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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824251/the-influence-of-friction-between-football-helmet-and-jersey-materials-on-force-a-consideration-for-sport-safety
#1
Anthony M Rossi, Tina L Claiborne, Gregory B Thompson, Stacey Todaro
CONTEXT: The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. OBJECTIVE: To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781193/catastrophic-cervical-spine-injuries-in-contact-sports
#2
Michael James Hutton, Robert A McGuire, Robert Dunn, Richard Williams, Peter Robertson, Bruce Twaddle, Patrick Kiely, Andrew Clarke, Keyvan Mazda, Paul Davies, Krystle T Pagarigan, Joseph R Dettori
Study Design Systematic review. Objectives To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby (n = 10), American football (n = 3), and Irish hurling (n = 1)...
November 2016: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690834/whiplash-injury-or-concussion-a-possible-biomechanical-explanation-for-concussion-symptoms-in-some-individuals-following-a-rear-end-collision
#3
Benjamin S Elkin, James M Elliott, Gunter P Siegmund
Study Design Finite element modeling of experimental data. Background The clinical presentations of whiplash injury and concussion have considerable overlap. Both diagnoses are generally based on presenting signs and symptoms, and a history of neck or head trauma. With incomplete knowledge of the trauma, differentiating between whiplash injury and concussion can be clinically challenging. Objectives To estimate the brain strains that develop during rear-end car crashes, evaluate how these strains vary with different head kinematic parameters, and compare these strains to those generated during potentially concussive football helmet impacts...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688951/significance-of-concussions-in-hawai-i-from-land-to-sea
#4
David X Cifu, Olivia K Uchima, Alaina S Davis, Amy E Lower, Jingyu L Jin, Henry L Lew
Head injuries are a particular concern in Hawai'i given the large military population, the presence of many land and water sports such as football and surfing, and the lenient helmet laws for motorcycle and bicycle riders. Physical, psychological, and cognitive symptoms from single or repeated concussions can affect an individual's reentry to society and activity. Current literature indicates that repeated head injuries are associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) which is thought to lead to dementia...
September 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550390/drill-specific-head-impact-exposure-in-youth-football-practice
#5
Eamon T Campolettano, Steven Rowson, Stefan M Duma
OBJECTIVE Although 70% of football players in the United States are youth players (6-14 years old), most research on head impacts in football has focused on high school, collegiate, or professional populations. The objective of this study was to identify the specific activities associated with high-magnitude (acceleration > 40g) head impacts in youth football practices. METHODS A total of 34 players (mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years) on 2 youth teams were equipped with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays that recorded head accelerations associated with impacts in practices and games...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511792/increasing-lower-extremity-injury-rates-across-the-2009-2010-to-2014-2015-seasons-of-national-collegiate-athletic-association-football-an-unintended-consequence-of-the-targeting-rule-used-to-prevent-concussions
#6
Robert W Westermann, Zachary Y Kerr, Peter Wehr, Annuziato Amendola
BACKGROUND: Sports-related concussions (SRCs) have gained increased societal interest in the past decade. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has implemented legislation and rule changes to decrease the incidence and risk of head injury impacts. The "targeting" rule forbids initiating contact with the crown of a helmet and targeting defenseless players in the head and neck area; however, there are concerns that this rule change has unintentionally led to an increased incidence of lower extremity injuries...
December 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456840/the-effects-of-helmet-weight-on-hybrid-iii-head-and-neck-responses-by-comparing-unhelmeted-and-helmeted-impacts
#7
Ron Jadischke, David C Viano, Joe McCarthy, Albert I King
Most studies on football helmet performance focus on lowering head acceleration-related parameters to reduce concussions. This has resulted in an increase in helmet size and mass. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of helmet mass on head and upper neck responses. Two independent test series were conducted. In test series one, 90 pendulum impact tests were conducted with four different headform and helmet conditions: unhelmeted Hybrid III headform, Hybrid III headform with a football helmet shell, Hybrid III headform with helmet shell and facemask, and Hybrid III headform with the helmet and facemask with mass added to the shell (n = 90)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432843/head-impact-magnitude-in-american-high-school-football
#8
Julianne D Schmidt, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jason P Mihalik, J Troy Blackburn, Gunter P Siegmund, Stephen W Marshall
OBJECTIVES: To describe determinants of head impact magnitudes between various play aspects in high school football. METHODS: Thirty-two high school American football players wore Head Impact Telemetry System instrumented helmets to capture head impact magnitude (linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and Head Impact Technology severity profile [HITsp]). We captured and analyzed video from 13 games (n = 3888 viewable head impacts) to determine the following play aspects: quarter, impact cause, play type, closing distance, double head impact, player's stance, player's action, direction of gaze, athletic readiness, level of anticipation, player stationary, ball possession, receiving ball, and snapping ball...
