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GI disease

Lívia H Morais, Daniela B Hara, Maíra A Bicca, Anicleto Poli, Reinaldo N Takahashi
The factors that trigger the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) are unknown. However, it is suggested that environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides, play an important role, in addition to genetic predisposition and aging. Early signs of PD can appear in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in the olfactory system, preceding the onset of motor impairments by many years. The present study assessed the effects of oral rotenone administration (30 mg/kg) in inducing GI and olfactory dysfunctions associated with PD in mice...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Ben Lariviere, Katherine S Garman, N Lynn Ferguson, Deborah A Fisher, Nan M Jokerst
Early detection and surveillance of disease progression in epithelial tissue is key to improving long term patient outcomes for colon and esophageal cancers, which account for nearly a quarter of cancer related mortalities worldwide. Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) is a non-invasive optical technique to sense biological changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level that occur when normal tissue becomes diseased, and has the potential to significantly improve the current standard of care for endoscopic gastrointestinal (GI) screening...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Bryan R Anderson, Jaron Marriott, Chinthaka Bulathsinghala, Humayun Anjum, Salim Surani
Introduction: Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis (GH) is a well-described albeit uncommon disease. It is found almost exclusively in the immunocompromised host, especially those with untreated HIV and low CD4 counts. Presentation with intestinal perforation is seen mostly commonly in the colon. We present a patient with jejunal perforation, and there have been only 3 previous cases reported in the literature. Case: A 39-year-old male with known, untreated HIV presented to the ED with an acute abdomen after experiencing worsening intermittent abdominal pain for 2 months before that was associated with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Francles Blanco-Guillot, M Lucía Castañeda-Cediel, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Rosa Areli Martínez-Gamboa, Pedro Torres-González, Norma Téllez-Vazquez, Sergio Canizales-Quintero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes García-García
BACKGROUND: Genotyping and georeferencing in tuberculosis (TB) have been used to characterize the distribution of the disease and occurrence of transmission within specific groups and communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes mellitus (DM) and pulmonary TB may occur in spatial and molecular aggregations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with pulmonary TB. The study area included 12 municipalities in the Sanitary Jurisdiction of Orizaba, Veracruz, México...
2018: PloS One
Johann Hammer
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD) is challenging due to the lack of reliable biological markers to support the diagnosis. We assessed the relevance of a previously validated simple test for chemical hypersensitivity in the setting of a gastrointestinal outpatient department. METHODS: A total of 224 outpatients who were referred for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms in the absence of alarm symptoms swallowed a capsule containing 0.75 mg capsaicin...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Shabana, Saleem U Shahid, Uzma Irfan
The human GI tract harbors a diverse and dynamic microbial community comprising bacteria, archaea, viruses and eukaryotic microbes, which varies in composition from individual to individual. A healthy microbiota metabolizes various indigestible dietary components of the host, maintains host immune homeostasis and nutrient intake, but, an imbalanced microbiota has been reported to be associated with many diseases, including obesity. Rodent studies have produced evidence in support of the causal role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity, however, such causal relationship is lacking in humans...
March 13, 2018: Future Microbiology
Frank J Simutis, Thomas P Sanderson, Gary D Pilcher, Michael J Graziano
The toxicity of avagacestat, a sulfonamide-based gamma (γ)-secretase inhibitor that was in development as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, was evaluated in a comprehensive nonclinical toxicology program that included 6-month and 1-year repeat-dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs, respectively. There was a spectrum of mechanism-based changes attributed to inhibition of Notch signaling that regulates the differentiation and proliferation of cells throughout development and in adult tissues. In both rats and dogs, ovarian follicular degeneration and atrophy and a low incidence of granulosa cell hyperplasia and benign granulosa-thecal cell tumors were observed...
