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Placental growth factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235113/postnatal-effects-of-intrauterine-treatment-of-the-growth-restricted-ovine-fetus-with-intra-amniotic-insulin-like-growth-factor-1
#1
A M Spiroski, M H Oliver, A L Jaquiery, T C R Prickett, E A Espiner, J E Harding, F H Bloomfield
Placental insufficiency-mediated fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with altered postnatal growth and metabolism, which are, in turn, associated with increased risk of adult disease. Intra-amniotic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) treatment of ovine FGR increases growth rate in late gestation, but the effects on postnatal growth and metabolism are unknown. We investigated the effects of intra-amniotic IGF1 administration to ovine fetuses with uteroplacental embolisation-induced FGR on phenotypic and physiologic characteristics in the two weeks after birth...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230179/transplacental-nutrient-transport-mechanisms-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-rodent-models-and-humans
#2
REVIEW
Elke Winterhager, Alexandra Gellhaus
Although the causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have been intensively investigated, important information is still lacking about the role of the placenta as a link from adverse maternal environment to adverse pregnancy outcomes of IUGR and preterm birth. IUGR is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases later in life. Determination of the most important pathways that regulate transplacental transport systems is necessary for identifying marker genes as diagnostic tools and for developing drugs that target the molecular pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229743/meta-analysis-and-systematic-review-to-assess-the-role-of-soluble-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-and-placenta-growth-factor-ratio-in-prediction-of-preeclampsia-the-sappphire-study
#3
Swati Agrawal, Ana Sofia Cerdeira, Christopher Redman, Manu Vatish
Preeclampsia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Numerous candidate biomarkers have been proposed for diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia. Measurement of maternal circulating angiogenesis biomarker as the ratio of sFlt-1 (soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1; an antiangiogenic factor)/PlGF (placental growth factor; an angiogenic factor) reflects the antiangiogenic balance that characterizes incipient or overt preeclampsia. The ratio increases before the onset of the disease and thus may help in predicting preeclampsia...
December 11, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229321/the-role-of-aspirin-heparin-and-other-interventions-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#4
REVIEW
Katie M Groom, Anna L David
Fetal growth restriction and related placental pathologies such as preeclampsia, stillbirth, and placental abruption are believed to arise in early pregnancy when inadequate remodeling of the maternal spiral arteries leads to persistent high-resistance and low-flow uteroplacental circulation. The consequent placental ischaemia, reperfusion injury, and oxidative stress are associated with an imbalance in angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors. Many interventions have centered on the prevention and/or treatment of preeclampsia with results pertaining to fetal growth restriction and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy often included as secondary outcomes because of the common pathophysiology...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227010/pre-labour-screening-for-intrapartum-fetal-compromise-in-low-risk-pregnancies-at-term-cerebroplacental-ratio-and-placental-growth-factor
#5
Larissa N Bligh, Amal A Alsolai, Ristan M Greer, Sailesh Kumar
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the screening performance of a low fetal cerebroplacental ratio (a marker of fetal adaptation to suboptimal growth) and maternal placental growth factor levels, respectively, both in isolation and in combination, for the detection of cesarean section for intrapartum fetal compromise and serious composite neonatal outcome. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed on low risk women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies from 36 weeks to delivery...
December 11, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222938/role-of-angiogenic-factors-in-the-pathogenesis-and-management-of-pre-eclampsia
#6
REVIEW
Nnabuike C Ngene, Jagidesa Moodley
The cause of pre-eclampsia is unknown. Different postulates have been developed to explain its pathogenesis. The two-stage theory and angiogenic imbalance are two notable postulates of the disease. Together, they propose that there is a lack of cytotrophoblastic invasion of the uterine spiral arteries in pre-eclampsia. The lumen of these arteries remains narrow instead of converting to the wide channels seen in normal pregnancy, and result in poor placental perfusion. Coupled with maternal susceptibility, this process leads to the release of mediators, including an excess of anti-angiogenic factors that result in the clinical manifestations of the disease...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222466/deciphering-transcriptional-regulation-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells-specified-towards-a-trophoblast-fate
#7
Ashish Jain, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts, Geetu Tuteja
Differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) continue to provide a model for studying early trophoblast cells (TB), but many questions have been raised regarding their true identity. Therefore, we carried out a global and unbiased analysis on previously published transcriptomic profiles for hESC differentiated to TB by means of bone morphogenetic protein-4 and inhibitors of activin A and fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling (BAP treatment). Our results confirm that BAP treated hESC (ESCd) lack a mesoderm signature and are a subtype of placental cells unlike those present at term...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221766/screening-for-fetal-growth-restriction-and-placental-insufficiency
#8
REVIEW
Melanie C Audette, John C Kingdom
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) continues to be a leading cause of preventable stillbirth and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring, and furthermore is strongly associated with the obstetrical complications of iatrogenic preterm birth and pre-eclampsia. The terms small for gestational age (SGA) and FGR have, for too long, been considered equivalent and therefore used interchangeably. However, the delivery of improved clinical outcomes requires that clinicians effectively distinguish fetuses that are pathologically growth-restricted from those that are constitutively small...
