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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787037/effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-dibutyltin-chloride-on-fat-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-vitro
#1
Raquel Chamorro-García, Bassem M Shoucri, Sigal Willner, Heidi Käch, Amanda Janesick, Bruce Blumberg
BACKGROUND: The organotin dibutyltin (DBT) is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, in construction materials, and in medical devices. Previous animal studies showed detrimental effects of DBT during in utero development at relatively high doses, but little was known about the effects of DBT exposure at environmentally relevant doses on endpoints such as obesity and metabolic disease. OBJECTIVES: We tested the potential obesogenic effects of DBT using in vitro and in vivo models...
May 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786892/association-between-initial-age-of-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-and-cognitive-control-preliminary-evidence
#2
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786761/engineering-terpenoid-production-through-transient-expression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#3
REVIEW
James Reed, Anne Osbourn
Terpenoids are the most structurally diverse class of plant natural products with a huge range of commercial and medical applications. Exploiting this enormous potential has historically been hindered due to low levels of these compounds in their natural sources, making isolation difficult, while their structural complexity frequently makes synthetic chemistry approaches uneconomical. Engineering terpenoid biosynthesis in heterologous host production platforms provides a means to overcome these obstacles. In particular, plant-based production systems are attractive as they provide the compartmentalisation and cofactors necessary for the transfer of functional pathways from other plants...
May 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786740/shear-density-coupling-for-a-compressible-single-component-yield-stress-fluid
#4
Markus Gross, Fathollah Varnik
Flow behavior of a single-component yield stress fluid is addressed on the hydrodynamic level. A basic ingredient of the model is a coupling between fluctuations of density and velocity gradient via a Herschel-Bulkley-type constitutive model. Focusing on the limit of low shear rates and high densities, the model approximates well-but is not limited to-gently sheared hard sphere colloidal glasses, where solvent effects are negligible. A detailed analysis of the linearized hydrodynamic equations for fluctuations and the resulting cubic dispersion relation reveals the existence of a range of densities and shear rates with growing flow heterogeneity...
May 22, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785975/utility-of-otoacoustic-emissions-and-olivocochlear-reflex-in-predicting-vulnerability-to-noise-induced-inner-ear-damage
#5
Sarantis Blioskas, Miltiadis Tsalighopoulos, George Psillas, Konstantinos Markou
Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore the possible utility of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and efferent system strength to determine vulnerability to noise exposure in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 344 volunteers who had just begun mandatory basic training as Hellenic Corps Officers Military Academy cadets. Pure-tone audiograms were obtained on both ears. Participants were also subjected to diagnostic transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs)...
May 2018: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785673/the-impact-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-bipolar-depression-mania-and-euthymia-a-systematic-review-of-preliminary-data
#6
Clément Dondé, Nicholas H Neufeld, Pierre A Geoffroy
The neurobiological basis of bipolar disorders (BD) has received increased attention and several brain regions and brain circuits have been correlated with clinical symptoms. These brain regions and circuits may represent targets for neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). We systematically reviewed the literature to explore the risks and benefits of tDCS in BD and examined all mood states. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search using several databases was performed from April 2002 to June 2017...
May 21, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785510/measuring-translational-diffusion-of-15-n-enriched-biomolecules-in-complex-solutions-with-a-simplified-1-h-15-n-hmqc-filtered-best-sequence
#7
Shenggen Yao, Thomas G Meikle, Ashish Sethi, Frances Separovic, Jeffrey J Babon, David W Keizer
Pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance has seen an increase in applications spanning a broad range of disciplines where molecular translational diffusion properties are of interest. The current study introduces and experimentally evaluates the measurement of translational diffusion coefficients of 15 N-enriched biomolecules using a 1 H-15 N HMQC-filtered band-selective excitation short transient (BEST) sequence as an alternative to the previously described SOFAST-XSTE sequence. The results demonstrate that accurate translational diffusion coefficients of 15 N-labelled peptides and proteins can be obtained using this alternative 1 H-15 N HMQC-filtered BEST sequence which is implementable on NMR spectrometers equipped with probes fitted with a single-axis field gradient, including most cryoprobes dedicated to bio-NMR...