February 24, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Allen Cohn, Michael A Morse, Bert O'Neil, Samuel Whiting, Claire Coeshott, John Ferraro, Donald Bellgrau, David Apelian, Timothy C Rodell
We are developing whole, heat-killed, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, engineered to encode target proteins, which stimulate immune responses against malignant cells expressing those targets. This phase 1 trial, enrolling patients with advanced colorectal or pancreas cancer, was designed to evaluate safety, immunogenicity, response, and overall survival of ascending doses of the GI-4000 series of products, which express 3 different forms of mutated Ras proteins. The study enrolled 33 heavily pretreated subjects (14 with pancreas and 19 with colorectal cancer), whose tumors were genotyped before enrollment to identify the specific ras mutation and thereby to identify which GI-4000 product to administer...
April 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Su Jin Lim, Ju Young Kim, Seung Jun Lee, Gi Dong Lee, Yu Ji Cho, Yi Yeong Jeong, Kyung Nyeo Jeon, Jong Deog Lee, Jang Rak Kim, Ho Cheol Kim
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may cause changes in the shape of the thoracic cage by increasing lung volume and hyperinflation. This study investigated changes in thoracic cage dimensions and related factors in patients with COPD. METHODS: We enrolled 85 patients with COPD (76 males, 9 females; mean age, 70.6±7.1 years) and 30 normal controls. Thoracic cage dimensions were measured using chest computed tomography at levels 3, 6, and 9 of the thoracic spine...
March 7, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Corey C Foster, Andrew Y Lee, Larissa V Furtado, John Hart, Lindsay Alpert, Shu-Yuan Xiao, Neil H Hyman, Manish R Sharma, Stanley Liauw
BACKGROUND: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been used to limit treatment-related toxicity for patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The treatment outcomes and HPV characteristics for a cohort of patients receiving definitive concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT are reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 52 patients with anal SCC were treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Radiation was delivered sequentially to the pelvis and inguinal lymph nodes (45 Gy) and anal tumor (median dose, 54 Gy)...
2018: PloS One
N-N Song, H-L Lu, C Lu, L Tong, S-Q Huang, X Huang, J Chen, Y-C Kim, W-X Xu
BACKGROUND: A major complication related to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in diabetic patients is chronic constipation. Constipation has serious negative impacts on quality of life; however, without a comprehensive understanding of the disease, currently available treatments cannot provide a cure. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive cells (PDGFRα+ cells), which form the SIP syncytium with interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscle cells, play important roles in GI motility...
March 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Greg Mutze, Nicki De Preu, Trish Mooney, Dylan Koerner, Darren McKenzie, Ron Sinclair, John Kovaliskli, David Peacock
Lagovirus europaeus GI.2, also commonly known as rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2, was first detected at two long-term monitoring sites for European rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus , in South Australia, in mid-2016. Numbers of rabbits in the following 12-18 months were reduced to approximately 20 per cent of average numbers in the preceding 10 years. The impact recorded at the two South Australian sites, if widespread in Australia and persistent for several years, is likely to be of enormous economic and environmental benefit...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Record
Rami Rhaiem, Amine Makni, Houcine Maghrebi, Alia Zehani, Amine Daghfous, Zoubaier Ben Safta
BACKGROUND: Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a rare condition in adults. It is usually asymptomatic. Few complications have been described. AIM:   We report an unusual clinical presentation of focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the GI. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old female patient presented with a fistulizingdisease of the terminal ileum and the caecum complicated with an abscess of the lower right quadrant if the abdomen...