December 5, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221193/steroidogenic-factor-1-hypermethylation-in-maternal-rat-blood-could-serve-as-a-biomarker-for-intrauterine-growth-retardation
#9
Dong-Mei Wu, Liang-Peng Ma, Gui-Li Song, Yong Long, Han-Xiao Liu, Yang Liu, Jie Ping
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a common obstetric complication lacking an optimal method for prenatal screening. DNA methylation profile in maternal blood holds significant promise for prenatal screening. Here, we aimed to screen out potential IUGR biomarkers in maternal blood from the perspective of DNA methylation. The IUGR rat model was established by prenatal maternal undernutrition. High-throughput bisulfite sequencing of genomic DNA methylation followed by functional clustering analysis for differentially methylated region (DMR)-associated genes demonstrated that genes regulating transcription had the most significantly changed DNA methylation status in maternal blood with IUGR...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215518/angiogenic-factor-profiles-in-pregnant-women-with-a-history-of-early-onset-severe-preeclampsia-receiving-low-molecular-weight-heparin-prophylaxis
#10
Edouard Lecarpentier, Jean Christophe Gris, Eva Cochery-Nouvellon, Erick Mercier, Cyril Touboul, Ravi Thadhani, S Ananth Karumanchi, Bassam Haddad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether daily low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparin prophylaxis during pregnancy alters profile of circulating angiogenic factors that have been linked with the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. METHODS: This is a planned ancillary study of the Heparin-Preeclampsia trial, a randomized trial in pregnant women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia (less than 34 weeks of gestation). In the parent study, all women were treated with aspirin and then randomized to receive LMW heparin or aspirin alone...
December 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214752/evaluation-of-sflt-1-plgf-ratio-for-predicting-and-improving-clinical-management-of-pre-eclampsia-experience-in-a-specialized-perinatal-care-center
#11
Hélène Caillon, Cécile Tardif, Erwan Dumontet, Norbert Winer, Damien Masson
BACKGROUND: Management of pregnant women at high risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) requires frequent monitoring, with referral to specialized perinatal care centers. Reliable tests are necessary to improve prediction of PE and related complications and to assess disease severity and progression. An imbalance in two biomarkers, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF), is involved in PE pathogenesis. The sFlt-1 to PlGF ratio is increased in pregnant women before the onset of PE...
March 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212571/expression-of-homeobox-gene-hlx-and-its-downstream-target-genes-are-altered-in-placentae-from-discordant-twin-pregnancies
#12
Nicola Yuen, Shaun P Brennecke, Mark P Umstad, Hannah E J Yong, Anthony J Borg, Gayathri Rajaraman, Bill Kalionis, Padma Murthi
A discordant twin gestation, in which one fetus is significantly growth restricted, compared to the other normal twin, is a unique model that can be used to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which the intrauterine environment affects fetal growth. In many model systems, placental transcription factor genes regulate fetal growth. Transcription factors regulate growth through their activation or repression of downstream target genes that mediate important cell functions. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of the placental HLX homeobox gene transcription factor and its downstream target genes in dizygotic twins with growth discordance...
