, in addition to promising vaccine searches, researchers have sought to develop new drugs capable of eliminating parasites in humans and dogs. With that in mind, this study analyzed an immunotherapeutic approach in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Fourteen dogs were divided into two groups and received a protocol of immunotherapeutic treatment with five doses of total antigens of Leishmania amazonensis or total antigens of L...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657002/clinical-management-of-canine-leishmaniosis-versus-human-leishmaniasis-due-to-leishmania-infantum-putting-one-health-principles-into-practice
#3
Guadalupe Miró, Rogelio López-Vélez
The initiative One World, "One Health" tries to rapidly detect emerging or reemerging human and animal infectious diseases and prevent epidemiological situations such as deforestation, some agricultural practices or the appearance of new foci of leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum with alternative reservoirs. With this objective in mind, we here consider leishmaniosis in the Mediterranean basin and compare its current clinical management from two perspectives: that of a veterinarian specialized in infectious and parasitic diseases, and that of a physician specialized in infectious tropical diseases...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656998/changes-in-the-concentration-of-anti-leishmania-antibodies-in-saliva-of-dogs-with-clinical-leishmaniosis-after-short-term-treatment
#4
Ana Cantos-Barreda, Damián Escribano, José J Cerón, Fernando Tecles, Luis J Bernal, Silvia Martínez-Subiela
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes in the concentration of anti-Leishmania antibodies in saliva samples from dogs with clinical leishmaniosis after short-term treatment. Twenty dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with canine leishmaniosis (CanL) were diagnosed and treated with a standard antimonial plus allopurinol therapy. The concentration of anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies in saliva was measured at the time of diagnosis (day 0) and after treatment (day 30) by time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TR-IFMAs) and results were compared with those of serum...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624586/hidden-danger-unexpected-scenario-in-the-vector-parasite-dynamics-of-leishmaniases-in-the-brazil-side-of-triple-border-argentina-brazil-and-paraguay
#5
Vanete Thomaz-Soccol, André Luiz Gonçalves, Claudio Adriano Piechnik, Rafael Antunes Baggio, Walter Antônio Boeger, Themis Leão Buchman, Mario Sergio Michaliszyn, Demilson Rodrigues Dos Santos, Adão Celestino, José Aquino, André de Souza Leandro, Otacílio Lopes de Souza da Paz, Marcelo Limont, Alceu Bisetto, Jeffrey Jon Shaw, Zaida Estela Yadon, Oscar Daniel Salomon
Every year about 3 million tourists from around the world visit Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay´s triple border region where the Iguaçu Falls are located. Unfortunately, in recent years an increasing number of autochthonous canine and human visceral leishmaniosis (VL) cases have been reported. The parasite is Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and it is transmitted by sand flies (Phlebotominae). To assess the risk factors favorable for the establishment and spread of potential vectors the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap (CDC-light trap) collections were made in the Foz do Iguaçu (FI) and Santa Terezinha de Itaipu (STI) townships and along two transects between them...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605010/awareness-and-control-of-canine-leishmaniosis-a-survey-among-spanish-and-french-veterinarians
#6
Epke A Le Rutte, Roosmarijn van Straten, Paul A M Overgaauw
Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a parasitic disease affecting dogs and humans, which is transmitted by female sandflies. Over the last decade, disease prevalence has increased fivefold in parts of southern Europe, where an estimated 2.5 million dogs are infected. This increase is mainly due to an expansion in sandfly distribution due to climate change and to the greater numbers of dogs travelling among European countries. To combat the spread of ZVL in Europe, international guidelines have been drawn up that describe strategies to prevent, control and monitor the disease...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605001/detection-of-leishmania-infantum-dna-in-phlebotomine-sand-flies-from-an-area-where-canine-leishmaniosis-is-endemic-in-southern-italy
#7
Maria Stefania Latrofa, Roberta Iatta, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Giada Annoscia, Simona Gabrielli, Marco Pombi, Luigi Gradoni, Domenico Otranto
Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania spp., among which Leishmania infantum is recognized as the main agent of human and canine leishmaniosis (CanL) in the Mediterranean area. In this study, females of Phlebotomus spp. (P. perniciosus, P. neglectus and P. papatasi) and Sergentomyia minuta were collected in a dog shelter of southern Italy, where CanL is endemic, and examined for Leishmania DNA. In total, 32 out of 56 of Phlebotomus spp. insects (57.1%) were found positive for L...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605000/toll-like-receptors-and-cytokines-in-the-brain-and-in-spleen-of-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniosis
#8
Fernanda G Grano, José Eduardo Dos S Silva, Guilherme D Melo, Milena S de Souza, Valéria M F Lima, Gisele F Machado
Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is a multisystem disease that affects domestic dogs and can have several clinical manifestations, including some rare reports of neurological clinical signs, or it may remain asymptomatic, depending on the individual immune response against the Leishmania parasite. VL involves immune system sensors, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), that are related to innate immunity and inflammation. Previously, we have reported the presence of brain inflammation in infected dogs. Here, we investigated the gene expression profile of TLRs 1-10 in the brain and the spleen of infected dogs, along with the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-6) with the aim of explaining the origin of brain inflammation...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575359/a-retrospective-histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-study-of-the-presence-of-leishmania-spp-in-the-skin-of-cats-with-head-and-neck-ulcerative-dermatitis
#9
Diana Di Mattia, Dolores Fondevila, Francesca Abramo, Alessandra Fondati
BACKGROUND: Head and neck ulcers in cats can arise from allergic and nonallergic disorders, including feline leishmaniosis (FeL). It is important to rule out this aetiological agent in regions that are endemic for canine leishmaniosis, because the drugs used to treat immune-mediated disorders of cats can be contraindicated in the setting of infection. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin of cats with ulcerative dermatitis of the head or neck for evidence of Leishmania infection using combined immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)...
March 25, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571520/changes-in-serum-anti-leishmania-antibody-concentrations-measured-by-time-resolved-immunofluorometric-assays-in-dogs-with-leishmaniosis-after-treatment
#10
Ana Cantos-Barreda, Damián Escribano, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Luis Pardo-Marín, Sergi Segarra, José J Cerón
The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies measured by two time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TR-IFMAs) recently validated and by means of a commercially available ELISA test in dogs with leishmaniosis after treatment. Serum samples from 16 dogs with clinical leishmaniosis were obtained on days 0, 30 and 180 of treatment. In addition, these serological changes were compared with the clinical signs and selected analytes (total proteins, albumin, globulins and urinary protein:creatinine ratio)...
April 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554979/clinical-and-diagnostic-aspects-of-feline-cutaneous-leishmaniosis-in-venezuela
#11
Aruanai Kalú Rivas, Magdalena Alcover, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Mar Bardagí, Roser Fisa, Cristina Riera, Gad Baneth, Laia Solano-Gallego
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554974/renal-dialysis-and-long-term-treatment-of-a-dog-with-kidney-disease-associated-with-canine-leishmaniosis
#12
Gad Baneth, Gilad Segev, Michal Mazaki-Tovi, Hila Chen, Sharon Kuzi
BACKGROUND: Renal disease is considered the main cause of natural mortality in dogs with canine leishmaniosis. The pathological mechanisms associated with kidney injury in canine leishmaniosis include immune complex glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis and occasionally renal amyloidosis. Proteinuria is a frequent finding in canine leishmaniosis and its quantification by the urine protein-creatinine ratio (UPC) is an important parameter in the staging of canine lesihmaniosis as presented by the LeishVet group...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554944/first-report-of-leishmania-infantum-infection-in-the-endangered-orangutan-pongo-pygmaeus-pygmaeus-in-madrid-spain
#13
Guadalupe Miró, Amelia Troyano, Ana Montoya, Fernando Fariñas, Ma Luisa Fermín, Luís Flores, Carlos Rojo, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Cristina Fragío, Eva Martínez-Nevado
BACKGROUND: Some wild animals have been recognized as potential reservoirs of Leishmania infantum infection (e.g. carnivores, lagomorphs, rodents, etc.). Leishmania infantum was also identified infecting humans and lagomorphs (i.e. hares and rabbits) over the period of 2009-2016, with the latter acting as the main reservoirs involved in the human leishmaniosis outbreak in Madrid. RESULTS: Two cases of clinical leishmaniosis are reported in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) housed at two different centres in Madrid...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554932/association-between-canine-leishmaniosis-and-ehrlichia-canis-co-infection-a-prospective-case-control-study
#14
Charalampos Attipa, Laia Solano-Gallego, Kostas Papasouliotis, Francesca Soutter, David Morris, Chris Helps, Scott Carver, Séverine Tasker
BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean basin, Leishmania infantum is a major cause of disease in dogs, which are frequently co-infected with other vector-borne pathogens (VBP). However, the associations between dogs with clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL) and VBP co-infections have not been studied. We assessed the risk of VBP infections in dogs with ClinL and healthy controls. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study of dogs with ClinL (positive qPCR and ELISA antibody for L...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554918/does-co-infection-with-vector-borne-pathogens-play-a-role-in-clinical-canine-leishmaniosis
