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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319792/safety-regulation-in-professional-football-empirical-evidence-of-intended-and-unintended-consequences
#1
Andrew Hanson, Nicholas A Jolly, Jeremy Peterson
In response to increasing public awareness and negative long-term health effects of concussions, the National Football League implemented the "Crown-of-the-Helmet Rule" (CHR). The CHR imposes penalties on players who initiate contact using the top of the helmet. This paper examines the intended effect of this policy and its potential for unintended consequences. We find evidence supporting the intended effect of the policy- a reduction in weekly concussion reports among defensive players by as much as 32% (34% for all head and neck injuries), but also evidence of an increase in weekly lower extremity injury reports for offensive players by as much as 34%...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287543/modified-drop-tower-impact-tests-for-american-football-helmets
#2
G Alston Rush, R Prabhu, Gus A Rush, Lakiesha N Williams, M F Horstemeyer
A modified National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) test method for American football helmet drop impact test standards is presented that would provide better assessment of a helmet's on-field impact performance by including a faceguard on the helmet. In this study, a merger of faceguard and helmet test standards is proposed. The need for a more robust systematic approach to football helmet testing procedures is emphasized by comparing representative results of the Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Severity Index (SI), and peak acceleration values for different helmets at different helmet locations under modified NOCSAE standard drop tower tests...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254746/what-strategies-can-be-used-to-effectively-reduce-the-risk-of-concussion-in-sport
#3
REVIEW
Carolyn A Emery, Amanda M Black, Ash Kolstad, German Martinez, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Lars Engebretsen, Karen Johnston, James Kissick, David Maddocks, Charles Tator, Mark Aubry, Jiří Dvorák, Shinji Nagahiro, Kathryn Schneider
AIM OR OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of concussion prevention strategies in reducing concussion risk in sport. DESIGN: Systematic review according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Eleven electronic databases searched and hand-search of references from selected studies. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: The following were the study inclusion criteria: (1) contained original human research data; (2) investigated an outcome of concussion or head impact; (3) evaluated a concussion prevention intervention; (4) included sport participants; (5) analytical study designand (6) peer-reviewed...
March 2, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181857/subconcussive-impact-dependent-increase-in-plasma-s100%C3%AE-levels-in-collegiate-football-players
#4
Keisuke Kawata, Leah H Rubin, Masahiro Takahagi, Jong Lee, Thomas Sim, Victor Szwanki, Al Bellamy, Ryan Tierney, Dianne Langford
The current study investigates whether repetitive subconcussive impacts cause changes in plasma S100β levels, and further to test the associations between S100β changes and frequency/magnitude of impacts sustained. This prospective study of 22 Division-I collegiate football players included baseline and pre-season practices [1 helmet-only and 4 full-gear]. Blood samples were obtained and assessed for S100β levels at baseline and pre-post practices; symptom scores were assessed at each time point. An accelerometer-embedded mouthguard was employed to measure number of impacts (hits), peak linear acceleration (PLA), and peak rotational acceleration (PRA)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056179/descriptive-characteristics-of-concussions-in-national-football-league-games-2010-2011-to-2013-2014
#5
Michael D Clark, Breton M Asken, Stephen W Marshall, Kevin M Guskiewicz
BACKGROUND: Despite a high reported incidence rate of concussion, little is known about the on-field characteristics of injurious head impacts in National Football League (NFL) games. PURPOSE: To characterize on-field features (location, player position, and time during game) and biomechanical features (anticipation status, closing distance, impact location and type) associated with concussions in NFL games over a 4-season period (2010-2011 to 2013-2014). STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
March 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043957/computational-modelling-of-traumatic-brain-injury-predicts-the-location-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-pathology
#6
Mazdak Ghajari, Peter J Hellyer, David J Sharp
Traumatic brain injury can lead to the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy. This condition has a clear neuropathological definition but the relationship between the initial head impact and the pattern of progressive brain pathology is poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that mechanical strain and strain rate are greatest in sulci, where neuropathology is prominently seen in chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and whether human neuroimaging observations converge with computational predictions...
February 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824251/the-influence-of-friction-between-football-helmet-and-jersey-materials-on-force-a-consideration-for-sport-safety
#7
Anthony M Rossi, Tina L Claiborne, Gregory B Thompson, Stacey Todaro
CONTEXT: The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. OBJECTIVE: To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781193/catastrophic-cervical-spine-injuries-in-contact-sports
#8
Michael James Hutton, Robert A McGuire, Robert Dunn, Richard Williams, Peter Robertson, Bruce Twaddle, Patrick Kiely, Andrew Clarke, Keyvan Mazda, Paul Davies, Krystle T Pagarigan, Joseph R Dettori
Study Design Systematic review. Objectives To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby (n = 10), American football (n = 3), and Irish hurling (n = 1)...
