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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452885/somatolactogens-and-diabetic-retinopathy
#1
REVIEW
Kevin Christian Bermea, Alejandro Rodríguez-García, Andrew Tsin, Hugo Alberto Barrera-Saldaña
IMPORTANCE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common of all diabetic complications. The number of people with DR in the United States is expected to increase to 16 million by 2050. DR is the leading cause of blindness among working-age adults in many different countries, including the United States. In later DR stages, neovascularization is associated with extensive retinal capillary non-perfusion and vitreo-proliferation leading to retinal detachment. This neovascularization is orchestrated by an imbalance of growth factors in the retina from which somatolactogens (pituitary growth hormone, GH-N; placental growth hormone, GH-V; prolactin, PRL; and placental lactogen, PL, also referred as chorionic somatomammotropin, CSH), may play an important role...
February 6, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442407/prediction-and-prevention-of-pre-eclampsia-in-asian-subpopulation
#2
REVIEW
Tuangsit Wataganara, Jarunee Leetheeragul, Suchittra Pongprasobchai, Anuwat Sutantawibul, Chayawat Phatihattakorn, Surasak Angsuwathana
The benefit of the early administration of aspirin to reduce preterm pre-eclampsia among screened positive European women from multivariate algorithmic approach (ASPRE trial) has opened an intense debate on the feasibility of universal screening. This review aims to assess the new perspectives in the combined screening of pre-eclampsia in the first trimester of pregnancy and the chances for prevention using low-dose aspirin with special emphasis on the particularities of the Asian population. PubMed, CENTRAL and Embase databases were searched from inception until 15 November 2017 using combinations of the search terms: preeclampsia, Asian, prenatal screening, early prediction, ultrasonography, pregnancy, biomarker, mean arterial pressure, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, placental growth factor, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and pulsatility index...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439623/aspirin-ameliorates-preeclampsia-induced-by-a-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-antagonist
#3
Chunhua Zhang, Yong Zhu, Yan Shen, Changting Zuo
Reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in the placenta was found in women with severe preeclampsia. Aspirin is currently used as the only recommended intervention in pregnancies for prevention of preeclampsia. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aspirin could attenuate PPARγ inhibitor (T0070907)-induced preeclampsia and its impact on expression of PPARγ. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were used and treated with different doses of aspirin (0, 1, and 1.5 mg/kg) in presence or absence of PPARγ antagonist, T0070907...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439617/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-6-is-essential-for-trophoblast-survival-and-invasion
#4
Lei Li, Jipeng Wan, Jing Xue, Hongyan Li, Shan Wang, Qian Zhou, Yu Zhou, Xietong Wang
Remodeling of maternal spiral artery after the implantation of embryo relies on tightly regulated trophoblast functions and is pivotal to ensure the success of pregnancy. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) is implicated in angiogenesis and several vascular diseases, but its function in trophoblast regulation is still not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the involvement of LRP6 in trophoblast functions during maternal spiral artery remodeling. HTR-8/SVneo cells, a trophoblast cell line, were employed to examine the impact of LRP6 knockdown on proliferation, apoptosis, and migration, as well as invasion and tube formation...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437897/tlr9-toll-like-receptor-9-agonist-suppresses-angiogenesis-by-differentially-regulating-vegfa-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-and-sflt1-soluble-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-1-in-preeclampsia
#5
Biwei He, Xingyu Yang, Yamei Li, Ding Huang, Xin Xu, Wenjun Yang, Yan Dai, Huijuan Zhang, Zhengjun Chen, Weiwei Cheng
Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure and proteinuria. Activation of the maternal immune system and impaired placental angiogenesis are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. TLR9 (Toll-like receptor 9) plays a role in innate immunity, defending the organism against infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TLR9 inhibits angiogenesis at the fetomaternal interface under conditions of preeclampsia. We confirmed the downregulation of VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) and upregulation of TLR9 and sFLT1 (soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1) in placentas from preeclamptic women...
February 5, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434073/placental-growth-factor-plgf-is-linked-to-inflammation-and-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#6
Mincheol Kang, Jain Jeong, Jinhee Lee, Song Park, Yonghun Sung, Minjee Choi, Wookbong Kwon, Soyoung Jang, Kwang Shik Choi, Yeon Sik Choo, Duhak Yoon, Myoung Ok Kim, Zae Young Ryoo
Placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) sub-family, plays a major role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Previous study demonstrated that PlGF-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice had gestational loss. In addition, PlGF secretion was up-regulated in isolated T lymphocytes (T-cell) upon CD3/CD28 stimulation, suggesting that PlGF could be a regulator of T-cell differentiation and development. T-cells are well known to play a critical role in obesity-induced inflammation...
