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Placental growth factor

Shanika Panagodage, Hannah E Juen Yong, Fabricio Da Silva Costa, Anthony J Borg, Bill Kalionis, Shaun P Brennecke, Padma Murthi
Preeclampsia (PE), a serious hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, remains a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Perturbed trophoblast function and impaired placental development early in pregnancy are key features. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (LDA) administered before 16 weeks' gestation significantly reduces the risk for PE. However, the exact mechanisms of action of LDA, particularly on trophoblast function, are unclear. We hypothesized that LDA influences placental trophoblast function and reverses PE-associated abnormalities...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Yongsheng Zhu, Hong Lu, Zhenghao Huo, Zhanbin Ma, Jie Dang, Wei Dang, Lin Pan, Jing Chen, Huijun Zhong
Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a common health problem that affects women of reproductive age. Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs are important factors in miscarriage. This study investigated the role of miR-16 in regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the pathogenesis of RSA. In this report, clinical samples revealed that miR-16 expression was significantly elevated in the villi and decidua of RSA patients. In vitro, miR-16 upregulation inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sven Cnattingius, Anna-Karin Wikström, Olof Stephansson, Kari Johansson
BACKGROUND: Results from uterine artery Doppler investigations suggest that the aetiology of late preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction may be more similar to the aetiology of early preeclampsia than with late preeclampsia without fetal growth restriction. We hypothesised that a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth in a late preeclamptic pregnancy may be associated with increased subsequent risk of early preeclampsia. We also studied effects of maternal factors on risks of preeclampsia recurrence...
October 17, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Suzy Duckworth, Lucy C Chappell, Paul T Seed, Lucy Mackillop, Andrew H Shennan, Rachael Hunter
OBJECTIVE: To model the resource implications of placental growth factor (PlGF) testing in women with suspected pre-eclampsia prior to 35 weeks' gestation as part of a management algorithm, compared with current practice. METHODS: Data on resource use from 132 women with suspected pre-eclampsia prior to 35 weeks' gestation, enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study evaluating PlGF measurement within antenatal assessment units within two UK consultant-led maternity units was extracted by case note review...
2016: PloS One
Juneo F Silva, Natália M Ocarino, Rogéria Serakides
The gene and/or protein expression of proteases and immunological, angiogenic, hormonal and apoptotic mediators was evaluated in rat placenta before and during intrauterine trophoblast migration. The depth of interstitial and endovascular intrauterine trophoblast invasion and the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk1), interferon (IFN)-γ, migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; also known as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 2) were evaluated...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Cristina Faralla, Gabrielle A Rizzuto, David E Lowe, Byoungkwan Kim, Cara Cooke, Lawrence R Shiow, Anna I Bakardjiev
Intrauterine infection is a major detriment for maternal-child health and occurs despite local mechanisms that protect the maternal-fetal interface from a wide variety of pathogens. The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and preterm labor in humans, and serves as a model for placental pathogenesis. Given the unique immunological environment of the maternal-fetal interface we hypothesized that virulence determinants with placental tropism are required for infection of this tissue...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Chia-Yih Wang, Hui-Ling Tsai, Jhih-Siang Syu, Ting-Yu Chen, Mei-Tsz Su
Trophoblast invasion is an important event in embryo implantation and placental development. During these processes, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is the key regulator mediating the crosstalk at the feto-maternal interface. The primary cilium is a cellular antenna receiving environmental signals and is crucial for proper development. However, little is known regarding the role of the primary cilium in early human pregnancy. Here, we demonstrate that EG-VEGF regulates trophoblast cell invasion via primary cilia...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Fatemeh Mahmoodi, Hassan Akrami
Placental growth factor (PlGF) a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor family regulates some cell processes such as survival, growth of vascular endothelial cells, invasiveness and also involves in pathological angiogenesis and metastasis in most cancers. Cancer stem cells are believed to be the main reason for the tumor relapse and resistance to therapy. These cells have various characteristics as same as normal tissue-specific adult stem cells, including self-renewability and potent to differentiate into various cell types...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Ran Svirsky, Ron Maymon, Yaakov Melcer, Esther Klog, Howard Cuckle
OBJECTIVE: To investigate maternal serum inhibin as a marker of pre-eclampsia in twins. METHODS: 143 twins and 109 unaffected singleton pregnancies were recruited in the first trimester from the same institution. Blood samples were stored at recruitment and in the second trimester, retrospectively tested for inhibin and values expressed in multiples of the gestation-specific median (MoMs) in singletons, adjusted for maternal weight, as appropriate. RESULTS: The median inhibin level in unaffected twins was 2...
October 12, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Angela Zacharasiewicz
Maternal smoking in pregnancy (MSP) is a large modifiable risk factor for pregnancy related mortality and morbidity and also the most important known modifiable risk factor for asthma. This review summarises the effects of MSP throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence with regards to asthma (development and severity). Firstly, the direct damage caused by nicotine on fetal lung development, fetal growth and neuronal differentiation is discussed, as well as the indirect effects of nicotine on placental functioning...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
Andrea Maria Mess, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Cláudia Marinovic de Oliveira, Paula Fratini, Phelipe Oliveira Favaron, Rodrigo da Silva Nunes Barreto, Christiane Pfarrer, Flávio Vieira Meirelles, Maria Angelica Miglino
Reproductive technologies are widely used in cattle, although many are associated with high-embryonic mortality, especially during early gestation, when the yolk sac undergoes macroscopic changes in structure. We hypothesized that vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are affected, thereby affecting embryonic and placental differentiation. To test this, we studied yolk sac development and gene expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor system (VEGF-A, VEGFR-1/Flt-1, VEGFR-2/KDR). Samples from Days 25 to 40/41 of pregnancy from control cattle (n = 8) and from pregnancies established with IVF, (n = 7) or somatic cell nuclear transfer/clones (n = 5) were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR...
