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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811809/peppered-and-rare-gastric-and-duodenal-pseudomelanosis-a-case-series
#1
Sami Samiullah, Hadi Bhurgri, Arooj Babar, Fatima Samad, Moaz M Choudhary, Michael Demyen
Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) pseudomelanosis is an uncommon entity characterized by endoscopic visualization of speckled dark mucosal pigmentation. While described in the rectum and colon, 'melanosis' or more aptly 'pseudomelanosis' is rare in the duodenum and exceedingly rare in the stomach. Five cases of pseudomelanosis were encountered at our department. Four females and one male were diagnosed, with a mean age of 70 years. All patients exhibited duodenal pseudomelanosis, with one demonstrating gastric antral pseudomelanosis as well...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811758/pathological-interrelations-of-soil-borne-diseases-in-cucurbits-caused-by-fusarium-species-and-meloidogyne-incognita
#2
Yunhee Seo, Young Ho Kim
Pathological interrelations of two soil-borne diseases in cucurbits (watermelon, oriental melon, shintosa and cucumber) caused by Fusarium isolates (FI) and the root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita were characterized by the fusarium disease severity index (DI), RKN gall index (GI) and eggmass index (EI) in inoculation tests using FI and RKN. Virulence of FI as determined by DI at 4 weeks after inoculation was mostly in the higher order of Fusarium proliferatum F6, F5 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811713/clinical-significance-of-glycemic-parameters-on-venous-thromboembolism-risk-prediction-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#3
Fiorella Guadagni, Silvia Riondino, Vincenzo Formica, Girolamo Del Monte, Anna Maria Morelli, Jessica Lucchetti, Antonella Spila, Roberta D'Alessandro, David Della-Morte, Patrizia Ferroni, Mario Roselli
AIM: To investigate the possible predictive role of routinely used glycemic parameters for a first venous thromboembolism (VTE) episode in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer ambulatory patients - with or without clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) or obesity - treated with chemotherapy. METHODS: Pre-treatment fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and homeostasis model of risk assessment (HOMA) were retrospectively evaluated in a cohort study of 342 GI cancer patients...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811704/gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-peptides-amines-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
REVIEW
Magdy El-Salhy, Tefera Solomon, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic recurrent condition whose etiology is unknown, and it includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and microscopic colitis. These three diseases differ in clinical manifestations, courses, and prognoses. IBD reduces the patients' quality of life and is an economic burden to both the patients and society. Interactions between the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine peptides/amines (NEPA) and the immune system are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBD...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809071/physicians-communication-of-risks-from-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-attitude-towards-providing-adverse-drug-reaction-information-to-patients
#5
Pacharaporn Phueanpinit, Juraporn Pongwecharak, Sermsak Sumanont, Janet Krska, Narumol Jarernsiripornkul
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently prescribed for orthopaedic conditions, therefore this study aimed to explore orthopaedic physicians' perceptions of their role in NSAID-risk communication, their attitudes towards the necessity of informing patients about adverse drug reactions (ADR), and factors associated with these. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to all 206 orthopaedic physicians working at hospitals in Northeastern Thailand...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808780/non-cns-pathogenic-origin-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Humdoon Choudhry, Lawrence C Perlmuter
The gut with its variety of microbiota may serve as an etiological origin of diseases. Gut microbes may also play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases beyond their simple nutritional maintenance and support. For example, gut protein aggregation, possibly aided by microbes as well as nasal influences, might be linked to disease that may move to the brain through the vagus nerve. To this end, Braak has offered a "dual-hit" hypothesis that proposes a novel etiology for Parkinson's disease (PD). The hypothesis places the initial origin of the disease in the nose and the gastrointestinal tract (GI) after infection by an unknown pathogen that could aggregate in the gut and then eventually spread to the brain via the autonomic plexuses...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806408/microbiota-of-little-penguins-and-short-tailed-shearwaters-during-development
#7
Meagan L Dewar, John P Y Arnould, Theo R Allnutt, Tamsyn Crowley, Lutz Krause, John Reynolds, Peter Dann, Stuart C Smith
The establishment and early colonisation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been recognised as a crucial stage in chick development, with pioneering microbial species responsible for influencing the development of the GI tract and influencing host health, fitness and disease status throughout life. Development of the microbiota in long lived seabirds is poorly understood. This study characterised the microbial composition of little penguin and short-tailed shearwater chicks throughout development, using Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805583/the-gut-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Lisa Klingelhoefer, Heinz Reichmann
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are one of the most common nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the whole GI tract (GIT) and being evident throughout the whole course of the disease. Furthermore, constipation serves as a risk factor for PD as well as an early prodromal NMS of PD. The gut as gateway to the environment with its enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial role in the neurodegenerative process that leads to PD. Alpha-synucleinopathy as the pathological hallmark of PD could be found within the whole GIT in a rostrocaudal gradient interacting with the ENS, the gut microbiome, and enteric glial cells...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805160/clinical-implications-of-immunoglobulin-g4-to-graves-ophthalmopathy
#9
Sung Hoon Yu, Jun Goo Kang, Chul Sik Kim, Sung-Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Seong Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore relation of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) to clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) without or with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), and to analyze association of IgG4 with development and grade of GO in GD patients. METHODS: Sixty-four GD patients and 64 sex- and age-matched euthyroid subjects were enrolled. Serum levels of thyroid hormones, thyroid autoantibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG4 were measured, and ophthalmological and ultrasonographical evaluation was performed...
