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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625747/brain-tissue-strains-vary-with-head-impact-location-a-possible-explanation-for-increased-concussion-risk-in-struck-versus-striking-football-players
#1
REVIEW
Benjamin S Elkin, Lee F Gabler, Matthew B Panzer, Gunter P Siegmund
BACKGROUND: On-field football helmet impacts over a large range of severities have caused concussions in some players but not in other players. One possible explanation for this variability is the struck player's helmet impact location. METHODS: We examined the effect of impact location on regional brain tissue strain when input energy was held constant. Laboratory impacts were performed at 12 locations distributed over the helmet and the resulting head kinematics were simulated in two finite element models of the brain: the Simulated Injury Monitor and the Global Human Body Model Consortium brain model...
March 29, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570748/inertial-properties-of-football-helmets
#2
James Funk, Roberto Quesada, Alexander Miles, Jeff Crandall
The inertial properties of a helmet play an important role in both athletic performance and head protection. In this study, we measured the inertial properties of 37 football helmets, a NOCSAE size 7 ¼ headform, and a 50th percentile male Hybrid III dummy head. The helmet measurements were taken with the helmets placed on the Hybrid III dummy head. The center of gravity and moment of inertia were measured about 6 axes (x, y, z, xy, yz, and xz), allowing for a complete description of the inertial properties of the head and helmets...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559201/a-reanalysis-of-football-impact-reconstructions-for-head-kinematics-and-finite-element-modeling
#3
REVIEW
Erin J Sanchez, Lee F Gabler, Ann B Good, James R Funk, Jeff R Crandall, Matthew B Panzer
BACKGROUND: Head kinematics generated by laboratory reconstructions of professional football helmet impacts have been applied to computational models to study the biomechanics of concussion. Since the original publication of this data, techniques for evaluating accelerometer consistency and error correction have been developed. This study applies these techniques to the original reconstruction data and reanalyzes the results given the current state of concussion biomechanics. METHODS: Consistency checks were applied to the sensor data collected in the head of each test dummy...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502453/brain-tissue-analysis-of-impacts-to-american-football-helmets
#4
Andrew Post, Marshall Kendall, Janie Cournoyer, Clara Karton, R Anna Oeur, Lauren Dawson, T Blaine Hoshizaki
Concussion in American football is a prevalent concern. Research has been conducted examining frequencies, location, and thresholds for concussion from impacts. Little work has been done examining how impact location may affect risk of concussive injury. The purpose of this research was to examine how impact site on the helmet and type of impact, affects the risk of concussive injury as quantified using finite element modelling of the human head and brain. A linear impactor was used to impact a helmeted Hybrid III headform in several locations and using centric and non-centric impact vectors...
March 4, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421963/making-football-safer-assessing-the-current-nfl-policy-on-the-type-of-helmets-allowed-on-the-playing-field
#5
Raymond Colello, Ian Alexander Colello, Duaa AbdelHameid, Kellen G Cresswell, Randall Merchant, Ethan Beckett
In an effort to reduce concussions in football, a helmet safety-rating system was developed in 2011 that rated helmets based on their ability to reduce g-forces experienced by the head across a range of impact forces measured on the playing field. Although this was considered a major step in making the game safer, the NFL continues to allow players the right to choose what helmet to wear during play. This prompted us to ask: what helmets do NFL players wear and does this helmet policy make the game safer? Accordingly, we identified the helmets worn by nearly 1000 players on Weeks 13 and 1 of the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 seasons, respectively...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420059/airway-management-in-athletes-wearing-lacrosse-equipment
#6
Thomas G Bowman, Richard J Boergers, Monica R Lininger
CONTEXT: Patient ventilation volume and rate have been found to be compromised due to the inability to seal a pocket mask over the chinstrap of football helmets. The effects of supraglottic airway devices such as the King LT and of lacrosse helmets on these measures have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of different airway management devices and helmet conditions on producing quality ventilations while performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation on simulation manikins...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417958/comparison-of-impact-performance-between-youth-and-varsity-football-helmets
#7
David W Sproule, Steven Rowson
Current youth football helmets, intended for players under the age of 14 years old, are similar in design and are tested under the same standard as varsity football helmets. This study evaluated the impact performance of matched youth and adult varsity football helmets. Eight helmet models were evaluated using an impact pendulum, with a modified National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) medium sized headform mounted on a Hybrid III 50th percentile neck. Four locations on the helmet shell at three impact velocities were tested for three trials, for a total of 576 impact tests...
