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Li Cheng, Jun Zhang, Xin-Yi Li, Li Yuan, Yan-Fang Pan, Xiao-Rong Chen, Tian-Ming Gao, Jian-Tian Qiao, Jin-Shun Qi
Amyloid β protein (Aβ) plays a critical role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous studies indicated that the sequence 31-35 in Aβ molecule is an effective active center responsible for Aβ neurotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we prepared a novel antibody specifically targeting the sequence 31-35 of amyloid β protein, and investigated the neuroprotection of the anti-Aβ31-35 antibody against Aβ1-42 -induced impairments in neuronal viability, spatial memory, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats...
October 26, 2016: Hippocampus
Mary K McGahon, José A Fernández, Durga P Dash, Jon McKee, David A Simpson, Alex V Zholos, J Graham McGeown, Tim M Curtis
Purpose: Activation of the transient receptor potential channels, TRPC6, TRPM4, and TRPP1 (PKD2), has been shown to contribute to the myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries. In the present study we sought to determine the potential role of various mechanosensitive TRP channels to myogenic signaling in arterioles of the rat retina. Methods: Rat retinal arterioles were isolated for RT-PCR, Fura-2 Ca2+ microfluorimetry, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and pressure myography studies...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Tsung-Yan Chen, Ting-Tse Lin, Mu-Yang Hsieh, Lin Lin, Chung-Wei Yang, Shao-Yuan Chuang, Po-Hsun Huang, Chih-Cheng Wu
BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) thrombosis is a relevant cause of morbidity in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has been identified as a surrogate marker for vascular repair and health. Deficiency of EPCs has been demonstrated in dialysis patients to be associated with vascular events. Nonetheless, their role in thrombosis of AVFs remains unknown. METHODS: From January 2010 to May 2013, 147 HD patients with dysfunctional AVFs were enrolled...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Helen L May-Simera, Jessica D Gumerson, Chun Gao, Maria Campos, Stephanie M Cologna, Tina Beyer, Karsten Boldt, Koray D Kaya, Nisha Patel, Friedrich Kretschmer, Matthew W Kelley, Ronald S Petralia, Megan G Davey, Tiansen Li
Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) plays a role in the coordination of microtubules and actin in multiple cellular processes. Here, we show that MACF1 is also critical for ciliogenesis in multiple cell types. Ablation of Macf1 in the developing retina abolishes ciliogenesis, and basal bodies fail to dock to ciliary vesicles or migrate apically. Photoreceptor polarity is randomized, while inner retinal cells laminate correctly, suggesting that photoreceptor maturation is guided by polarity cues provided by cilia...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Dror Alishekevitz, Svetlana Gingis-Velitski, Orit Kaidar-Person, Lilach Gutter-Kapon, Sandra D Scherer, Ziv Raviv, Emmanuelle Merquiol, Yael Ben-Nun, Valeria Miller, Chen Rachman-Tzemah, Michael Timaner, Yelena Mumblat, Neta Ilan, David Loven, Dov Hershkovitz, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, Galia Blum, Jonathan P Sleeman, Israel Vlodavsky, Yuval Shaked
While chemotherapy strongly restricts or reverses tumor growth, the response of host tissue to therapy can counteract its anti-tumor activity by promoting tumor re-growth and/or metastases, thus limiting therapeutic efficacy. Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3)-expressing macrophages infiltrating chemotherapy-treated tumors play a significant role in metastasis. They do so in part by inducing lymphangiogenesis as a result of cathepsin release, leading to VEGF-C upregulation by heparanase...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Wenhui Zhou, Thomas K Ni, Ania Wronski, Benjamin Glass, Adam Skibinski, Andrew Beck, Charlotte Kuperwasser
Overabundance of Slug protein is common in human cancer and represents an important determinant underlying the aggressiveness of basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Despite its importance, this transcription factor is rarely mutated in BLBC, and the mechanism of its deregulation in cancer remains unknown. Here, we report that Slug undergoes acetylation-dependent protein degradation and identify the deacetylase SIRT2 as a key mediator of this post-translational mechanism. SIRT2 inhibition rapidly destabilizes Slug, whereas SIRT2 overexpression extends Slug stability...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Katarzyna Modzelewska, Elena F Boer, Timothy L Mosbruger, Daniel Picard, Daniela Anderson, Rodney R Miles, Mitchell Kroll, William Oslund, Theodore J Pysher, Joshua D Schiffman, Randy Jensen, Cicely A Jette, Annie Huang, Rodney A Stewart
