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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321683/dual-function-of-thalamic-low-vigilance-state-oscillations-rhythm-regulation-and-plasticity
#1
REVIEW
Vincenzo Crunelli, Magor L Lőrincz, William M Connelly, François David, Stuart W Hughes, Régis C Lambert, Nathalie Leresche, Adam C Errington
During inattentive wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, the neocortex and thalamus cooperatively engage in rhythmic activities that are exquisitely reflected in the electroencephalogram as distinctive rhythms spanning a range of frequencies from <1 Hz slow waves to 13 Hz alpha waves. In the thalamus, these diverse activities emerge through the interaction of cell-intrinsic mechanisms and local and long-range synaptic inputs. One crucial feature, however, unifies thalamic oscillations of different frequencies: repetitive burst firing driven by voltage-dependent Ca2+ spikes...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320583/a-multi-center-open-label-prospective-study-of-cannula-injection-of-small-particle-hyaluronic-acid-plus-lidocaine-sphal-for-lip-augmentation
#2
Raj Chopra, Miles Graivier, Sabrina Fabi, Mark Nestor, Patricia Meuse, Jay Mashburn
<p>BACKGROUND: The use of blunt-tipped microcannulas for injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler in the lip and perioral area has gained popularity as they provide important safety-related advantages compared to traditional hypodermic needles. This study was conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness associated with the use of a blunt-tipped microcannula for lip augmentation and correction of perioral rhytids using a small-particle, hyaluronic acid gel plus lidocaine (SPHAL).</p> <p>METHODS: A multi-center, open-label, prospective, study enrolled 60 subjects...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318700/time-course-and-dynamics-of-obesity-related-behavioral-changes-induced-by-energy-dense-foods-in-mice
#3
Jose Espinosa-Carrasco, Aurelijus Burokas, Marta Fructuoso, Ionas Erb, Elena Martín-García, Miriam Gutiérrez-Martos, Cedric Notredame, Rafael Maldonado, Mara Dierssen
Obesity represents an important risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. The current obesogenic environment with easy access to calorie-dense foods is fueling this obesity epidemic. However, how these foods contribute to the progression of feeding behavior changes that lead to overeating is not well understood and needs systematic assessment. Using novel automated methods for the high-throughput screening of behavior, we here examine mice meal pattern upon long-term exposure to a free-choice chocolate-mixture diet and a high-fat diet with face validity for a rapid development of obesity induced by unhealthy food regularly consumed in our societies...
January 10, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318456/voltage-dependence-of-the-ca2-transient-in-endocardial-and-epicardial-myocytes-from-the-left-ventricle-of-goto-kakizaki-type-2-diabetic-rats
#4
Lina Al Kury, Vadym Sydorenko, Manal M A Smail, Muhammad Anwar Qureshi, Anatoliy Shmygol, Murat Oz, Jaipaul Singh, Frank Christopher Howarth
Diabetes mellitus is a major global health disorder and, currently, over 450 million people have diabetes with 90% suffering from type 2 diabetes. Left untreated, diabetes may lead to cardiovascular diseases which are a leading cause of death in diabetic patients. Calcium is the trigger and regulator of cardiac muscle contraction and derangement in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis, which can result in heart failure and sudden cardiac death. It is of paramount importance to investigate the regional involvement of Ca2+ in diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317513/cyclic-amp-regulates-bacterial-persistence-through-repression-of-the-oxidative-stress-response-and-sos-dependent-dna-repair-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#5
Roberto C Molina-Quiroz, Cecilia Silva-Valenzuela, Jennifer Brewster, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Stuart B Levy, Andrew Camilli
