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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912765/rna-seq-based-digital-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-modification-of-host-defense-responses-by-rice-stripe-virus-during-disease-symptom-development-in-arabidopsis
#1
Feng Sun, Peng Fang, Juan Li, Linlin Du, Ying Lan, Tong Zhou, Yongjian Fan, Wenbiao Shen, Yijun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Virus infection induces and suppresses host gene expression on a global level. Rice stripe virus (RSV) is the type species of the genus Tenuivirus and infects rice and Arabidopsis plants. Microarray-based and next generation sequencing-based transcriptomic approaches have been used to study rice-RSV interactions. However, our knowledge of the response of Arabidopsis plants to RSV infection is limited, and it requires further investigation to determine the similarities (or differences) in virus-host interactions between monocot and dicot hosts infected with RSV...
December 2, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909401/implicit-learning-in-transient-global-amnesia-and-the-role-of-stress
#2
Frauke Nees, Martin Griebe, Anne Ebert, Michaela Ruttorf, Benjamin Gerber, Oliver T Wolf, Lothar R Schad, Achim Gass, Kristina Szabo
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder with reversible anterograde disturbance of explicit memory, frequently preceded by an emotionally or physically stressful event. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following an episode of TGA, small hippocampal lesions have been observed. Hence it has been postulated that the disorder is caused by the stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. In experimental studies, stress has been shown to affect both explicit and implicit learning-the latter defined as learning and memory processes that lack conscious awareness of the information acquired...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909098/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#3
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under such pathological conditions as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries ranging from severe to mild...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906103/progressive-impairment-of-cav1-1-function-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-mice-expressing-a-mutant-type-1-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase-g93a-linked-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
Donald Beqollari, Christin F Romberg, Gabriella Dobrowolny, Martina Martini, Andrew A Voss, Antonio Musarò, Roger A Bannister
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is typically fatal within 3-5 years of diagnosis. While motoneuron death is the defining characteristic of ALS, the events that underlie its pathology are not restricted to the nervous system. In this regard, ALS muscle atrophies and weakens significantly before presentation of neurological symptoms. Since the skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV1.1) is a key regulator of both mass and force, we investigated whether CaV1...
June 23, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901045/prospects-for-a-prolonged-slowdown-in-global-warming-in-the-early-21st-century
#5
Thomas R Knutson, Rong Zhang, Larry W Horowitz
Global mean temperature over 1998 to 2015 increased at a slower rate (0.1 K decade(-1)) compared with the ensemble mean (forced) warming rate projected by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) models (0.2 K decade(-1)). Here we investigate the prospects for this slower rate to persist for a decade or more. The slower rate could persist if the transient climate response is overestimated by CMIP5 models by a factor of two, as suggested by recent low-end estimates. Alternatively, using CMIP5 models' warming rate, the slower rate could still persist due to strong multidecadal internal variability cooling...
November 30, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899215/toxicology-in-international-drug-control-prioritizing-the-most-harmful-persistent-and-prevalent-substances
#6
Susan C Ifeagwu, Martin Raithelhuber, Conor Crean, Dimitri Gerostamoulos, Heesun Chung, Justice N Tettey
The nature of the global drugs market has evolved rapidly and has become more complex with the emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), some of which have been associated with increased abuse, hospital emergency admissions and sometimes fatalities. NPS are characterized by geographic heterogeneity, with some only transient in nature and others not satisfying the criteria for harm required for international control. Consequently, a pragmatic response of the international community is to prioritize the most harmful, persistent and prevalent substances for action - an objective, which is hampered by the paucity of data on harms...
November 20, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898668/the-long-term-safety-public-health-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-routine-vaccination-with-a-recombinant-live-attenuated-dengue-vaccine-dengvaxia-a-model-comparison-study
#7
Stefan Flasche, Mark Jit, Isabel Rodríguez-Barraquer, Laurent Coudeville, Mario Recker, Katia Koelle, George Milne, Thomas J Hladish, T Alex Perkins, Derek A T Cummings, Ilaria Dorigatti, Daniel J Laydon, Guido España, Joel Kelso, Ira Longini, Jose Lourenco, Carl A B Pearson, Robert C Reiner, Luis Mier-Y-Terán-Romero, Kirsten Vannice, Neil Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Large Phase III trials across Asia and Latin America have recently demonstrated the efficacy of a recombinant, live-attenuated dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) over the first 25 mo following vaccination. Subsequent data collected in the longer-term follow-up phase, however, have raised concerns about a potential increase in hospitalization risk of subsequent dengue infections, in particular among young, dengue-naïve vaccinees. We here report predictions from eight independent modelling groups on the long-term safety, public health impact, and cost-effectiveness of routine vaccination with Dengvaxia in a range of transmission settings, as characterised by seroprevalence levels among 9-y-olds (SP9)...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897283/identification-of-photofragmentation-patterns-in-trihalide-anions-by-global-analysis-of-vibrational-wavepacket-dynamics-in-broadband-transient-absorption-data
#8
Sebastian Schott, Lea Ress, Jan Hrušák, Patrick Nuernberger, Tobias Brixner
Trihalide anions are linear molecules that can be photodissociated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Whereas deep-UV excitation leads to three-body dissociation, for near-UV excitation just one molecular bond is cleaved, which notionally opens up the possibility for different fragmentation patterns. Here, we explore whether the dihalide fragment is formed as an anionic or neutral species and whether heteronuclear trihalides can lead to two different dihalides. The analysis is based on pronounced wavepacket dynamics induced by femtosecond UV pulses and associated both with the initial trihalide and the nascent dihalide species...