June 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
Muhammad B Hammami, Rebecca Talkin, Ahmad M Al-Taee, Martin W Schoen, Sagun D Goyal, Jin-Ping Lai
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most common indication for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in North America. Despite occurring in up to 50% of patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT, the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after autologous HSCT is reportedly only 5-20%. Gastrointestinal involvement with graft-versus-host disease (GI GVHD) is a common and serious complication of allogeneic HSCT. GI GVHD after autologous transplant, which is referred to as autologous GVHD (auto-GVHD), has also been described...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Xue-Lian Luo, Shan Lu, Dong Jin, Jing Yang, Shu-Sheng Wu, Jianguo Xu
Wildlife has been considered the main source of novel viruses causing emerging infectious diseases. Marmota himalayana is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Here, based on a high-throughput method using Illumina RNA sequencing, we studied the RNA virome of M. himalayana and discovered multiple novel viruses, especially picobirnaviruses (PBVs), which have a bi-segmented genome and belong to the family Picobirnaviridae. A total of 63% of the viral contigs corresponded to PBVs, comprising 274 segment 1 and 56 segment 2 sequences...
March 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Karoly Toth, Jacqueline F Spencer, Baoling Ying, Ann E Tollefson, Caroll B Hartline, Eric T Richard, Jiajun Fan, Jinglei Lyu, Boris A Kashemirov, Cheryl Harteg, Dawn Reyna, Elke Lipka, Mark N Prichard, Charles E McKenna, William S M Wold
Human adenoviruses (AdV) cause generally mild infections of the respiratory and GI tracts as well as some other tissues. However, AdV can cause serious infection in severely immunosuppressed individuals, especially pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, where mortality rates are up to 80% with disseminated disease. Despite the seriousness of AdV disease, there are no drugs approved specifically to treat AdV infections. We report here that USC-087, an N-alkyl tyrosinamide phosphonate ester prodrug of HPMPA, the adenine analog of cidofovir, is highly effective against multiple AdV types in cell culture...
March 3, 2018: Antiviral Research
Alexandru Eugen Nicolau, Adrian Lobonţiu, Silviu Constantinoiu
GERD has become one of the most frequent pathology of the upper GI tract. It is a spectrum disease and is a progressive disease as well. Serious and severe complications are possible. The mainstream therapy in most of the patients is the medical therapy with PPI's. The most severe cases with an impaired LES (Lower Esophageal Sphincter) function as well as important anatomical disruptions are of surgical indication, the gold standard being laparoscopic fundoplication, an elective therapy with long term follow up outcomes at the expense of de novo symptoms associated with fundoplications in general...
January 2018: Chirurgia
A Chua, A Perrin, J F Ricci, M P Neary, M Thabane
Background: In 2016, everolimus was approved by Health Canada for the treatment of unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic, well-differentiated, non-functional, neuroendocrine tumours (NET) of gastrointestinal (GI) or lung origin in adult patients with progressive disease. This analysis evaluated the cost-effectiveness of everolimus in this setting from a Canadian societal perspective. Methods: A partitioned survival model was developed to compare the cost per life-year (LY) gained and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of everolimus plus best supportive care (BSC) versus BSC alone in patients with advanced or metastatic NET of GI or lung origin...
February 2018: Current Oncology
August Kapogiannis, Sofia Tsoli, George Chrousos
BACKGROUND: Previous systematic reviews indicate that progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and guided imagery (GI) are both effective interventions to decrease the psychological impact and to alleviate the adverse events in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment. To date, no review studies have investigated the effectiveness of a combination of PMR and GI. AIM: To systematically review the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of the PMR-GI combination on cancer patients receiving chemotherapy...
December 21, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Jung Bum Choi, Seul Gi Lee, Min Jhi Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Eun Jeong Ban, Cho Rok Lee, Jandee Lee, Sang-Wook Kang, Jong Ju Jeong, Kee-Hyun Nam, Woong Youn Chung
Recently, dynamic risk stratification has been found to be more valuable than static anatomic staging system in nonmedullary thyroid cancer and this strategy has also been accepted in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). The present study was designed to compare the clinical usefulness of response to initial therapy stratification with a traditional anatomic staging system.From August 1982 to December 2012, a total of 144 MTC patients underwent thyroidectomy in Yonsei University Hospital. Among them, 117 (82.2%) patients with complete clinical data and sustained follow-up were enrolled in this study...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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