February 9, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431531/effect-of-human-placental-extract-treatment-on-random-pattern-skin-flap-survival-in-rats
#7
Jung Woo Kwon, Seung Eun Hong, So Ra Kang, Bo Young Park
BACKGROUND: Human placental extract (HPE), prepared from the placentas of healthy, postpartum females, displays various physiological activities, including antioxidative properties. In this study, a dorsal skin flap model was used to investigate the effect of HPE on flap viability in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent random-pattern skin flap surgeries. The animals were randomly divided among a control group and three treatment groups (localized injection (LI), 10 mg/kg/d localized HPE injections; low-dose treatment (LT), 10 mg/kg/d systemic HPE injections; high-dose treatment (HT), 40 mg/kg/d systemic HPE injections)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422214/evidence-based-national-guidelines-for-the-management-of-suspected-fetal-growth-restriction-comparison-consensus-and-controversy
#8
REVIEW
Lesley M McCowan, Francesc Figueras, Ngaire H Anderson
Small for gestational age is usually defined as an infant with a birthweight <10th centile for a population or customized standard. Fetal growth restriction refers to a fetus that has failed to reach its biological growth potential because of placental dysfunction. Small-for-gestational-age babies make up 28-45% of nonanomalous stillbirths, and have a higher chance of neurodevelopmental delay, childhood and adult obesity, and metabolic disease. The majority of small-for-gestational-age babies are not recognized before birth...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422210/pathophysiology-of-placental-derived-fetal-growth-restriction
#9
REVIEW
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
Placental-related fetal growth restriction arises primarily due to deficient remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries supplying the placenta during early pregnancy. The resultant malperfusion induces cell stress within the placental tissues, leading to selective suppression of protein synthesis and reduced cell proliferation. These effects are compounded in more severe cases by increased infarction and fibrin deposition. Consequently, there is a reduction in villous volume and surface area for maternal-fetal exchange...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409677/virtual-reality-imaging-techniques-in-the-study-of-embryonic-and-early-placental-health
#10
Melek Rousian, Maria P H Koster, Annemarie G M G J Mulders, Anton H J Koning, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen, Eric A P Steegers
Embryonic and placental growth and development in the first trimester of pregnancy have impact on the health of the fetus, newborn, child and even the adult. This emphasizes the importance of this often neglected period in life. The development of three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasonography in combination with virtual reality (VR) opens the possibility of accurate and reliable visualization of embryonic and placental structures with real depth perception. These techniques enable new biometry and volumetry measurements that contribute to the knowledge of the (patho)physiology of embryonic and early placental health...
January 5, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408318/cadmium-disrupts-signaling-of-the-hypoxia-inducible-hif-and-transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-pathways-in-placental-jeg-3-trophoblast-cells-via-reactive-oxygen-species
#11
Oluwadamilare A Adebambo, Damian Shea, Rebecca C Fry
Epidemiologic studies indicate an association between exposure to cadmium (Cd) and placental-related pregnancy disorders. While a precise mechanism is unknown, oxidative imbalance and dysregulation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathways have been implicated in placental disease pathogenesis. Here we investigated key oxidative and placentation pathways in JEG-3 placental trophoblast cells treated with Cd alone, environmental water samples predominated by Cd with low concentrations of other metals (e...
February 2, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408008/takifugu-rubripes-cation-independent-mannose-6-phosphate-receptor-cloning-expression-and-functional-characterization-of-the-igf-ii-binding-domain
#12
A Ajith Kumar, Siva Kumar Nadimpalli
Mannose 6-phosphate/IGF-II receptor mediated lysosomal clearance of insulin like growth factor-II is significantly associated with the evolution of placental mammals. The protein is also referred to as the IGF-II receptor. Earlier studies suggested relatively low binding affinity between the receptor and ligand in prototherian and metatherian mammals. In the present study we cloned the IGF-II binding domain of the early vertebrate fugu fish and expressed it in bacteria. A 72000 Da truncated receptor containing the IGF-II binding domain was obtained...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405966/decreased-expression-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-13-in-early-onset-preeclampsia-is-associated-with-the-increased-trophoblast-permeability
#13
Xiaojing Yue, Ying Sun, Mei Zhong, Yanlin Ma, Yanxing Wei, Fei Sun, Lu Xiao, Mian Liu, Jianing Chen, Yingjun Lai, Chuming Yan, Liping Huang, Yanhong Yu
OBJECTIVE: Intracellular protein fibroblast growth factor 13 (FGF13) is highly expressed in human placenta, although its biological function remains unexplored. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of FGF13 in placentae with early-onset preeclampsia (PE) and the associated mechanisms in the pathophysiology of PE. METHODS: The expression levels of FGF13 in placentae obtained from patients with early-onset PE and normal pregnancies were assessed using immunofluorescent staining, Western blot assays and quantitative PCR...