November 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897031/abnormal-coupling-between-dmn-and-delta-and-beta-band-eeg-in-psychotic-patients
#9
Anja Baenninger, Vanessa A Palzes, Brian J Roach, Daniel H Mathalon, Judith Ford, Thomas Koenig
Common-phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations is a mechanism by which distributed brain regions can be integrated into transiently stable networks. Based on the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in functional integration within neuronal networks, this study aimed to explore whether psychotic patients exhibit differences in brain regions involved in integrative mechanisms. We report an EEG-informed fMRI analysis of eyes-open resting state data collected from patients and healthy controls at two study sites...
November 29, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890324/motor-skill-learning-and-offline-changes-in-tga-patients-with-acute-hippocampal-ca1-lesions
#10
Juliane Döhring, Anne Stoldt, Karsten Witt, Robby Schönfeld, Günther Deuschl, Jan Born, Thorsten Bartsch
Learning and the formation of memory are reflected in various memory systems in the human brain such as the hippocampus based declarative memory system and the striatum-cortex based system involved in motor sequence learning. It is a matter of debate how both memory systems interact in humans during learning and consolidation and how this interaction is influenced by sleep. We studied the effect of an acute dysfunction of hippocampal CA1 neurons on the acquisition (on-line condition) and off-line changes of a motor skill in patients with a transient global amnesia (TGA)...
October 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886216/drought-rapidly-diminishes-the-large-net-co2-uptake-in-2011-over-semi-arid-australia
#11
Xuanlong Ma, Alfredo Huete, James Cleverly, Derek Eamus, Frédéric Chevallier, Joanna Joiner, Benjamin Poulter, Yongguang Zhang, Luis Guanter, Wayne Meyer, Zunyi Xie, Guillermo Ponce-Campos
Each year, terrestrial ecosystems absorb more than a quarter of the anthropogenic carbon emissions, termed as land carbon sink. An exceptionally large land carbon sink anomaly was recorded in 2011, of which more than half was attributed to Australia. However, the persistence and spatially attribution of this carbon sink remain largely unknown. Here we conducted an observation-based study to characterize the Australian land carbon sink through the novel coupling of satellite retrievals of atmospheric CO2 and photosynthesis and in-situ flux tower measures...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885260/nitric-oxide-triggers-a-transient-metabolic-reprogramming-in-arabidopsis
#12
José León, Álvaro Costa, Mari-Cruz Castillo
Nitric oxide (NO) regulates plant growth and development as well as responses to stress that enhanced its endogenous production. Arabidopsis plants exposed to a pulse of exogenous NO gas were used for untargeted global metabolomic analyses thus allowing the identification of metabolic processes affected by NO. At early time points after treatment, NO scavenged superoxide anion and induced the nitration and the S-nitrosylation of proteins. These events preceded an extensive though transient metabolic reprogramming at 6 h after NO treatment, which included enhanced levels of polyamines, lipid catabolism and accumulation of phospholipids, chlorophyll breakdown, protein and nucleic acid turnover and increased content of sugars...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883312/time-course-analysis-of-gene-expression-during-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-hypoxic-response
#13
Nasrine Bendjilali, Samuel MacLeon, Gurmannat Kalra, Stephen D Willis, A K M Nawshad Hossian, Erica Avery, Olivia Wojtowicz, Mark J Hickman
Many cells experience hypoxia, or low oxygen, and respond by dramatically altering gene expression. In the yeast S. cerevisiae, genes that respond are required for many oxygen-dependent cellular processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis and redox regulation. To more fully characterize the global response to hypoxia, we exposed yeast to hypoxic conditions, extracted RNA at different times and performed RNA-seq analysis. Time-course statistical analysis revealed hundreds of genes that changed expression by up to 550-fold...