Bacterial persistence is a transient, nonheritable physiological state that provides tolerance to bactericidal antibiotics. The stringent response, toxin-antitoxin modules, and stochastic processes, among other mechanisms, play roles in this phenomenon. How persistence is regulated is relatively ill defined. Here we show that cyclic AMP, a global regulator of carbon catabolism and other core processes, is a negative regulator of bacterial persistence in uropathogenic Escherichia coli, as measured by survival after exposure to a β-lactam antibiotic...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316357/cerebrovascular-events-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#6
John G Hanly, Qiuju Li, Li Su, Murray B Urowitz, Caroline Gordon, Sang-Cheol Bae, Juanita Romero-Diaz, Jorge Sanchez-Guerrero, Sasha Bernatsky, Ann E Clarke, Daniel J Wallace, David A Isenberg, Anisur Rahman, Joan T Merrill, Paul Fortin, Dafna D Gladman, Ian N Bruce, Michelle Petri, Ellen M Ginzler, M A Dooley, Kristjan Steinsson, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Asad A Zoma, Susan Manzi, Ola Nived, Andreas Jonsen, Munther A Khamashta, Graciela S Alarcón, Winn Chatham, Ronald F van Vollenhoven, Cynthia Aranow, Meggan Mackay, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, Manuel Ramos-Casals, S Sam Lim, Murat Inanc, Kenneth C Kalunian, Soren Jacobsen, Christine A Peschken, Diane L Kamen, Anca Askanase, Chris Theriault, Vernon Farewell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, associations and outcomes of cerebrovascular events (CerVEs) in a multi-ethnic/racial, prospective, SLE disease inception cohort. METHODS: Patients were assessed annually for 19 neuropsychiatric (NP) events including 5 types of CerVEs: (i) Stroke; (ii) Transient ischemia; (iii) Chronic multifocal ischemia; (iv) Subarachnoid/intracranial hemorrhage; (v) Sinus thrombosis. Global disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI) and SF-36 scores were collected...
January 5, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314550/the-phosphorus-rich-signature-of-fire-in-the-soil-plant-system-a-global-meta-analysis
#7
Orpheus M Butler, James J Elser, Tom Lewis, Brendan Mackey, Chengrong Chen
The biogeochemical and stoichiometric signature of vegetation fire may influence post-fire ecosystem characteristics and the evolution of plant 'fire traits'. Phosphorus (P), a potentially limiting nutrient in many fire-prone environments, might be particularly important in this context; however, the effects of fire on P cycling often vary widely. We conducted a global-scale meta-analysis using data from 174 soil studies and 39 litter studies, and found that fire led to significantly higher concentrations of soil mineral P as well as significantly lower soil and litter carbon:P and nitrogen:P ratios...
January 4, 2018: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313151/cnidarian-primary-cell-culture-as-a-tool-to-investigate-the-effect-of-thermal-stress-at-cellular-level
#8
P Ventura, G Toullec, C Fricano, L Chapron, V Meunier, E Röttinger, P Furla, S Barnay-Verdier
In the context of global change, symbiotic cnidarians are largely affected by seawater temperature elevation leading to symbiosis breakdown. This process, also called bleaching, is triggered by the dysfunction of the symbiont photosystems causing an oxidative stress and cell death to both symbiont and host cells. In our study, we wanted to elucidate the intrinsic capacity of isolated animal cells to deal with thermal stress in the absence of symbiont. In that aim, we have characterized an animal primary cell culture form regenerating tentacles of the temperate sea anemone Anemonia viridis...
January 8, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306701/methane-supported-nitrate-removal-from-groundwater-in-a-membrane-biofilm-reactor
#9
Jing-Huan Luo, Hui Chen, Zhiguo Yuan, Jianhua Guo
The discovery of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) has not only improved our understanding of global methane and nitrogen cycles, but also provided new technology options for removal of nitrate from nitrate-contaminated water. Previous studies have demonstrated DAMO organisms could remove nitrate and nitrite from wastewater under strictly anaerobically conditions. In the study, we investigate the feasibility of nitrate removal from groundwater, which contains dissolved oxygen in addition to nitrate...