December 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part P, Journal of sports engineering and technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394252/tau-accumulations-in-the-brains-of-woodpeckers
#8
George Farah, Donald Siwek, Peter Cummings
Woodpeckers experience forces up to 1200-1400 g while pecking. It is assumed due to evolutionary adaptations, the woodpecker is immune to brain injury. This assumption has led to the use of the woodpecker as a model in the development of sports safety equipment such as football helmets. However, it is unknown at this time if the woodpecker brain develops neuro-trauma in relation to the high g-forces experienced during pecking. The brains of 10 ethanol preserved woodpeckers and 5 ethanol preserved red-winged black bird experimental controls were examined using Gallyas silver stain and anti-phospho-tau...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318167/a-comparison-of-cervical-spine-motion-after-immobilization-with-a-traditional-spine-board-and-full-body-vacuum-mattress-splint
#9
Brian E Etier, Grant E Norte, Megan M Gleason, Dustin L Richter, Kelli F Pugh, Keith B Thomson, Lindsay V Slater, Joe M Hart, Stephen F Brockmeier, David R Diduch
Background: The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) advocates for cervical spine immobilization on a rigid board or vacuum splint and for removal of athletic equipment before transfer to an emergency medical facility. Purpose: To (1) compare triplanar cervical spine motion using motion capture between a traditional rigid spine board and a full-body vacuum splint in equipped and unequipped athletes, (2) assess cervical spine motion during the removal of a football helmet and shoulder pads, and (3) evaluate the effect of body mass on cervical spine motion...
December 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132269/correlation-of-concussion-symptom-profile-with-head-impact-biomechanics-a-case-for-individual-specific-injury-tolerance
#10
Steven Rowson, Stefan M Duma, Brian D Stemper, Alok Shah, Jason P Mihalik, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Larry D Riggen, Christopher C Giza, John P DiFiori, Alison Brooks, Kevin Guskiewicz, Darren Campbell, Gerald McGinty, Steven J Svoboda, Kenneth L Cameron, Steven P Broglio, Thomas W McAllister, Michael McCrea
Concussion is a brain injury induced by biomechanical forces that is broadly defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain. The intricate link between biomechanical input and concussion injury response is poorly understood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that greater biomechanical forces would result in the presentation of more concussion-related symptoms that would take longer to resolve. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between an array of biomechanical parameters measured for concussive impacts and the presentation and resolution of concussion symptoms...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110265/correction-to-impact-performance-of-modern-football-helmets
#11
David C Viano, Chris Withnall, David Halstead
This erratum is to correct headings listing the impact location and speed in Figs. 5 and 6. The following provides corrected Figs. 5 and 6. The data is unchanged. The authors apologize for any inconvenience this might have caused.
January 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098981/what-is-the-definition-of-sports-related-concussion-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Paul McCrory, Nina Feddermann-Demont, Jiří Dvořák, J David Cassidy, Andrew McIntosh, Pieter E Vos, Ruben J Echemendia, Willem Meeuwisse, Alexander A Tarnutzer
OBJECTIVES: Various definitions for concussion have been proposed, each having its strengths and weaknesses. We reviewed and compared current definitions and identified criteria necessary for an operational definition of sports-related concussion (SRC) in preparation of the 5th Concussion Consensus Conference (Berlin, Germany). We also assessed the role of biomechanical studies in informing an operational definition of SRC. DESIGN: This is a systematic literature review...
June 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037104/high-magnitude-head-impact-exposure-in-youth-football
#13
Eamon T Campolettano, Ryan A Gellner, Steven Rowson
OBJECTIVE Even in the absence of a clinically diagnosed concussion, research suggests that neurocognitive changes may develop in football players as a result of frequent head impacts that occur during football games and practices. The objectives of this study were to determine the specific situations in which high-magnitude impacts (accelerations exceeding 40 g) occur in youth football games and practices and to assess how representative practice activities are of games with regard to high-magnitude head impact exposure...