November 9, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880763/inhibition-of-mtor-induces-a-paused-pluripotent-state
#14
Aydan Bulut-Karslioglu, Steffen Biechele, Hu Jin, Trisha A Macrae, Miroslav Hejna, Marina Gertsenstein, Jun S Song, Miguel Ramalho-Santos
Cultured pluripotent stem cells are a cornerstone of regenerative medicine owing to their ability to give rise to all cell types of the body. Although pluripotent stem cells can be propagated indefinitely in vitro, pluripotency is paradoxically a transient state in vivo, lasting 2-3 days around the time of blastocyst implantation. The exception to this rule is embryonic diapause, a reversible state of suspended development triggered by unfavourable conditions. Diapause is a physiological reproductive strategy widely employed across the animal kingdom, including in mammals, but its regulation remains poorly understood...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867392/the-physcomitrella-patens-chloroplast-proteome-changes-in-response-to-protoplastation
#15
Igor Fesenko, Anna Seredina, Georgij Arapidi, Vasily Ptushenko, Anatoly Urban, Ivan Butenko, Sergey Kovalchuk, Konstantin Babalyan, Andrey Knyazev, Regina Khazigaleeva, Elena Pushkova, Nikolai Anikanov, Vadim Ivanov, Vadim M Govorun
Plant protoplasts are widely used for genetic manipulation and functional studies in transient expression systems. However, little is known about the molecular pathways involved in a cell response to the combined stress factors resulted from protoplast generation. Plants often face more than one type of stress at a time, and how plants respond to combined stress factors is therefore of great interest. Here, we used protoplasts of the moss Physcomitrella patens as a model to study the effects of short-term stress on the chloroplast proteome...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864916/enhanced-contractility-of-intraparenchymal-arterioles-after-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rat-new-insights-into-the-development-of-delayed-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#16
Stine Spray, Sara Ellinor Johansson, Aneta Radziwon-Balicka, Kristian Agmund Haanes, Karin Warfvinge, Gro Klitgaard Povlsen, Paul A T Kelly, Lars Edvinsson
AIM: Delayed cerebral hypoperfusion is a secondary complication found in the days after transient global cerebral ischemia that worsens the ischemic damage inflicted by the initial transient episode of global cerebral ischemia. A recent study demonstrated increased cerebral vasoconstriction in the large arteries on the brain surface (pial arteries) after global cerebral ischemia. However, smaller arterioles inside the brain (parenchymal arterioles) are equally important in the regulation of cerebral blood flow and yet their pathophysiology after global cerebral ischemia is largely unknown...
November 19, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863873/a-case-of-transient-global-amnesia-with-small-left-putamen-infarction
#17
Kosuke Yoshida
A 67-year-old right-handed woman experienced a sudden anterograde and retrograde short-term memory deficit that recovered on the next day. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a spotty high-intensity lesion in the left putamen in the diffusion-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Transient global amnesia due to lacunar infarction of the left putamen was diagnosed. Transient global amnesia is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia that disappears within 24 hours. The cause of transient global amnesia is still uncertain...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861741/rosacea-treatment-update-recommendations-from-the-global-rosacea-consensus-rosco-panel
#18
M Schaller, L Almeida, A Bewley, B Cribier, N Dlova, G Kautz, M Mannis, H Oon, M Rajagopalan, M Steinhoff, D Thiboutot, P Troielli, G Webster, Y Wu, E van Zuuren, J Tan
BACKGROUND: Rosacea is currently treated according to subtypes. As this does not adequately address the patient spectrum of clinical presentation (phenotypes), it has implications for patient management. The ROSacea COnsensus (ROSCO) panel was established to address this issue. OBJECTIVES: To incorporate current best treatment evidence with clinical experience from an international expert panel and establish consensus to improve outcomes for patients with rosacea...
November 12, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856531/confused-after-spirometry-a-unifying-diagnosis
#19
John Charles Williamson, Andrew J Larner
A 67-year-old woman was diagnosed with transient global amnesia having presented with an abrupt and temporary disruption in her memory function. Her symptom onset came shortly after a visit to her general practitioner where she had performed bedside spirometry. Following symptom resolution, she was discharged home with reassurance.
November 17, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856315/time-domain-analysis-of-neural-tracking-of-hierarchical-linguistic-structures
#20
Wen Zhang, Nai Ding
When listening to continuous speech, cortical activity measured by MEG concurrently follows the rhythms of multiple linguistic structures, e.g., syllables, phrases, and sentences. This phenomenon was previously characterized in the frequency domain. Here, we investigate the waveform of neural activity tracking linguistic structures in the time domain and quantify the coherence of neural response phases over subjects listening to the same stimulus. These analyses are achieved by decomposing the multi-channel MEG recordings into components that maximize the correlation between neural response waveforms across listeners...
November 14, 2016: NeuroImage
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