August 12, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804920/thiopurines-prevented-surgical-recurrence-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-after-intestinal-resection-strategy-based-on-risk-stratification
#10
Jing Guo, Bai-Li Chen, Zhi-Hui Chen, Xia-Peng Luo, Yun Qiu, Sheng-Hong Zhang, Rui Feng, Yao He, Zhi-Rong Zeng, Xin-Ming Song, Shomron Ben-Horin, Ren Mao, Min-Hu Chen
BACKGROUND: Thiopurines (TPs) are effective in reducing risk of clinical and endoscopic recurrence in postoperative patients with Crohn's disease (CD). However, whether TPs could prevent surgical recurrence (SR) remains unknown. AIM: To explore whether TPs could prevent SR and identify risk factors associated with SR in postoperative CD patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 246 postoperative patients with CD. Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify risk factors for SR...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803655/usefulness-of-pa32540-in-protecting-the-gastric-layer-while-providing-secondary-prevention-for-coronary-artery-disease
#11
REVIEW
Deepthi Kagolanu, Najia Sayedy, Syed Haseeb, Shivani Shah, Paul Lam, Swapna Munnangi, Prakash Viswanathan, Kent Stephenson
Aspirin has been the mainstay for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease to decrease early recurrence and severity of recurrent cardiovascular events. However, an increase in gastrointestinal bleeding due to aspirin is preventing many patients from adhering to this daily regimen. PA32540, a combination pill with aspirin and omeprazole, is a newly emerging intervention that has the potential to reinforce patient compliance with the aspirin regimen due to fewer gastrointestinal adverse effects. This systematic review assessed three recent phase 3 clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of PA32540...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803389/gastrointestinal-manifestations-of-stat3-deficient-hyper-ige-syndrome
#12
Manish Arora, Preet Bagi, Anna Strongin, Jennifer Heimall, Xiongce Zhao, Monica G Lawrence, Apurva Trivedi, Carolyn Henderson, Amy Hsu, Martha Quezado, David E Kleiner, Aradhana M Venkatesan, Steven M Holland, Alexandra F Freeman, Theo Heller
OBJECTIVE: STAT 3 deficiency (autosomal dominant hyper immunoglobulin E syndrome (AD-HIES)) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder with multi-organ involvement caused by dominant negative signal transducer and activator of transcription gene 3 (STAT3) mutations. We sought to describe the gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of this disease. METHODS: Seventy subjects aged five to 60 years with a molecular diagnosis of AD-HIES were evaluated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH)...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803148/combustion-derived-nanoparticles-the-neuroenteric-system-cervical-vagus-hyperphosphorylated-alpha-synuclein-and-tau-in-young-mexico-city-residents
#13
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Beatriz Pérez-Guillé, Partha S Mukherjee, Angélica Gónzalez-Maciel
Mexico City (MC) young residents are exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), have high frontal concentrations of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs), accumulation of hyperphosphorylated aggregated α-synuclein (α-Syn) and early Parkinson's disease (PD). Swallowed CDNPs have easy access to epithelium and submucosa, damaging gastrointestinal (GI) barrier integrity and accessing the enteric nervous system (ENS). This study is focused on the ENS, vagus nerves and GI barrier in young MC v clean air controls...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800179/short-term-outcomes-of-atrial-flutter-ablation
#14
Byomesh Tripathi, Shilpkumar Arora, Abhishek Mishra, Vishwa Reddy Kundoor, Sopan Lahewala, Varun Kumar, Mahek Shah, Dhairya Lakhani, Harshil Shah, Nilay V Patel, Nileshkumar J Patel, Mihir Dave, Abhishek Deshmukh, Sattur Sudhakar, Radha Gopalan
BACKGROUND: Understanding the factors associated with early readmissions following atrial flutter (AFL) ablation is critical to reduce the cost and improving the quality of life in AFL patients. METHOD: The study cohort was derived from the National readmission database 2013-14. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis code 427.32 and procedure code 37.34 were used to identify AFL and catheter ablation respectively. The primary and secondary outcomes were 90-day readmission and complications including in-hospital mortality...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796730/squamous-cancers-of-the-rectum-demonstrate-poorer-survival-and-increased-need-for-salvage-surgery-compared-with-squamous-cancers-of-the-anus
#15
Audrey S Kulaylat, Christopher S Hollenbeak, David B Stewart
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell cancers of the anus are rare GI malignancies for which neoadjuvant chemoradiation is the first-line treatment for nonmetastatic disease. Squamous cancers of the rectum are far less common, and it is unclear to what degree chemoradiotherapy improves their outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare stage-specific survival for anal and rectal squamous cancers stratified by treatment approach. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study...
