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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103318/static-and-evolving-norovirus-genotypes-implications-for-epidemiology-and-immunity
#1
Gabriel I Parra, R Burke Squires, Consolee K Karangwa, Jordan A Johnson, Cara Lepore, Stanislav V Sosnovtsev, Kim Y Green
Noroviruses are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Their RNA genomes are diverse, with two major genogroups (GI and GII) comprised of at least 28 genotypes associated with human disease. To elucidate mechanisms underlying norovirus diversity and evolution, we used a large-scale genomics approach to analyze human norovirus sequences. Comparison of over 2000 nearly full-length ORF2 sequences representing most of the known GI and GII genotypes infecting humans showed a limited number (≤5) of distinct intra-genotypic variants within each genotype, with the exception of GII...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098504/effects-of-culturally-adaptive-walking-intervention-on-cardiovascular-disease-risks-for-middle-aged-korean-chinese-female-migrant-workers
#2
Hyeonkyeong Lee, Sunghye Cho, JoEllen Wilbur, Jung Hee Kim, Chang-Gi Park, Young-Me Lee, Haryong Lee
The purpose was to examine the effects of a standard treatment (ST) walking program compared to a ST walking program enhanced (Enhanced Treatment, ET) on cardiovascular health outcomes among Korean-Chinese female migrant workers in Korea. A quasi-experimental sequential design was used. A total of 132 Korean-Chinese women without contraindications to physical activity participated in the study. Both ST and ET groups had monthly goal settings and the ET group received text messages to encourage walking adherence and acculturation...
January 18, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096641/assessment-of-periodontal-health-status-in-postmenopausal-women-visiting-dental-hospital-from-in-and-around-meerut-city-cross-sectional-observational-study
#3
D Deepa, Gazal Jain
BACKGROUND: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause are the different phases of a woman's life which have a varied influence on oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production which affects their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels can be seen directly in the oral cavity leading to a few oral conditions and diseases seen more frequently during postmenopausal years...
October 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093882/the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-farmed-mink-neovison-vison-maintains-a-diverse-mucosa-associated-microbiota-following-a-3-day-fasting-period
#4
Martin I Bahl, Anne S Hammer, Tove Clausen, Anabelle Jakobsen, Søren Skov, Lars Andresen
Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4-5 hr...
January 16, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093196/a-prospective-single-centre-pilot-evaluation-of-a-serum-calprotectin-assay-in-unselected-gi-patients
#5
Rebecca K McCann, Karen Smith, Daniel R Gaya
BACKGROUND: Whilst C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established serum marker of inflammation, its use in gastroenterology has been limited by its poor sensitivity and specificity for GI disease.Faecal calprotectin (FC) has been adopted into mainstream GI practice as a sensitive but non-specific marker of intestinal inflammation. However, stool samples collection for FC can be challenging and the possibility of utilising a sensitive and specific serum biomarker of intestinal inflammation in luminal gastroenterology is an attractive prospect...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091770/relevance-of-surgery-in-patients-with-non-variceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#6
S Dango, T Beißbarth, E Weiss, A Seif Amir Hosseini, D Raddatz, V Ellenrieder, J Lotz, B M Ghadimi, A Beham
INTRODUCTION: Upper GI bleeding remains one of the most common emergencies with a substantial overall mortality rate of up to 30%. In severe ill patients, death does not occur due to failure of hemostasis, either medical or surgical, but mainly from comorbidities, treatment complications, and decreased tolerated blood loss. Management strategies have changed dramatically over the last two decades and include primarily endoscopic intervention in combination with acid-suppressive therapy and decrease in surgical intervention...
January 14, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090568/pathophysiology-of-intestinal-na-h-exchange
#7
Michael A Gurney, Daniel Laubitz, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
Several members of the SLC9A family of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers are expressed in the gut, with varying expression patterns and cellular localization. Not only do they participate in the regulation of basic epithelial cell functions, including control of transepithelial Na(+) absorption, intracellular pH (pH i ), cell volume, and nutrient absorption, but also in cellular proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Additionally, they modulate the extracellular milieu in order to facilitate other nutrient absorption and to regulate the intestinal microbial microenvironment...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090391/neurotoxin-induced-catecholaminergic-loss-in-the-colonic-myenteric-plexus-of-rhesus-monkeys
#8
Jeanette M Shultz, Henry Resnikoff, Viktorya Bondarenko, Valerie Joers, Andres Mejia, Heather Simmons, Marina E Emborg
OBJECTIVE: Constipation is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although pathology of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been associated with constipation in PD, the contribution of catecholaminergic neurodegeneration to this symptom is currently debated. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on the colonic myenteric plexus and shed light on the role of catecholaminergic innervation in gastrointestinal (GI) function...