May 21, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785489/trpc6-inactivation-confers-protection-in-a-model-of-severe-nephrosis-in-rats
#8
Eun Young Kim, Parisa Yazdizadeh Shotorbani, Stuart E Dryer
Mutations in canonical transient receptor potential-6 (TRPC6) channels give rise to rare familial forms of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here we examined a possible role for TRPC6 in the progression of chronic puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats, a classic model of acquired nephrotic syndromes. We used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to delete a 239-bp region within exon 2 of the Trpc6 gene (Trpc6del allele). Trpc6del/del rats expressed detectable Trpc6 transcripts missing exon 2, and TRPC6 proteins could be detected by immunoblot of renal cortex...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785393/monitoring-methotrexate-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-with-psoriasis-utility-of-transient-elastography
#9
REVIEW
Harriet S Cheng, Marius Rademaker
Increasingly, existing evidence indicates that methotrexate-associated liver injury is related to comorbid risk factors such as diabetes, alcoholism, and obesity, rather than to methotrexate itself. Despite this fact, significant effort continues to be expended in the monitoring of low-dose methotrexate in patients with psoriasis. The gold standard investigation has been liver biopsy, but this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As methotrexate-induced liver injury is uncommon, the risk/benefit ratio of liver biopsy has been questioned...
2018: Psoriasis: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785312/a-case-of-progressive-stroke-on-posterior-circulation-with-transient-bilateral-oculomotor-palsy
#10
Chiaki Takahashi
Infarction located in the midbrain and pons presents various ophthalmic symptoms, because of the damage of the nuclei that control the movement of internal and external ocular and palpebral muscles. We experienced a case which presented with rare ocular symptoms and course. A 61-year-old man presented with left hemiparesis and dysarthria, bilateral ptosis, and bilateral impaired eyeball movement: right eyeball movement was totally impaired and left could only perform slight adduction. MRI showed fresh stroke in the right thalamus, cerebral crus, and posterior lobe and cuneate lesion on bilateral paramedian portion of the midbrain...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785179/nanoformulation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-with-target-receptor-triggered-release-in-the-central-nervous-system
#11
Yuhang Jiang, James M Fay, Chi-Duen Poon, Natasha Vinod, Yuling Zhao, Kristin Bullock, Si Qin, Devika S Manickam, Xiang Yi, William A Banks, Alexander V Kabanov
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is identified as a potent neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agent for many neurological diseases. Regrettably, its delivery to the brain is hampered by poor serum stability and rapid brain clearance. Here, a novel nanoformulation is reported composed of a bio-compatible polymer, poly(ethylene glycol)- b -poly(L-glutamic acid) (PEG-PLE), that hosts the BDNF molecule in a nanoscale complex, termed here Nano-BDNF. Upon simple mixture, Nano-BDNF spontaneously forms uniform spherical particles with a core-shell structure...
February 7, 2018: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785035/optimized-delivery-of-sirna-into-3d-tumor-spheroid-cultures-in-situ
#12
R G Morgan, A C Chambers, D N Legge, S J Coles, A Greenhough, A C Williams
3D tissue culture provides a physiologically relevant and genetically tractable system for studying normal and malignant human tissues. Despite this, gene-silencing studies using siRNA has proved difficult. In this study, we have identified a cause for why traditional siRNA transfection techniques are ineffective in eliciting gene silencing in situ within 3D cultures and proposed a simple method for significantly enhancing siRNA entry into spheroids/organoids. In 2D cell culture, the efficiency of gene silencing is significantly reduced when siRNA complexes are prepared in the presence of serum...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784905/northward-shift-of-the-agricultural-climate-zone-under-21-st-century-global-climate-change
#13
Myron King, Daniel Altdorff, Pengfei Li, Lakshman Galagedara, Joseph Holden, Adrian Unc
As agricultural regions are threatened by climate change, warming of high latitude regions and increasing food demands may lead to northward expansion of global agriculture. While socio-economic demands and edaphic conditions may govern the expansion, climate is a key limiting factor. Extant literature on future crop projections considers established agricultural regions and is mainly temperature based. We employed growing degree days (GDD), as the physiological link between temperature and crop growth, to assess the global northward shift of agricultural climate zones under 21st -century climate change...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784824/imaging-nanobubble-nucleation-and-hydrogen-spillover-during-electrocatalytic-water-splitting