#15
Marta Baxarias, Alejandra Álvarez-Fernández, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Laura Ordeix, Alicia Rojas, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Gad Baneth, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: The severity of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum might be affected by other vector-borne organisms that mimic its clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens based on serological and molecular techniques in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis living in Spain and to associate them with clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities as well as disease severity...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547503/parasite-specific-antibody-levels-interferon-%C3%AE-and-tlr2-and-tlr4-transcripts-in-blood-from-dogs-with-different-clinical-stages-of-leishmaniosis
#16
Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Laura Ordeix, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Laia Solano-Gallego
Canine leishmaniosis has a wide range of disease severity from mild (stage I), to severe (stages II-III), or very severe disease (stage IV). The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare serum antibody levels, Leishmania infantum specific IFN-γ production and TLR2 and TLR4 transcripts in non-stimulated blood from dogs with different clinical stages at the time of diagnosis as well as blood parasitemia. Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISAs) were performed to determine serum antibody levels and IFN-γ production and quantitative polymerase chain reaction ( q PCRs) in order to determine blood parasite load and TLR2 and TLR4 transcripts...
March 16, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525281/a-large-scale-field-randomized-trial-demonstrates-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-vaccine-letifend%C3%A2-against-canine-leishmaniosis
#17
Javier Fernández Cotrina, Virginia Iniesta, Isabel Monroy, Victoria Baz, Christophe Hugnet, Francisco Marañon, Mercedes Fabra, Luis Carlos Gómez-Nieto, Carlos Alonso
Canine leishmaniosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum. Extensive research is currently ongoing to develop safe and effective vaccines to protect from disease development. The European Commission has granted a marketing authorization for LetiFend®, a new vaccine containing recombinant Protein Q. The efficacy of LetiFend® vaccination in a large-scale dog population of both sexes, different breeds and ages in endemic areas is reported in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467015/prevention-of-disease-progression-in-leishmania-infantum-infected-dogs-with-dietary-nucleotides-and-active-hexose-correlated-compound
#18
Sergi Segarra, Guadalupe Miró, Ana Montoya, Luis Pardo-Marín, Joan Teichenné, Lluís Ferrer, José Joaquín Cerón
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in clinically healthy dogs can be several times higher than that of clinical disease in endemic areas. Although treatment is not recommended in dogs with subclinical infection, these animals should be managed to prevent disease progression and parasite transmission to human beings or to other dogs. Dietary nucleotides and active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) have been shown to modulate the immune response. A recent study in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis receiving an initial 28-day course of methylglucamine antimoniate showed that six-month administration of a dietary supplement containing nucleotides plus AHCC achieves similar efficacy to allopurinol...
February 21, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453596/effectiveness-of-the-sesquiterpene-%C3%AE-bisabolol-in-dogs-with-naturally-acquired-canine-leishmaniosis-an-exploratory-clinical-trial
#19
V Corpas-López, G Merino-Espinosa, C Acedo-Sánchez, V Díaz-Sáez, M C Navarro-Moll, F Morillas-Márquez, J Martín-Sánchez
The use of natural products is a promising approach for treating visceral leishmaniosis. (-)-α-Bisabolol is a sesquiterpene that have been proved active in vivo on Leishmania infantum-infected mice without showing toxicity. A single-centre, parallel-group, randomized, exploratory study was designed to assess its efficacy in a canine leishmaniosis model involving naturally infected dogs. In this clinical trial, 12 dogs were allocated into two groups and were treated with either meglumine antimoniate (100 mg/kg) through subcutaneous route or (-)-α-bisabolol (30 mg/kg) through oral route for two treatment series of 30 days, separated by a 30-day interval...
February 16, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426470/feline-leishmaniosis-is-the-cat-a-small-dog
#20
Maria Grazia Pennisi, Maria Flaminia Persichetti
Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne zoonotic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies and dogs are considered the main reservoir of the parasite. Feline leishmaniosis (FeL) caused by L. infantum is an emergent feline disease more and more frequently reported in endemic areas. This review summarizes current knowledge focusing similarities and differences with canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Cats are infected by the same Leishmania species than dogs but prevalence of the infection is lower and cases of disease are less frequently reported...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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