December 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304195/thermal-discrimination-and-transgenerational-temperature-response-in-bemisia-tabaci-mediterranean-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-putative-involvement-of-the-thermo-sensitive-receptor-bttrpa
#10
Tian-Mei Dai, Yu-Sheng Wang, Wan-Xue Liu, Zhi-Chuang Lü, Fang-Hao Wan
Anthropogenic climate change and global warming are expected to alter the geographic distribution and abundance of many ectothermic species, which will increase the invasion of new areas by exotic species. To survive in variable or fluctuating temperature conditions, insects require sensitive thermal sensory mechanisms to detect external thermal stimuli and induce the appropriate behavioral and physiological responses. TRPA, a thermal-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) family ion channel, is essential for thermotaxis in insects...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304004/effects-of-fluoxetine-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-neuroprotection-in-the-model-of-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#11
Marina Khodanovich, Alena Kisel, Marina Kudabaeva, Galina Chernysheva, Vera Smolyakova, Elena Krutenkova, Irina Wasserlauf, Mark Plotnikov, Vasily Yarnykh
A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, has recently attracted a significant interest as a neuroprotective therapeutic agent. There is substantial evidence of improved neurogenesis under fluoxetine treatment of brain ischemia in animal stroke models. We studied long-term effects of fluoxetine treatment on hippocampal neurogenesis, neuronal loss, inflammation, and functional recovery in a new model of global cerebral ischemia (GCI). Brain ischemia was induced in adult Wistar male rats by transient occlusion of three main vessels originating from the aortic arch and providing brain blood supply...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302683/association-of-functional-loss-with-the-biomechanical-response-of-the-optic-nerve-head-to-acute-transient-intraocular-pressure-elevations
#12
Tin A Tun, Eray Atalay, Mani Baskaran, Monisha E Nongpiur, Hla M Htoon, David Goh, Ching-Yu Cheng, Shamira A Perera, Tin Aung, Nicholas G Strouthidis, Michaël J A Girard
Importance: The acute biomechanical response of the optic nerve head (ONH) to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevations may serve as a biomarker for the development and progression of glaucoma. Objective: To evaluate the association between visual field loss and the biomechanical response of the ONH to acute transient IOP elevations. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational study, 91 Chinese patients (23 with primary open-angle glaucoma [POAG], 45 with primary angle-closure glaucoma, and 23 without glaucoma) were recruited from September 3, 2014, through February 2, 2017...
January 4, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301970/transient-ischemic-attack-results-in-delayed-brain-atrophy-and-cognitive-decline
#13
Andrew Bivard, Thomas Lillicrap, Bénédicte Maréchal, Carlos Garcia-Esperon, Elizabeth Holliday, Venkatesh Krishnamurthy, Christopher R Levi, Mark Parsons
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) initiates an ischemic cascade without resulting in frank infarction and, as such, represents a novel model to study the effects of this ischemic cascade and secondary neurodegeneration in humans. METHODS: Patients with suspected TIA underwent acute brain perfusion imaging, and those with acute ischemia were enrolled into a prospective observational study. We collected baseline and 90-day magnetic resonance imaging, including MP-RAGE (high-resolution T1 sequence) and cognitive assessment with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment...
January 4, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300313/a-novel-residual-frequency-estimation-method-for-gnss-receivers
#14
Tu Thi-Thanh Nguyen, Vinh The La, Tung Hai Ta
In Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, residual frequency estimation methods are traditionally applied in the synchronization block to reduce the transient time from acquisition to tracking, or they are used within the frequency estimator to improve its accuracy in open-loop architectures. There are several disadvantages in the current estimation methods, including sensitivity to noise and wide search space size. This paper proposes a new residual frequency estimation method depending on differential processing...