August 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416777/impact-attenuation-capabilities-of-football-and-lacrosse-helmets
#9
Katherine M Breedlove, Evan L Breedlove, Thomas G Bowman, Eric A Nauman
Although the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standards are similar for football and lacrosse helmets, it remains unknown how helmets for each sport compare on drop tests. Due to the increased concern over head injury in sport and the rapid growth in lacrosse participation, it is useful to compare the performance of various football and lacrosse helmets. Therefore, the goal of this study was to document the impact attenuation properties of football and lacrosse helmets and to identify the relative performance between helmets for the two sports...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399453/174%C3%A2-mechanisms-of-injury-as-a-diagnostic-predictor-of-sport-related-concussion-severity-in-football-basketball-and-soccer-results-from-a-regional-concussion-registry
#10
Scott L Zuckerman, Doug Totten, Kolin Rubel, Andrew W Kuhn, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Gary Solomon, Allen K Sills
INTRODUCTION: Through a single-institution sport-related concussion (SRC) registry, we sought to: (1) provide a descriptive analysis of mechanisms of SRC in football, basketball, and soccer and (2) determine if mechanism of injury was associated with symptom duration. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted through in-depth patient interviews. Complete data were collected for 295 patients. Mechanisms were stratified into 3 components: a contact mechanism, a player mechanism, and an awareness mechanism...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350072/novel-method-of-weighting-cumulative-helmet-impacts-improves-correlation-with-brain-white-matter-changes-after-one-football-season-of-sub-concussive-head-blows
#11
Kian Merchant-Borna, Patrick Asselin, Darren Narayan, Beau Abar, Courtney M C Jones, Jeffrey J Bazarian
One football season of sub-concussive head blows has been shown to be associated with subclinical white matter (WM) changes on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Prior research analyses of helmet-based impact metrics using mean and peak linear and rotational acceleration showed relatively weak correlations to these WM changes; however, these analyses failed to account for the emerging concept that neuronal vulnerability to successive hits is inversely related to the time between hits (TBH). To develop a novel method for quantifying the cumulative effects of sub-concussive head blows during a single season of collegiate football by weighting helmet-based impact measures for time between helmet impacts...
December 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307271/analysis-of-head-impact-exposure-and-brain-microstructure-response-in-a-season-long-application-of-a-jugular-vein-compression-collar-a-prospective-neuroimaging-investigation-in-american-football
#12
Gregory D Myer, Weihong Yuan, Kim D Barber Foss, Staci Thomas, David Smith, James Leach, Adam W Kiefer, Chris Dicesare, Janet Adams, Paul J Gubanich, Katie Kitchen, Daniel K Schneider, Daniel Braswell, Darcy Krueger, Mekibib Altaye
BACKGROUND: Historical approaches to protect the brain from outside the skull (eg, helmets and mouthpieces) have been ineffective in reducing internal injury to the brain that arises from energy absorption during sports-related collisions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a neck collar, which applies gentle bilateral jugular vein compression, resulting in cerebral venous engorgement to reduce head impact energy absorption during collision. Specifically, we investigated the effect of collar wearing during head impact exposure on brain microstructure integrity following a competitive high school American football season...
October 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029716/cumulative-head-impact-exposure-predicts-later-life-depression-apathy-executive-dysfunction-and-cognitive-impairment-in-former-high-school-and-college-football-players
#13
Philip Homes Montenigro, Michael L Alosco, Brett Martin, Daniel H Daneshvar, Jesse Mez, Christine Chaisson, Christopher J Nowinski, Rhoda Au, Ann C McKee, Robert C Cantu, Michael D McClean, Robert A Stern, Yorghos Tripodis
Repetitive head impacts (RHI) refer to the cumulative exposure to concussive and subconcussive events. Although RHI is believed to increase risk for later-life neurological consequences (including chronic traumatic encephalopathy), quantitative analysis of this relationship has not yet been examined due to the lack of validated tools to quantify lifetime RHI exposure. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a metric to quantify cumulative RHI exposure from football, that we term the cumulative head impact index (CHII); 2) to use the CHII to examine the association between RHI exposure and long-term clinical outcomes; and (3) to evaluate its predictive properties relative to other exposure metrics (i...