November 2016: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690834/whiplash-injury-or-concussion-a-possible-biomechanical-explanation-for-concussion-symptoms-in-some-individuals-following-a-rear-end-collision
#9
Benjamin S Elkin, James M Elliott, Gunter P Siegmund
Study Design Finite element modeling of experimental data. Background The clinical presentations of whiplash injury and concussion have considerable overlap. Both diagnoses are generally based on presenting signs and symptoms, and a history of neck or head trauma. With incomplete knowledge of the trauma, differentiating between whiplash injury and concussion can be clinically challenging. Objectives To estimate the brain strains that develop during rear-end car crashes, evaluate how these strains vary with different head kinematic parameters, and compare these strains to those generated during potentially concussive football helmet impacts...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688951/significance-of-concussions-in-hawai-i-from-land-to-sea
#10
David X Cifu, Olivia K Uchima, Alaina S Davis, Amy E Lower, Jingyu L Jin, Henry L Lew
Head injuries are a particular concern in Hawai'i given the large military population, the presence of many land and water sports such as football and surfing, and the lenient helmet laws for motorcycle and bicycle riders. Physical, psychological, and cognitive symptoms from single or repeated concussions can affect an individual's reentry to society and activity. Current literature indicates that repeated head injuries are associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) which is thought to lead to dementia...
September 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550390/drill-specific-head-impact-exposure-in-youth-football-practice
#11
Eamon T Campolettano, Steven Rowson, Stefan M Duma
OBJECTIVE Although 70% of football players in the United States are youth players (6-14 years old), most research on head impacts in football has focused on high school, collegiate, or professional populations. The objective of this study was to identify the specific activities associated with high-magnitude (acceleration > 40g) head impacts in youth football practices. METHODS A total of 34 players (mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years) on 2 youth teams were equipped with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays that recorded head accelerations associated with impacts in practices and games...
November 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511792/increasing-lower-extremity-injury-rates-across-the-2009-2010-to-2014-2015-seasons-of-national-collegiate-athletic-association-football-an-unintended-consequence-of-the-targeting-rule-used-to-prevent-concussions
#12
Robert W Westermann, Zachary Y Kerr, Peter Wehr, Annuziato Amendola
BACKGROUND: Sports-related concussions (SRCs) have gained increased societal interest in the past decade. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has implemented legislation and rule changes to decrease the incidence and risk of head injury impacts. The "targeting" rule forbids initiating contact with the crown of a helmet and targeting defenseless players in the head and neck area; however, there are concerns that this rule change has unintentionally led to an increased incidence of lower extremity injuries...
December 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456840/the-effects-of-helmet-weight-on-hybrid-iii-head-and-neck-responses-by-comparing-unhelmeted-and-helmeted-impacts
#13
Ron Jadischke, David C Viano, Joe McCarthy, Albert I King
Most studies on football helmet performance focus on lowering head acceleration-related parameters to reduce concussions. This has resulted in an increase in helmet size and mass. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of helmet mass on head and upper neck responses. Two independent test series were conducted. In test series one, 90 pendulum impact tests were conducted with four different headform and helmet conditions: unhelmeted Hybrid III headform, Hybrid III headform with a football helmet shell, Hybrid III headform with helmet shell and facemask, and Hybrid III headform with the helmet and facemask with mass added to the shell (n = 90)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432843/head-impact-magnitude-in-american-high-school-football
#14
Julianne D Schmidt, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jason P Mihalik, J Troy Blackburn, Gunter P Siegmund, Stephen W Marshall
OBJECTIVES: To describe determinants of head impact magnitudes between various play aspects in high school football. METHODS: Thirty-two high school American football players wore Head Impact Telemetry System instrumented helmets to capture head impact magnitude (linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and Head Impact Technology severity profile [HITsp]). We captured and analyzed video from 13 games (n = 3888 viewable head impacts) to determine the following play aspects: quarter, impact cause, play type, closing distance, double head impact, player's stance, player's action, direction of gaze, athletic readiness, level of anticipation, player stationary, ball possession, receiving ball, and snapping ball...