September 13, 2016: Theriogenology
Xiaosheng Xu, Jian Shen
Reduced placental growth factor (PLGF) during pregnancy is known to be a reason for developing preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, it has been shown that reduced PLGF may induce GDM through suppressing beta-cell mass growth in a PI3k/Akt signalling-dependent manner. Here, we dissected the interaction between beta-cells and islet endothelial cells in this model. We analysed proliferation of beta-cells and islet endothelial cells at different time points of gestation in mice...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Tomoko Kawai, Kenichiro Hata
Foetal environmental factors, including maternal nutrition, hormonal disturbance, and chemical exposure, affect foetal growth and can cause birth defects. Recent studies have shown the link of poor foetal growth with increased risks of coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, kidney disease, and brain disorders in adulthood. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are involved in tissue- and developmental stage-specific gene expression and silencing, and they can be transmitted stably through mitotic cell division, thereby inducing long-term changes in gene regulation...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Deepak Sharma, Pradeep Sharma, Sweta Shastri
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined as growth of fetus below its in-utero growth potential. Small for Gestational Age (SGA) is defined as newborn with birth weight less than 10(th) centile as per the gestational age, sex and race. There exists major difference between IUGR and SGA. IUGR infants have multiple short term and long term complications and IUGR is a silent cause of various morbidity and mortality in these infants. IUGR/SGA is usually end results of maternal, placental, fetal and genetic causes...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Thomas D Brekke, Lindy A Henry, Jeffrey M Good
The importance of regulatory incompatibilities to the early stages of speciation remains unclear. Hybrid mammals often show extreme parent-of-origin growth effects that are thought to be a consequence of disrupted genetic imprinting (parent-specific epigenetic gene silencing) during early development. Here we test the long-standing hypothesis that abnormal hybrid growth reflects disrupted gene expression due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in hybrid placentas, resulting in dosage imbalances between paternal growth factors and maternal growth repressors...
October 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Natalie K Binder, Jemma Evans, Lois A Salamonsen, David K Gardner, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino, Natalie J Hannan
Embryo implantation requires synchronized dialogue between the receptive endometrium and activated blastocyst via locally produced soluble mediators. During the mid-secretory (MS) phase of the menstrual cycle, increased glandular secretion into the uterine lumen provides important mediators that modulate the endometrium and support the conceptus during implantation. Previously we demonstrated the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the human uterus, particularly with respect to embryo implantation...
2016: PloS One
Jezid Miranda, Stefania Triunfo, Merida Rodriguez-Lopez, Mikko Sairanen, Heikki Kouru, Miguel Parra-Saavedra, Francesca Crovetto, Francesc Figueras, Fatima Crispi, Eduard Gratacos
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential value of a third trimester combined screening for the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome (APO) in the general population and among small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates. METHODS: Nested case-control study within a prospective cohort of 1,590 singleton gestations referred for third-trimester evaluation (32(0) -36(6) weeks of gestation). Maternal baseline characteristics, mean arterial blood pressure, fetoplacental ultrasound and circulating biochemical markers [placental growth factor (PlGF), lipocalin-2, unconjugated estriol and inhibin A] were assessed in all women who subsequently presented an APO (n = 148) and in a control group without perinatal complications (n = 902)...
October 5, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Sofie Perdu, Barbara Castellana, Yoona Kim, Kathy Chan, Lauren DeLuca, Alexander G Beristain
Over one-fifth of North American women of childbearing age are obese, putting these women at risk for a variety of detrimental chronic diseases. In addition, obesity increases the risk for developing major complications during pregnancy. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to pregnancy complications and loss remain unknown. Increasing evidence indicates that obesity results in major changes to adipose tissue immune cell composition and function; whether or not obesity also affects immune function in the uterus has not been explored...
July 21, 2016: JCI Insight
Lijie Li, Yanmei Zheng, Ying Zhu, Jianchun Li
First-trimester screening may be a major advantage over a second-trimester approach since it opens prospects for early and more efficient interventions. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether the measurement of maternal serum inhibin A, activin A and placental growth factor (PlGF) at three to four months gestation with the second-trimester uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) are useful in predicting preeclampsia in a group of nulliparous women. All the patients also underwent uterine artery Doppler examination to measure the PI at 22-24 weeks gestation...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Edouard Lecarpentier, Anthony Atallah, Jean Guibourdenche, Marylise Hebert-Schuster, Sarah Vieillefosse, Audrey Chissey, Bassam Haddad, Guillaume Pidoux, Daniele Evain-Brion, Abdul Barakat, Thierry Fournier, Vassilis Tsatsaris
The effects of fluid shear stress (FSS) on the human syncytiotrophoblast and its biological functions have never been studied. During pregnancy, the syncytiotrophoblast is the main source of placental growth factor (PlGF), a proangiogenic factor involved in the placental angiogenesis and the vascular adaptation to pregnancy. The role of FSS in regulating PlGF expression in syncytiotrophoblasts is unknown. We investigated the impact of FSS on the production and secretion of the PlGF by the human syncytiotrophoblasts in primary cell culture...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
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