March 30, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27005467/inadequate-helmet-fit-increases-concussion-severity-in-american-high-school-football-players
#14
Dustin A Greenhill, Paul Navo, Huaqing Zhao, Joseph Torg, R Dawn Comstock, Barry P Boden
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. HYPOTHESIS: Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period...
May 2016: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986696/football-equipment-removal-improves-chest-compression-and-ventilation-efficacy
#15
Jason P Mihalik, Robert C Lynall, Melissa A Fraser, Laura C Decoster, Valerie J De Maio, Amar P Patel, Erik E Swartz
OBJECTIVE: Airway access recommendations in potential catastrophic spine injury scenarios advocate for facemask removal, while keeping the helmet and shoulder pads in place for ensuing emergency transport. The anecdotal evidence to support these recommendations assumes that maintaining the helmet and shoulder pads assists inline cervical stabilization and that facial access guarantees adequate airway access. Our objective was to determine the effect of football equipment interference on performing chest compressions and delivering adequate ventilations on patient simulators...
September 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26967549/the-ability-of-american-football-helmets-to-manage-linear-acceleration-with-repeated-high-energy-impacts
#16
Janie Cournoyer, Andrew Post, Philippe Rousseau, Blaine Hoshizaki
CONTEXT: Football players can receive up to 1400 head impacts per season, averaging 6.3 impacts per practice and 14.3 impacts per game. A decrease in the capacity of a helmet to manage linear acceleration with multiple impacts could increase the risk of traumatic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of football helmets to manage linear acceleration with multiple high-energy impacts. DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. SETTING: Laboratory...
March 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26905506/concussion-characteristics-in-high-school-football-by-helmet-age-recondition-status-manufacturer-and-model-2008-2009-through-2012-2013-academic-years-in-the-united-states
#17
Christy L Collins, Lara B McKenzie, Amy K Ferketich, Rebecca Andridge, Huiyun Xiang, R Dawn Comstock
BACKGROUND: Football helmets used by high school athletes in the United States should meet the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment performance standards. Despite differences in interior padding and exterior shells, all football helmets should provide comparable protection against concussions. Yet, debate continues on whether differences in the rates or severity of concussions exist based on helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, or model. PURPOSE: To investigate whether high school football concussion characteristics varied by helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, and model...
June 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26867124/finite-element-modeling-of-human-brain-response-to-football-helmet-impacts
#18
T Darling, J Muthuswamy, S D Rajan
The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions...
October 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26678288/necessity-of-removing-american-football-uniforms-from-humans-with-hyperthermia-before-cold-water-immersion
#19
Kevin C Miller, Blaine C Long, Jeffrey Edwards
CONTEXT: The National Athletic Trainers' Association and the American College of Sports Medicine have recommended removing American football uniforms from athletes with exertional heat stroke before cold-water immersion (CWI) based on the assumption that the uniform impedes rectal temperature (T(rec)) cooling. Few experimental data exist to verify or disprove this assumption and the recommendations. OBJECTIVES: To compare CWI durations, T(rec) cooling rates, thermal sensation, intensity of environmental symptoms, and onset of shivering when hyperthermic participants wore football uniforms during CWI or removed the uniforms immediately before CWI...
December 2015: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26651278/early-results-of-a-helmetless-tackling-intervention-to-decrease-head-impacts-in-football-players
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Erik E Swartz, Steven P Broglio, Summer B Cook, Robert C Cantu, Michael S Ferrara, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jay L Myers
OBJECTIVE: To test a helmetless-tackling behavioral intervention for reducing head impacts in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Football field. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Fifty collegiate football players (intervention = 25, control = 25). INTERVENTION(S): The intervention group participated in a 5-minute tackling drill without their helmets and shoulder pads twice per week in the preseason and once per week through the season...
December 2015: Journal of Athletic Training
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