August 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416777/impact-attenuation-capabilities-of-football-and-lacrosse-helmets
#15
Katherine M Breedlove, Evan L Breedlove, Thomas G Bowman, Eric A Nauman
Although the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standards are similar for football and lacrosse helmets, it remains unknown how helmets for each sport compare on drop tests. Due to the increased concern over head injury in sport and the rapid growth in lacrosse participation, it is useful to compare the performance of various football and lacrosse helmets. Therefore, the goal of this study was to document the impact attenuation properties of football and lacrosse helmets and to identify the relative performance between helmets for the two sports...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399453/174%C3%A2-mechanisms-of-injury-as-a-diagnostic-predictor-of-sport-related-concussion-severity-in-football-basketball-and-soccer-results-from-a-regional-concussion-registry
#16
Scott L Zuckerman, Doug Totten, Kolin Rubel, Andrew W Kuhn, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Gary Solomon, Allen K Sills
INTRODUCTION: Through a single-institution sport-related concussion (SRC) registry, we sought to: (1) provide a descriptive analysis of mechanisms of SRC in football, basketball, and soccer and (2) determine if mechanism of injury was associated with symptom duration. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted through in-depth patient interviews. Complete data were collected for 295 patients. Mechanisms were stratified into 3 components: a contact mechanism, a player mechanism, and an awareness mechanism...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350072/novel-method-of-weighting-cumulative-helmet-impacts-improves-correlation-with-brain-white-matter-changes-after-one-football-season-of-sub-concussive-head-blows
#17
Kian Merchant-Borna, Patrick Asselin, Darren Narayan, Beau Abar, Courtney M C Jones, Jeffrey J Bazarian
One football season of sub-concussive head blows has been shown to be associated with subclinical white matter (WM) changes on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Prior research analyses of helmet-based impact metrics using mean and peak linear and rotational acceleration showed relatively weak correlations to these WM changes; however, these analyses failed to account for the emerging concept that neuronal vulnerability to successive hits is inversely related to the time between hits (TBH). To develop a novel method for quantifying the cumulative effects of sub-concussive head blows during a single season of collegiate football by weighting helmet-based impact measures for time between helmet impacts...
December 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307271/analysis-of-head-impact-exposure-and-brain-microstructure-response-in-a-season-long-application-of-a-jugular-vein-compression-collar-a-prospective-neuroimaging-investigation-in-american-football
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Gregory D Myer, Weihong Yuan, Kim D Barber Foss, Staci Thomas, David Smith, James Leach, Adam W Kiefer, Chris Dicesare, Janet Adams, Paul J Gubanich, Katie Kitchen, Daniel K Schneider, Daniel Braswell, Darcy Krueger, Mekibib Altaye
BACKGROUND: Historical approaches to protect the brain from outside the skull (eg, helmets and mouthpieces) have been ineffective in reducing internal injury to the brain that arises from energy absorption during sports-related collisions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a neck collar, which applies gentle bilateral jugular vein compression, resulting in cerebral venous engorgement to reduce head impact energy absorption during collision. Specifically, we investigated the effect of collar wearing during head impact exposure on brain microstructure integrity following a competitive high school American football season...
October 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029716/cumulative-head-impact-exposure-predicts-later-life-depression-apathy-executive-dysfunction-and-cognitive-impairment-in-former-high-school-and-college-football-players
#19
Philip H Montenigro, Michael L Alosco, Brett M Martin, Daniel H Daneshvar, Jesse Mez, Christine E Chaisson, Christopher J Nowinski, Rhoda Au, Ann C McKee, Robert C Cantu, Michael D McClean, Robert A Stern, Yorghos Tripodis
The term "repetitive head impacts" (RHI) refers to the cumulative exposure to concussive and subconcussive events. Although RHI are believed to increase risk for later-life neurological consequences (including chronic traumatic encephalopathy), quantitative analysis of this relationship has not yet been examined because of the lack of validated tools to quantify lifetime RHI exposure. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a metric to quantify cumulative RHI exposure from football, which we term the "cumulative head impact index" (CHII); 2) to use the CHII to examine the association between RHI exposure and long-term clinical outcomes; and 3) to evaluate its predictive properties relative to other exposure metrics (i...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27005467/inadequate-helmet-fit-increases-concussion-severity-in-american-high-school-football-players
#20
Dustin A Greenhill, Paul Navo, Huaqing Zhao, Joseph Torg, R Dawn Comstock, Barry P Boden
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. HYPOTHESIS: Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period...
May 2016: Sports Health
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