February 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393376/microrna-expression-profiling-in-placenta-and-maternal-plasma-in-early-pregnancy-loss
#14
Mohammad Kazem Hosseini, Tuba Gunel, Ece Gumusoglu, Ali Benian, Kilic Aydinli
Early pregnancy loss (EPL), also termed early miscarriage, is determined as the unintentional expulsion of an embryo or fetus prior to the 12th week of gestation. EPL frequency is ~15% in pregnancies. Fetal development and growth is associate with placental function and vessel development; therefore, the placental genome would represent a useful miscarriage model for (epi)genetic and genomic studies. An important factor of placental development and function is epigenetic regulation of gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are the primary epigenetic regulators which have an important role in placental development and function...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392826/reduced-angiogenic-factor-expression-in-intrauterine-fetal-growth-restriction-using-semiquantitative-immunohistochemistry-and-digital-image-analysis
#15
Thushari I Alahakoon, Weiyi Zhang, Susan Arbuckle, Kewei Zhang, Vincent Lee
AIM: To localize, quantify and compare angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), as well as their receptors fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor (Flt-1) and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) in the placentas of normal pregnancy and complications of preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and PE + IUGR. METHODS: In a prospective cross-sectional case-control study, 30 pregnant women between 24-40 weeks of gestation, were recruited into four clinical groups...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383161/impact-of-prenatal-cold-stress-on-placental-physiology-inflammatory-response-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#16
Shuai Lian, Jingru Guo, Lipeng Wang, Wenjie Li, Jianfa Wang, Hong Ji, Fanzhi Kong, Bin Xu, Shize Li, Huanmin Yang
Prenatal cold stress is one of the earliest factors affecting mammalian health, and is associated with neonatal growth retardation and immune dysfunction, thus increasing disease susceptibility. The mechanisms underlying these observations remain unclear; hence, the objective of this study was to elucidate placental responses to cold stress. 60 maternal rats were randomly allocated to either stressed (n = 30) or non-stressed (control, n = 30) treatment conditions and 30 pubs (n=15) were used for the pups analysis...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383152/zinc-improves-learning-and-memory-abilities-of-fetal-growth-restriction-rats-and-promotes-trophoblast-cell-invasion-and-migration-via-enhancing-stat3-mmp-2-9-axis-activity
#17
Lu Zong, Xiaohua Wei, Wenli Gou, Pu Huang, Ye Lv
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a well-known risk factor for cognitive dysfunction, especially for learning and memory abilities. However, knowledge about prevention and treatment methods of learning and memory abilities of fetal are limit. Here, Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests showed zinc supplementation could protect the impairment of the learning and memory abilities caused by FGR. As accumulating evidence suggested that insufficiency of placental trophoblast cell invasion was closely related to FGR fetal neurodevelopmental dysplasia, we further explored the relationship between zinc supplementation during pregnancy and placental trophoblast...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376143/bevacizumab-injection-in-patients-with-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-increases-angiogenic-biomarkers
#18
Thiago Cabral, Luiz H Lima, Luiz Guilherme M Mello, Júlia Polido, Éverton P Correa, Akiyoshi Oshima, Jimmy Duong, Pedro Serracarbassa, Caio V Regatieri, Vinit B Mahajan, Rubens Belfort
Purpose: To evaluate the expression of 19 angiogenic biomarkers in the aqueous humor before and after intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design: Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. Participants: Twenty-three eyes of 23 treatment-naïve patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to neovascular AMD. Methods: Eyes were diagnosed with CNV secondary to neovascular AMD and were treated with 3 monthly IVBs...
January 2018: Ophthalmology Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373603/n-acetylcysteine-alleviates-cadmium-induced-placental-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-fetal-growth-restriction-in-mice
#19
Min-Yin Guo, Hua Wang, Yuan-Hua Chen, Mi-Zhen Xia, Cheng Zhang, De-Xiang Xu
Cadmium (Cd) is a developmental toxicant that induces fetal growth restriction (FGR). Placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with FGR. This study investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on Cd-induced placental ER stress and FGR. Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl2 daily from gestational day (GD)13 to GD17. As expected, Cd reduced fetal weight and crown-rump length. Cd decreased the internal space of blood vessels in the placental labyrinth layer and inhibited placental cell proliferation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371787/preeclampsia-from-inflammation-to-immunoregulation
#20
Denise C Cornelius
Preeclampsia (PE) affects 5% to 7% of pregnant women each year worldwide, accounts for up to 18% of maternal deaths in the United States each year, and is the number 1 cause of premature births. Preeclampsia is associated with hypertension after the 20th week of gestation with or without proteinuria, in conjunction with fetal growth restriction, maternal endothelial dysfunction, and chronic immune activation. The mechanisms leading to the development of PE are unclear. However, it is thought that shallow trophoblast invasion and insufficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries result in placental ischemia...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
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