November 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089365/gastric-bleeding-risk-following-spleen-preserving-distal-pancreatectomy-with-excision-of-the-splenic-vessels-a%C3%A2-long-term-follow-up
#9
D Louis, A Alassiri, S Kirzin, S Blaye-Felice, M Chalret du Rieu, C H Julio, E Bloom, L Ghouti, B Pradère, G Portier, N Carrère
BACKGROUND: Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with resection of the splenic vessels (VR-SPDP) is an effective procedure. However, hemodynamic changes in splenogastric circulation may lead to the development of gastric varices (GV) with a risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. This retrospective study aimed to assess the long-term postoperative clinical follow-up of patients and review the late postoperative abdominal computed tomography (CT) or endoscopic examination. METHODS: From 1988 to 2015, 48 consecutive VR-SPDP for benign or low-grade malignant disease were included...
January 12, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088291/bcfa-suppresses-lps-induced-il-8-mrna-expression-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#10
Y Yan, Z Wang, J Greenwald, K S D Kothapalli, H G Park, R Liu, E Mendralla, P Lawrence, X Wang, J T Brenna
Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are components of common food fats and are major constituents of the normal term human newborn GI tract. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to reduce the risk and development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); however, little is known about the influence of BCFA on inflammation. We investigated the effect of BCFA on interleukin (IL)-8 and NF-κB production in a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2). Cells were pre-treated with specific BCFA, or DHA, or EPA, and then activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087531/salivary-gluten-degradation-and-oral-microbial-profiles-in-health-and-celiac-disease
#11
Na Tian, Lina Faller, Daniel A Leffler, Ciaran P Kelly, Joshua Hansen, Jos A Bosch, Guoxian Wei, Bruce J Paster, Detlef Schuppan, Eva J Helmerhorst
: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy induced by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Saliva harbors the second highest bacterial load of the GI tract after the colon. Moreover, saliva contains gluten-degrading enzymes produced by oral bacteria that may modify gluten processing in the intestine and susceptibility to celiac disease (CD). AIM: To investigate salivary enzymatic activities and oral microbial profiles in healthy subjects vs patients with classical and refractory CD...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087321/enteric-nervous-system-development-a-crest-cell-s-journey-from-neural-tube-to-colon
#12
REVIEW
Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is comprised of a network of neurons and glial cells that are responsible for coordinating many aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function. These cells arise from the neural crest, migrate to the gut, and then continue their journey to colonize the entire length of the GI tract. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that regulate these processes has advanced significantly over the past several decades, in large part facilitated by the use of rodents, avians, and zebrafish as model systems to dissect the signals and pathways involved...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081325/plasma-levels-of-serotonin-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-sleep-problems-in-children-with-autism
#13
Sorayya Kheirouri, Parinaz Kalejahi, Seyyed Gholamreza Noorazar
BACKGROUND/AIM: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder identified with higher frequency of serotonin abnormalities and gastrointestinal (GI) and sleep problems. This study aimed to evaluate the plasma levels of serotonin, GI symptoms, and sleep problems, and their relationship with autism severity in children with autism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five children with autism and 31 healthy subjects were studied. GI problems, sleep disorders, and severity of disorder were assessed...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079270/treatment-of-adults-with-idiopathic-recurrent-pericarditis-novel-use-of-immunotherapy
#14
Nicholas C Schwier, Genevieve Hale, Marie L Davies
Idiopathic recurrent pericarditis (IRP) can be challenging to treat. Even after guideline-directed, first-line treatment consisting of aspirin (ASA) or a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) in combination with colchicine therapy, recurrences still occur in greater than 20% of patients. Many patients then require treatment with long-term corticosteroids, which is not a favorable option due to their short- and long-term adverse effects. Since it is theorized that the pathophysiology of IRP may possess autoimmune sequelae, the use of immunotherapy for the treatment of IRP has emerged...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078126/gastrointestinal-lymphoma-in-western-algeria-pattern-of-distribution-and-histological-subtypes-retrospective-study
#15
Soumia Zeggai, Noria Harir, Abdenacer Tou, Miloud Medjamia, Khaira Guenaoui
BACKGROUND: Primary gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas (GIL) are uncommon diseases that can involve the whole GI tract. Considerable variation exists in the literature with respect to incidence of the various histological subtypes and sites of involvement. This study was undertaken to establish the anatomic distribution, histological subtypes and sites of GI lymphomas of patients from Western Algeria. METHODS: The case records of 58 consecutive patients with GIL diagnosed at the Pathologies Departments of Algerian west region (the Military Hospital of Oran city and the Central University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes city) from January 2006 to December 2013 were retrospectively evaluated for epidemiology and histopathology report...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073164/protective-role-of-endogenous-plasmalogens-against-hepatic-steatosis-and-steatohepatitis
#16
Jung Eun Jang, Han-Sol Park, Hyun Ju Yoo, In-Jeoung Baek, Ji Eun Yoon, Myoung Seok Ko, Ah-Ram Kim, Hyoun Sik Kim, Hye-Sun Park, Seung Eun Lee, Seung-Whan Kim, Su Jung Kim, Jaechan Leem, Yu Mi Kang, Min Kyo Jung, Chan-Gi Pack, Chong Jai Kim, Chang Ohk Sung, In-Kyu Lee, Joong-Yeol Park, José C Fernández-Checa, Eun Hee Koh, Ki-Up Lee
: Free cholesterol (FC) accumulation in the liver is an important pathogenic mechanism of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Plasmalogens, key structural components of the cell membrane, act as endogenous antioxidants and are primarily synthesized in the liver. However, the role of hepatic plasmalogens in metabolic liver disease is unclear. In this study, we found that hepatic levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing plasmalogens, expression of glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (Gnpat, the rate-limiting enzyme in plasmalogen biosynthesis), and expression of Pparα were lower in mice with NASH caused by accumulation of free cholesterol (FC) in the liver...