#14
Rui Hao, Yunshan Fan, Marco D Howard, Joshua C Vaughan, Bo Zhang
Nucleation and growth of hydrogen nanobubbles are key initial steps in electrochemical water splitting. These processes remain largely unexplored due to a lack of proper tools to probe the nanobubble's interfacial structure with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution. We report the use of superresolution microscopy to image transient formation and growth of single hydrogen nanobubbles at the electrode/solution interface during electrocatalytic water splitting. We found hydrogen nanobubbles can be generated even at very early stages in water electrolysis, i...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784784/uncovering-universal-rules-governing-the-selectivity-of-the-archetypal-dna-glycosylase-tdg
#15
Thomas Dodd, Chunli Yan, Bradley R Kossmann, Kurt Martin, Ivaylo Ivanov
Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is a pivotal enzyme with dual roles in both genome maintenance and epigenetic regulation. TDG is involved in cytosine demethylation at CpG sites in DNA. Here we have used molecular modeling to delineate the lesion search and DNA base interrogation mechanisms of TDG. First, we examined the capacity of TDG to interrogate not only DNA substrates with 5-carboxyl cytosine modifications but also G:T mismatches and nonmismatched (A:T) base pairs using classical and accelerated molecular dynamics...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784726/teaching-neuroimages-convexal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-accompanied-by-transient-global-amnesia
#16
Markus Beitzke, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784660/interleukin-6-reduces-%C3%AE-cell-oxidative-stress-by-linking-autophagy-with-the-antioxidant-response
#17
Michelle R Marasco, Abass M Conteh, Christopher A Reissaus, John E Cupit V, Evan M Appleman, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Amelia K Linnemann
Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key instigator of β-cell dysfunction in diabetes. The pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 has previously been linked to β-cell autophagy but has not been studied in the context of β-cell antioxidant response. We used a combination of animal models of diabetes and analysis of cultured human islets and rodent β-cells to study how IL-6 influences antioxidant response. We show that IL-6 couples autophagy to antioxidant response to reduce β-cell and human islet ROS. β cell-specific loss of IL-6 signaling in vivo renders mice more susceptible to oxidative damage and cell death by the selective β-cell toxins streptozotocin and alloxan...
May 21, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784613/cryoglobulinemic-glomerulonephritis-associated-with-nodal-and-renal-infiltration-by-t-cell-lymphoma-of-t-follicular-helper-phenotype-a-case-report
#18
Jennifer Li, Marille Umakanathan, Chow Heok P'ng, Winny Varikatt, Fiona Kwok, Ming-Wei Lin, Mirna Vucak-Dzumhur
We present a unique case of cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis associated with nodal and renal infiltration by T-cell lymphoma of T-follicular helper phenotype. The patient presented with transient neurologic symptoms, severe nephritic syndrome with nephrotic-range proteinuria, and acute kidney injury. He had elevated double-stranded DNA levels, low complement levels, detectable cryoglobulin, and detectable immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraprotein. The kidney biopsy showed cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis with a membranoproliferative pattern and diffuse interstitial infiltrates on light microscopy; IgM, C3 but weak IgG, C1q, and negative C4d staining on immunofluorescence; and deposits with organized substructures on electron microscopy...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784489/syncope-electrocardiographic-and-clinical-correlation
#19
REVIEW
Andrea Ungar, Martina Rafanelli
Syncope is a frequent condition, owing to a transient global cerebral hypoperfusion, that may depend on a reduction of vascular total peripheral resistance and/or cardiac output. Cardiac syncope doubled the risk of death from any cause and increased the risk of nonfatal and fatal cardiovascular events. Arrhythmias are the most common cardiac causes of syncope. Both bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias may predispose to syncope. The first line evaluation relies on clinical history, physical examination, active standing test, 12-lead echocardiogram...
June 2018: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784176/unilateral-transient-vision-loss-associated-with-an-opacified-onodi-cell
#20
Thomas A Vo, Amy Patel, Chantal J Boisvert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
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