December 7, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210999/adverse-intrauterine-environment-and-cardiac-mirna-expression
#13
REVIEW
Mitchell C Lock, Kimberley J Botting, Ross L Tellam, Doug Brooks, Janna L Morrison
Placental insufficiency, high altitude pregnancies, maternal obesity/diabetes, maternal undernutrition and stress can result in a poor setting for growth of the developing fetus. These adverse intrauterine environments result in physiological changes to the developing heart that impact how the heart will function in postnatal life. The intrauterine environment plays a key role in the complex interplay between genes and the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate their expression. In this review we describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs) and how these changes may impact heart development...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208236/placental-abnormalities-differ-between-small-for-gestational-age-fetuses-in-dichorionic-twin-and-singleton-pregnancies
#14
Mia Kibel, Michael Kahn, Christopher Sherman, John Kingdom, Arthur Zaltz, Jon Barrett, Nir Melamed
OBJECTIVE: Twin fetuses grow slower during the third trimester compared with singletons. However, the extent to which the relative smallness of twins is the result of placenta-mediated factors similar to those associated with fetal growth restriction in singletons remains unclear. Our aim was to address this question by comparing placental findings between small for gestational age (SGA) twins and SGA singletons. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all SGA non-anomalous newborns from singleton and dichorionic twin pregnancies in a single tertiary referral center between 2002 and 2015...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208172/investigation-of-role-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-annexin-a5-and-apelin-by-immunohistochemistry-method-in-placenta-of-preeclampsia-patients
#15
Nese Colcimen, Gülay Bulut, Ozlem Ergul Erkec, Murat Cetin Ragbetli
Preeclampsia is a disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria occurred after 20 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.  The pathophysiological mechanism of preeclampsia is not known exactly yet. Preeclampsia endothelial cell dysfunction, associated with inadequate trophoblastic invasion is characterized by abnormal placentation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) according to is an angiogenic cytokine, Annexin A5 is among endogenous peptides are both expressed from placental trophoblasts and Apelin is a multifunctional peptide and expressed by placental trophoblasts and endothelial cells...
November 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205570/brain-angiogenic-gene-expression-in-congenital-heart-disease
#16
Olga Sánchez, Aina Ruiz-Romero, Carmen Domínguez, Queralt Ferrer, Irene Ribera, Víctor Rodríguez-Sureda, Jaume Alijotas, Sílvia Arévalo, Elena Carreras, Lluís Cabero, Elisa Llurba
OBJECTIVES: To analyze potential differences in the expression of antiangiogenic and angiogenic factors and of genes associated with chronic hypoxia in cerebral tissue from euploid fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) and control fetuses. METHODS: Cerebral tissue was obtained from 15 fetuses with CHD and 12 control fetuses undergoing termination of pregnancy. Expression profiles of the antiangiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), the angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and placental growth factor (PlGF), and genes associated with chronic hypoxia were determined by real-time PCR in tissue from the frontal cortex and from basal ganglia-hypothalamus...
December 5, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196992/assessing-the-circulating-placental-specific-anti-angiogenic-protein-sflt-1-e15a-in-preeclampsia
#17
Kirsten Palmer
Preeclampsia is a common obstetric complication globally responsible for a significant burden of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The anti-angiogenic protein, sFLT-1, plays a central role in its pathophysiology. sFLT-1 is released from a range of tissues into the circulation, where it antagonizes the activity of vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor leading to endothelial dysfunction. The resulting widespread endothelial dysfunction produces the clinical features of preeclampsia including hypertension and proteinuria...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196991/biomarker-immunoassays-in-the-diagnosis-of-preeclampsia-calculating-the-sflt1-plgf-ratio-using-the-cobas%C3%A2-e-411-analyser
#18
Carin Black, Fabricio da Silva Costa
Preeclampsia is a relatively common pregnancy-related condition associated with serious maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. It is now well established that anti-angiogenic sFlt1 is upregulated in preeclampsia and binds PlGF and VEGF, causing an imbalance in angiogenic factors with subsequent endothelial injury and dysfunction. Measurement of placental growth factor (PlGF) and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio have both been validated in other countries for screening and diagnosis of preeclampsia and the differentiation of preeclampsia from other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193660/preterm-birth-with-placental-evidence-of-malperfusion-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-after-pregnancy-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Janet M Catov, Matthew F Muldoon, Steven E Reis, Roberta B Ness, Lananh N Nguyen, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Hyunsoo Hwang, W Tony Parks
OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth (PTB) is associated with excess maternal cardiovascular disease risk. We considered that women with PTB and placental evidence of maternal malperfusion would be particularly affected. DESIGN: Pregnancy cohort study. SETTING: Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, US. POPULATION: Women with PTB (n=115) and term births (n=210) evaluated 4-12 years after pregnancy. METHODS: Cardiometabolic risk markers were compared in women with prior PTB vs...
November 28, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190766/developmental-peculiarities-in-placentae-of-ovine-uniparental-conceptuses
#20
Roberta Arena, Federica Zacchini, Paola Toschi, Luca Palazzese, Marta Czernik, Grażyna Ewa Ptak
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon regulating mono-allelic expression of genes depending on their parental origin. Defective genomic imprinting is involved in several placental disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia. Uniparental embryos, having maternal-only or paternal-only genomes (parthenogenotes [PAR] and androgenotes [AND], respectively), are useful models to study placentation. The aim of this work was to reveal the effect of parental genome (maternal and paternal) on placentation...
2017: PloS One
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