January 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072713/-11c-r-pk11195-positron-emission-tomography-in-patients-with-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#17
So Yeon Jeon, Seongho Seo, Jae Sung Lee, Soo-Hee Choi, Do-Hyeong Lee, Ye-Ha Jung, Man-Kyu Song, Kyung-Jun Lee, Yong Chul Kim, Hyun Woo Kwon, Hyung-Jun Im, Dong Soo Lee, Gi Jeong Cheon, Do-Hyung Kang
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by severe and chronic pain, but the pathophysiology of this disease are not clearly understood. The primary aim of our case-control study was to explore neuroinflammation in patients with CRPS using positron emission tomography (PET), with an 18-kDa translocator protein specific radioligand [C]-(R)-PK11195. [C]-(R)-PK11195 PET scans were acquired for 11 patients with CRPS (30-55 years) and 12 control subjects (30-52 years). Parametric image of distribution volume ratio (DVR) for each participant was generated by applying a relative equilibrium-based graphical analysis...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069744/coeliac-disease-screening-is-suboptimal-in-a-tertiary-gastroenterology-setting
#18
Heba Iskandar, Darrell M Gray, Hongha Vu, Faiz Mirza, Mary Katherine Rude, Kara Regan, Adil Abdalla, Srinivas Gaddam, Sami Almaskeen, Michael Mello, Evelyn Marquez, Claire Meyer, Ahmed Bolkhir, Navya Kanuri, Gregory Sayuk, C Prakash Gyawali
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coeliac disease (CD) is widely prevalent in North America, but case-finding techniques currently used may not be adequate for patient identification. We aimed to determine the adequacy of CD screening in an academic gastroenterology (GI) practice. METHODS: Consecutive initial visits to a tertiary academic GI practice were surveyed over a 3-month period as a fellow-initiated quality improvement project. All electronic records were reviewed to look for indications for CD screening according to published guidelines...
January 9, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062000/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-serotype-infectious-bronchitis-virus-gi-28-in-china
#19
Yuqiu Chen, Lei Jiang, Wenjun Zhao, Liangliang Liu, Yan Zhao, Yuhao Shao, Huixin Li, Zongxi Han, Shengwang Liu
Avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) is a major poultry pathogen. A characteristic feature of IBV is the occurrence of many different strains belonging to different serotypes, which renders complete control of the disease by vaccination a challenging task due to the poor cross-protection between different serotypes. In this study, based on the results of S1 sequence analysis and virus cross-neutralization tests, IBV strain ck/CH/LGX/111119 was found to be genetically and antigenically different from other known IBV types, representing not only a novel genotype, but also a novel serotype (designated as GI-28)...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058539/validation-of-the-ucla-scleroderma-clinical-trial-consortium-gastrointestinal-tract-instrument-2-0-in-english-and-chinese-speaking-patients-in-a-multi-ethnic-singapore-systemic-sclerosis-cohort
#20
Andrea Hsiu Ling Low, Xiaohui Xin, Weng Giap Law, Gim Gee Teng, Amelia Santosa, Anita Lim, Grace Chan, Swee Cheng Ng, Julian Thumboo
The aim of this study was to (1) translate the Gastrointestinal Tract Instrument (GIT) 2.0 from English to Chinese and (2) validate both versions in a multi-ethnic systemic sclerosis cohort in Singapore (SCORE). The English GIT2.0 was translated to Chinese using a standard forward-backward translation approach. Psychometric evaluation of the GIT2.0 included internal consistency reliability (using Cronbach's alpha), test-retest reliability (using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)), scale level factor analysis, and construct validity (using Spearman correlation) against the modified Scleroderma Health Assessment Questionnaire (S-HAQ) and the SF-36 v2...
January 5, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
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