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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214986/astrocyte-sodium-signalling-and-panglial-spread-of-sodium-signals-in-brain-white-matter
#1
Behrouz Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Evelyn L Hammel, Karl W Kafitz, Christine R Rose
In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214959/bile-reflux-scintigraphy-after-mini-gastric-bypass
#2
Tuure Saarinen, Jari Räsänen, Jarmo Salo, Antti Loimaala, Miia Pitkonen, Marja Leivonen, Anne Juuti
BACKGROUND: Significant weight-loss and diabetes remission have been reported after mini-gastric bypass (MGB). Concern has been raised regarding postoperative bile reflux (BR), but it has not been demonstrated in previous studies. We set out to find out if BR is evident in hepatobiliary scintigraphy after MGB. METHODS: Nine consecutive patients, seven with type 2 diabetes, underwent MGB (15 cm gastric tube, 250-275 cm biliary limb) at our institution with a 12-month follow-up, with none lost to follow-up...
February 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214919/grapevine-acclimation-to-water-deficit-the-adjustment-of-stomatal-and-hydraulic-conductance-differs-from-petiole-embolism-vulnerability
#3
Uri Hochberg, Andrea Giulia Bonel, Rakefet David-Schwartz, Asfaw Degu, Aaron Fait, Hervé Cochard, Enrico Peterlunger, Jose Carlos Herrera
Drought-acclimated vines maintained higher gas exchange compared to irrigated controls under water deficit; this effect is associated with modified leaf turgor but not with improved petiole vulnerability to cavitation. A key feature for the prosperity of plants under changing environments is the plasticity of their hydraulic system. In the present research we studied the hydraulic regulation in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) that were first acclimated for 39 days to well-watered (WW), sustained water deficit (SD), or transient-cycles of dehydration-rehydration-water deficit (TD) conditions, and then subjected to varying degrees of drought...
February 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214917/mtss1-promotes-maturation-and-maintenance-of-cerebellar-neurons-via-splice-variant-specific-effects
#4
Thorsten Sistig, Fanziska Lang, Sebastian Wrobel, Stephan L Baader, Karl Schilling, Britta Eiberger
Efficient coupling of the actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane is crucial for histogenesis and maintenance of the nervous system. At this critical interface, BAR (Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs) proteins regulate membrane bending, shown to be instrumental for mobility and morphogenesis of individual cells. Yet, the systemic significance of these proteins remains largely unexplored. Here, we probe the role of a prominent member of this protein family, the inverse-BAR protein Mtss1, for the development and function of a paradigmatic neuronal circuit, the cerebellar cortex...
February 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214899/therapeutic-targeting-of-epithelial-plasticity-programs-focus-on-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#5
Reem Malek, Hailun Wang, Kekoa Taparra, Phuoc T Tran
Mounting data points to epithelial plasticity programs such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as clinically relevant therapeutic targets for the treatment of malignant tumors. In addition to the widely realized role of EMT in increasing cancer cell invasiveness during cancer metastasis, the EMT has also been implicated in allowing cancer cells to avoid tumor suppressor pathways during early tumorigenesis. In addition, data linking EMT to innate and acquired treatment resistance further points towards the desire to develop pharmacological therapies to target epithelial plasticity in cancer...
February 20, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214884/transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-4-trpm4-contributes-to-high-salt-diet-mediated-early-stage-endothelial-injury
#6
Xiao-Qing Ding, Tao Ban, Zeng-Yan Liu, Jie Lou, Liang-Liang Tang, Jia-Xin Wang, Wen-Feng Chu, Dan Zhao, Bin-Lin Song, Zhi-Ren Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The present study investigated whether the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channel plays a role in high salt diet (HSD)-induced endothelial injuries. METHODS: Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to examine TRPM4 expression in the mesenteric endothelium of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats fed a HSD. The MTT, TUNEL, and transwell assays were used to evaluate the cell viability, cell apoptosis, and cell migration, respectively, of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214871/restraint-stress-during-pregnancy-rapidly-raises-kynurenic-acid-levels-in-mouse-placenta-and-fetal-brain
#7
Francesca M Notarangelo, Robert Schwarcz
Stressful events during pregnancy adversely affect brain development and may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders later in life. Early changes in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) degradation, which contains several neuroactive metabolites, including kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and quinolinic acid (QUIN), may constitute a molecular link between prenatal stress and delayed pathological consequences. To begin testing this hypothesis experimentally, we examined the effects of a 2-h restraint stress on KP metabolism in pregnant FVB/N mice on gestational day 17...