January 4, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299390/cortical-morphology-in-patients-with-transient-global-amnesia
#15
Hyung Chan Kim, Byung In Lee, Sung Eun Kim, Kang Min Park
Objective: This study evaluated alterations in cortical morphology in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA). Materials and Methods: Diagnoses of TGA occurred at our hospital. Evaluation involved a structured interview to obtain clinical information and a brain magnetic resonance imaging scan. We analyzed whole-brain T1-weighted MRI data using FreeSurfer 5.1. Measures of cortical morphology, such as thickness, surface area, volume, and curvature were compared between patients with TGA and healthy controls...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290948/puerarin-attenuates-locomotor-and-cognitive-deficits-as-well-as-hippocampal-neuronal-injury-through-the-pi3k-akt1-gsk-3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Jinhao Tao, Yuehua Cui, Yu Duan, Nan Zhang, Congmin Wang, Fayong Zhang
Ischemic stroke causes irreversible damage to the brain. The hippocampus is a vulnerable region and plays an important role in cognition and locomotor activity. Puerarin is a phytoestrogen that has beneficial effects in treating neurological disorders. How puerarin protects against hippocampal injury and its molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Transient global brain ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were pretreated with puerarin alone or together with LY294002 (an PI3K inhibitor) before ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286707/cascading-failures-as-continuous-phase-space-transitions
#17
Yang Yang, Adilson E Motter
In network systems, a local perturbation can amplify as it propagates, potentially leading to a large-scale cascading failure. Here we derive a continuous model to advance our understanding of cascading failures in power-grid networks. The model accounts for both the failure of transmission lines and the desynchronization of power generators and incorporates the transient dynamics between successive steps of the cascade. In this framework, we show that a cascade event is a phase-space transition from an equilibrium state with high energy to an equilibrium state with lower energy, which can be suitably described in a closed form using a global Hamiltonian-like function...
December 15, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283379/a-metabolomic-and-lipidomic-serum-signature-from-nonhuman-primates-administered-with-a-promising-radiation-countermeasure-gamma-tocotrienol
#18
Amrita K Cheema, Khyati Y Mehta, Oluseyi O Fatanmi, Stephen Y Wise, Charles P Hinzman, Josh Wolff, Vijay K Singh
The development of radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) has been underway for the past six decades, leading to the identification of multiple classes of radiation countermeasures. However, to date, only two growth factors (Neupogen and Neulasta) have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for the mitigation of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). No radioprotector for ARS has been approved by the FDA yet. Gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) has been demonstrated to have radioprotective efficacy in murine as well as nonhuman primate (NHP) models...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281179/a-high-parasite-density-environment-induces-transcriptional-changes-and-cell-death-in-plasmodium-falciparum-blood-stages
#19
Evelyn S Chou, Sabia Z Abidi, Marian Teye, Aleksandra Leliwa-Sytek, Thomas S Rask, Simon A Cobbold, Gerry Q Tonkin-Hill, Krishanthi S Subramaniam, Anna E Sexton, Darren J Creek, Johanna P Daily, Michael F Duffy, Karen P Day
Transient regulation of Plasmodium numbers below the density that induces fever has been observed in chronic malaria infections in humans. This species transcending control cannot be explained by immunity alone. Using an in vitro system we have observed density dependent regulation of malaria population size as a mechanism to possibly explain these in vivo observations. Specifically, P. falciparum blood stages from a high but not low-density environment exhibited unique phenotypic changes during the late trophozoite and schizont stages of the intraerythrocytic cycle...
December 27, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274400/conditional-mitotimer-reporter-mice-for-assessment-of-mitochondrial-structure-oxidative-stress-and-mitophagy
#20
Rebecca J Wilson, Joshua C Drake, Di Cui, Mei Zhang, Heather M Perry, Jennifer A Kashatus, Christine M Kusminski, Philipp E Scherer, David F Kashatus, Mark D Okusa, Zhen Yan
Assessment of structural and functional changes of mitochondria is vital for biomedical research as mitochondria are the power plants essential for biological processes and tissue/organ functions. Others and we have developed a novel reporter gene, pMitoTimer, which codes for a redox sensitive mitochondrial targeted protein that switches from green fluorescence protein (GFP) to red fluorescent protein (DsRed) when oxidized. It has been shown in transfected cells, transgenic C. elegans and Drosophila m., as well as somatically transfected adult skeletal muscle that this reporter gene allows quantifiable assessment of mitochondrial structure, oxidative stress, and lysosomal targeting of mitochondria-containing autophagosomes...
December 20, 2017: Mitochondrion
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