September 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796602/contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-gastric-emptying-and-motility-in-rats
#16
Kun-Han Lu, Jiayue Cao, Steven Oleson, Terry L Powley, Zhongming Liu
The assessment of gastric emptying and motility in humans and animals typically requires radioactive imaging or invasive measurements. Here, we developed a robust strategy to image and characterize gastric emptying and motility in rats based on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer-assisted image processing. The animals were trained to naturally consume a gadolinium-labeled dietgel while bypassing any need for oral gavage. Following this test meal, the animals were scanned under low-dose anesthesia for high-resolution T1-weighted MRI in 7-Tesla, visualizing the time-varying distribution of the meal with greatly enhanced contrast against non-GI tissues...
August 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795618/distribution-of-dental-plaque-and-gingivitis-within-the-dental-arches
#17
Prem K Sreenivasan, Kakarla V V Prasad
Objective The natural accumulation of supragingival plaque on surfaces of human teeth is associated with gingival inflammation and the initiation of common oral diseases. This study evaluated the distribution of dental plaque and gingivitis scores within the dental arches after prophylaxis. Methods Adult subjects from the Dharwad, India area representing the general population who provided written informed consent were scheduled for screening. Healthy subjects over the age of 18 years, not currently requiring any medical or dental care, and presenting with a complement of at least 20 natural teeth were recruited for this parallel design study...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795002/gastrointestinal-considerations-related-to-youth-sports-and-the-young-athlete
#18
REVIEW
Garrett Koon, Orhan Atay, Sameer Lapsia
Young athletes, though often healthy, can carry a variety of symptoms that may impede their participation in sports or other activities. Typically we might think of musculoskeletal and respiratory problems primarily, however disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract must also be considered. In some instances musculoskeletal complaints may bring to light activity of an underlying GI condition as is the case with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastrointestinal symptoms in the young athlete can be quite significant and a nuisance for participation...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792532/continuous-il-23-stimulation-drives-ilc3-depletion-in-the-upper-gi-tract-and-in-combination-with-tnf%C3%AE-induces-robust-activation-and-a-phenotypic-switch-of-ilc3
#19
Amanda M Schmidt Paustian, Jesus Paez-Cortez, Shaughn Bryant, Susan Westmoreland, Wendy Waegell, Gillian Kingsbury
Mutations in the Interleukin (IL)-23/IL-23 receptor loci are associated with increased inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility, and IL-23 neutralization has shown efficacy in early clinical trials. To better understand how an excess of IL-23 affects the gastrointestinal tract, we investigated chronic systemic IL-23 exposure in healthy wildtype mice. As expected, IL-23 exposure resulted in early activation of intestinal type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), followed by infiltration of activated RORγt+ T helper cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792154/proposal-guidelines-for-standardized-operating-procedures-of-brain-autopsy-brain-bank-in-south-korea
#20
Kyung Hwa Lee, Sang Won Seo, Tae Sung Lim, Eun Joo Kim, Byeong Chae Kim, Yeshin Kim, Ho Won Lee, Jae Pil Jeon, Sung Mi Shim, Duk L Na, Gi Yeong Huh, Min Cheol Lee, Yeon Lim Suh
To obtain an in-depth understanding of brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, psychiatric illnesses, and neoplasms, scientific approach and verification using postmortem human brain tissue with or without disease are essential. Compared to other countries that have run brain banks for decades, South Korea has limited experience with brain banking; nationwide brain banks started only recently. The goal of this study is to provide provisional guidelines for brain autopsy for hospitals and institutes that have not accumulated sufficient expertise...
September 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
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