February 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214865/inhibition-of-trpc6-signal-pathway-alleviates-podocyte-injury-induced-by-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#8
Haiting Huang, Yanwu You, Xu Lin, Chunrong Tang, Xiangjun Gu, Meiying Huang, Youling Qin, Junhua Tan, Feifan Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of inhibition of transient receptor potential cation channel C6 (TRPC6) on podocyte injury induced by TGF-β1 via nephrin and desmin mechanisms. METHODS: A rat model of nephropathy was first induced by intravenous injections of adriamycin to determine TRPC6 signal pathway engaged in glomerulosclerosis in vivo...
January 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214850/olive-oil-supplemented-lipid-emulsion-induces-celf1-expression-and-promotes-apoptosis-in-caco-2-cells
#9
Jun-Kai Yan, Jie Zhu, Zi-Zhen Gong, Jie Wen, Yong-Tao Xiao, Wei Cai, Tian Zhang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Parenterally-administered lipid emulsion (LE) is a key cause of enterocyte apoptosis under total parenteral nutrition, yet the pathogenesis has not been fully understood. CUGBP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) has been recently identified as a crucial modulator of apoptosis, and thus this study sought to investigate its role in the LE-induced apoptosis in vitro. METHODS: Caco-2 cells were used as an in vitro model. The cells were treated with varying LEs derived from soybean oil, olive oil or fish oil, and changes in the apoptosis and CELF1 expression were assessed...
February 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214826/emodin-increases-expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-through-activation-of-mek-erk-ampk%C3%AE-and-interaction-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-sp1-in-lung-cancer
#10
Qing Tang, JingJing Wu, Fang Zheng, Swei Sunny Hann, YuQing Chen
BACKGROUND: Emodin has anti-neoplastic activities on multiple tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect still remain to be fully understood. METHODS: Cell viability and cell cycle distribution were measured using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Cell invasion and migration were examined by transwell invasion and wound healing assays. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the phosphorylation and protein expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα), extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and the transcription factor Sp1...
January 26, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214728/lipid-signalling-mediated-by-pld-pa-modulates-proline-and-h2o2-levels-in-barley-seedlings-exposed-to-short-and-long-term-chilling-stress
#11
Micaela Peppino Margutti, Matias Reyna, María Verónica Meringer, Graciela E Racagni, Ana Laura Villasuso
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyses phospholipids to yield phosphatidic acid (PA) and a head group, and is involved in responses to a variety of environmental stresses, including chilling and freezing stress. Barley responses to chilling stress (induced by incubating seedlings at 4 °C) are dynamic and the duration of stress, either short (0-180 min) or long-term (24-36 h) had a significant impact on the response. We investigated the roles of PLD/PA in responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings to short and long-term chilling stress, based on regulation of proline and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels...
February 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214521/neuroprotective-effect-of-salvianolic-acid-b-against-cerebral-ischemic-injury-in-rats-via-the-cd40-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-associated-with-suppression-of-platelets-activation-and-neuroinflammation
#12
Shixin Xu, Aiqin Zhong, Huining Ma, Dan Li, Yue Hu, Yingzhi Xu, Junping Zhang
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Activated platelets are increasingly regarded as initiators and/or amplifiers of inflammatory processes in cerebral I/R injury. Salvianolic acid B (SAB) is the most abundant bioactive compound of Salviae miltiorrhizae, a well-known Chinese herb used to promote blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis. S. miltiorrhizae has been used clinically in Asia for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214128/robotic-arch-catheter-placement-reduces-cerebral-embolization-during-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair-tevar
#13
A H Perera, C V Riga, L Monzon, R G Gibbs, C D Bicknell, M Hamady
OBJECTIVE: Stroke caused by cerebral embolization constitutes a principal risk during arch manipulation and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). This study investigates the incidence of cerebral embolization during catheter placement in the aortic arch, and compares robotic and manual techniques. METHODS: Intra-operative transcranial Doppler (TCD) was performed in 11 patients undergoing TEVAR. Wire and catheter placement in the arch was performed by two experienced operators...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213978/estrogens-and-androgens-inhibit-association-of-rankl-with-the-pre-osteoblast-membrane-through-post-translational-mechanisms
#14
Anthony Martin, Jiali Yu, Jian Xiong, Aysha B Khalid, Benita Katzenellenbogen, Sung Hoon Kim, John A Katzenellenbogen, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Yankel Gabet, Susan A Krum, Baruch Frenkel