December 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982552/repetitive-head-impacts-do-not-affect-postural-control-following-a-competitive-athletic-season
#14
Nicholas G Murray, Katelyn E Grimes, Eric D Shiflett, Barry A Munkasy, Nathan R D'Amico, Megan E Mormile, Douglas W Powell, Thomas A Buckley
Evidence suggests that Repetitive Head Impacts (RHI) directly influence the brain over the course of a single contact collision season yet do not significantly impact a player's performance on the standard clinical concussion assessment battery. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in static postural control after a season of RHI in Division I football athletes using more sensitive measures of postural control as compared to a non-head contact sports. Fourteen Division I football players (CON) (age=20...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937917/head-impact-exposure-measured-in-a-single-youth-football-team-during-practice-drills
#15
Mireille E Kelley, Joeline M Kane, Mark A Espeland, Logan E Miller, Alexander K Powers, Joel D Stitzel, Jillian E Urban
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the frequency, magnitude, and location of head impacts in practice drills within a youth football team to determine how head impact exposure varies among different types of drills. METHODS On-field head impact data were collected from athletes participating in a youth football team for a single season. Each athlete wore a helmet instrumented with a Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System head acceleration measurement device during all preseason, regular season, and playoff practices...
November 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884239/nano-composite-foam-sensor-system-in-football-helmets
#16
A Jake Merrell, William F Christensen, Matthew K Seeley, Anton E Bowden, David T Fullwood
American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer's. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems...
December 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771033/the-ability-of-an-aftermarket-helmet-add-on-device-to-reduce-impact-force-accelerations-during-drop-tests
#17
Katherine M Breedlove, Evan Breedlove, Eric Nauman, Thomas G Bowman, Monica R Lininger
CONTEXT:   The Guardian Cap provides a soft covering intended to mitigate energy transfer to the head during football contact. Yet how well it attenuates impacts remains unknown. OBJECTIVE:   To evaluate the changes in the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) and linear acceleration during drop tests on helmeted headforms with or without Guardian Caps. DESIGN:   Crossover study. SETTING:   Laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   Nine new football helmets sent directly from the manufacturer...
September 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753688/the-role-of-neck-muscle-activities-on-the-risk-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-american-football
#18
Xin Jin, Zhaoying Feng, Valerie Mika, Haiyan Li, David C Viano, King H Yang
Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is frequently associated with sports activities. It has generally been accepted that neck strengthening exercises are effective as a preventive strategy for reducing sports-related concussion risks. However, the interpretation of the link between neck strength and concussion risks remains unclear. In this study, a typical helmeted head-to-head impact in American football was simulated using the head and neck complex finite element (FE) model. The impact scenario selected was previously reported in lab-controlled incident reconstructions from high-speed video footages of the National Football League using two head-neck complexes taken from Hybrid III dummies...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742613/the-influence-of-heavier-football-helmet-faceguards-on-head-impact-location-and-severity
#19
Julianne D Schmidt, Tracy T Phan, Ron W Courson, Fred Reifsteck, Eric D Merritt, Cathleen N Brown
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether players with heavier faceguards have increased odds of sustaining top of the head impacts and head impacts of higher severity. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: On-field. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five division I collegiate football players. INTERVENTIONS: Faceguard mass was measured. Head impact location and severity (linear acceleration [gravity], rotational acceleration [radian per square second], and Head Impact Technology severity profile [unitless]) were captured for 19 379 total head impacts at practices using the Head Impact Telemetry System...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509764/environmental-and-physiological-factors-affect-football-head-impact-biomechanics
#20
Jason P Mihalik, Adam Z Sumrall, Susan W Yeargin, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Kevin B King, Scott C Trulock, Edgar W Shields
PURPOSE: Recent anecdotal trends suggest a disproportionate number of head injuries in collegiate football players occur during preseason football camp. In warmer climates, this season also represents the highest risk for heat-related illness among collegiate football players. Because concussion and heat illnesses share many common symptoms, we need 1) to understand if environmental conditions, body temperature, and hydration status affect head impact biomechanics; and 2) to determine if an in-helmet thermistor could provide a valid measure of gastrointestinal temperature...
October 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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