We have recently demonstrated that RUNX2 promoted, and 17-β-Estradiol (E2) diminished, association of RANKL with the cell membrane in pre-osteoblast cultures. Here we show that, similar to E2, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) diminishes association of RANKL and transiently transfected GFP-RANKL with the pre-osteoblast membrane without decreasing total RANKL mRNA or protein levels. Diminution of membrane-associated RANKL was accompanied with marked suppression of osteoclast differentiation from co-cultured pre-osteoclasts, even though DHT increased, not decreased, RANKL concentrations in pre-osteoblast conditioned media...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213832/dynamic-fluorescence-microscopy-of-cellular-uptake-of-intercalating-model-drugs-by-ultrasound-activated-microbubbles
#15
B H A Lammertink, R Deckers, M Derieppe, I De Cock, I Lentacker, G Storm, C T W Moonen, C Bos
PURPOSE: The combination of ultrasound and microbubbles can facilitate cellular uptake of (model) drugs via transient permeabilization of the cell membrane. By using fluorescent molecules, this process can be studied conveniently with confocal fluorescence microscopy. This study aimed to investigate the relation between cellular uptake and fluorescence intensity increase of intercalating model drugs. PROCEDURES: SYTOX Green, an intercalating fluorescent dye that displays >500-fold fluorescence enhancement upon binding to nucleic acids, was used as a model drug for ultrasound-induced cellular uptake...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213732/the-potential-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-to-colonize-biotic-and-abiotic-surfaces-and-the-investigation-of-their-interactions-and-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Mattia Pia Arena, Vittorio Capozzi, Giuseppe Spano, Daniela Fiocco
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a heterogeneous group of Gram-positive bacteria that comprise several species which have evolved in close association with humans (food and lifestyle). While their use to ferment food dates back to very ancient times, in the last decades, LAB have attracted much attention for their documented beneficial properties and for potential biomedical applications. Some LAB are commensal that colonize, stably or transiently, host mucosal surfaces, inlcuding the gut, where they may contribute to host health...
February 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213522/type-i-interferon-regulated-gene-expression-and-signaling-in-murine-mixed-glial-cells-lacking-signal-transducers-and-activators-of-transcription-1-or-2-or-interferon-regulatory-factor-9
#17
Wen Li, Markus J Hofer, Pattama Songkhunawej, So Ri Jung, Dale Hancock, Gareth Denyer, Iain L Campbell
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are critical in antimicrobial and antitumor defense. Although IFN-I signal via the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex consisting of STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9, IFN-I can mediate significant biological effects via ISGF3-independent pathways. For example, absence of STAT1, STAT2 or IRF9 exacerbates neurological disease in transgenic mice with CNS-production of IFN-Ι. Here we determined the role of IFN-I-driven, ISGF3-independent signaling in regulating global gene expression in STAT1, STAT2 or IRF9-deficient murine mixed glial cell cultures (MGCs)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213494/plc%C3%AE%C2%B51-regulates-sdf-1%C3%AE-induced-lymphocyte-adhesion-and-migration-to-sites-of-inflammation
#18
Marianne Strazza, Inbar Azoulay-Alfaguter, Michael Peled, Alan V Smrcka, Edward Y Skolnik, Shekhar Srivastava, Adam Mor
Regulation of integrins is critical for lymphocyte adhesion to endothelium and migration throughout the body. Inside-out signaling to integrins is mediated by the small GTPase Ras-proximate-1 (Rap1). Using an RNA-mediated interference screen, we identified phospholipase Cε 1 (PLCε1) as a crucial regulator of stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α)-induced Rap1 activation. We have shown that SDF-1α-induced activation of Rap1 is transient in comparison with the sustained level following cross-linking of the antigen receptor...
February 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213324/qing-hua-granule-induces-glp-1-secretion-via-bitter-taste-receptor-in-db-db-mice
#19
Junyan Li, Jie Xu, Ruifang Hou, Xin Jin, Jingyi Wang, Na Yang, Li Yang, Li Liu, Feng Tao, Hao Lu
Qing-Hua Granule (QHG), the modified formulation of a classical Chinese prescription named Gegen Qinlian Decoction, was clinically employed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, the potential mechanism is unknown. We investigate whether QHG induces GLP-1 secretion via activation of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) pathway in the gastrointestinal tract of db/db mice. The db/db mice were intragastrically (i.g.) administered QHG (low/medium/high dose) once daily for 8 weeks...
February 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213202/determinants-of-cough-effectiveness-in-patients-with-respiratory-muscle-weakness
#20
Franco Laghi, Veeranna Maddipati, Timothy Schnell, W Edwin Langbein, Martin J Tobin
Experiments were undertaken to mechanistically define expiratory-muscle contribution to effectiveness of cough while controlling glottic movement. We hypothesized that electrical abdominal-muscle stimulation in patients with respiratory-muscle weakness produces effective coughs only when glottic closure accompanies coughs. In ten spinal-cord-injury patients, esophago-gastric pressure and airflow were recorded during solicited-coughs, coughs augmented by abdominal-muscle stimulation, and passive open-glottis exhalations...
February 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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