Malignant brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the CNS (CNS-PNETs) are particularly aggressive embryonal tumors of unknown cellular origin. Recent genomic studies have classified CNS-PNETs into molecularly distinct subgroups that promise to improve diagnosis and treatment; however, the lack of cell- or animal-based models for these subgroups prevents testing of rationally designed therapies. Here, we show that a subset of CNS-PNETs co-express oligoneural precursor cell (OPC) markers OLIG2 and SOX10 with coincident activation of the RAS/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Rene Daer, Josh P Cutts, David A Brafman, Karmella A Haynes
In order to efficiently edit eukaryotic genomes, it is critical to test the impact of chromatin dynamics on CRISPR/Cas9 function and develop strategies to adapt the system to eukaryotic contexts. So far, research has extensively characterized the relationship between the CRISPR endonuclease Cas9 and the composition of the RNA-DNA duplex that mediates the system's precision. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications and DNA packaging can block eukaryotic genome editing by custom-built DNA endonucleases like Cas9; however, the underlying mechanism of Cas9 inhibition is unclear...
October 26, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Odete Gonçalves, L Filipe C Castro, Adam J Smolka, António Fontainhas, Jonathan M Wilson
The stomach, which is characterized by acid peptic digestion in vertebrates, has been lost secondarily multiple times in the evolution of the teleost fishes. The Cypriniformes are largely seen as an agastric order; however, within the superfamily Cobitoidea, the closely related sister groups Nemacheilidae and Balitoridae have been identified as gastric families. The presence of these most recently diverged gastric families in an otherwise agastric clade indicates that either multiple (>2-3) loss events occurred with the Cyprinidae, Catostomidae and Cobitidae, or that gastric reinvention arose in a recent ancestor of the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae sister clade...
2016: PloS One
Olga Volotskova, Larisa Dubrovsky, Michael Keidar, Michael Bukrinsky
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a specific type of partially ionized gas that is less than 104°F at the point of application. It was recently shown that CAP can be used for decontamination and sterilization, as well as anti-cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of CAP on HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). We demonstrate that pre-treatment of MDM with CAP reduced levels of CD4 and CCR5, inhibiting virus-cell fusion, viral reverse transcription and integration. In addition, CAP pre-treatment affected cellular factors required for post-entry events, as replication of VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1, which by-passes HIV receptor-mediated fusion at the plasma membrane during entry, was also inhibited...
2016: PloS One
Hui-Wen Lu-Walther, Wenya Hou, Martin Kielhorn, Yoshiyuki Arai, Takeharu Nagai, Michael M Kessels, Britta Qualmann, Rainer Heintzmann
Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is a wide-field technique in fluorescence microscopy that provides fast data acquisition and two-fold resolution improvement beyond the Abbe limit. We observed a further resolution improvement using the nonlinear emission response of a fluorescent protein. We demonstrated a two-beam nonlinear structured illumination microscope by introducing only a minor change into the system used for linear SIM (LSIM). To achieve the required nonlinear dependence in nonlinear SIM (NL-SIM) we exploited the photoswitching of the recently introduced fluorophore Kohinoor...
2016: PloS One
Lei Dong, Wen-Mei Yu, Hong Zheng, Mignon L Loh, Silvia T Bunting, Melinda Pauly, Gang Huang, Muxiang Zhou, Hal E Broxmeyer, David T Scadden, Cheng-Kui Qu
Germline activating mutations of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11), a positive regulator of the RAS signalling pathway, are found in 50% of patients with Noonan syndrome. These patients have an increased risk of developing leukaemia, especially juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML), a childhood myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Previous studies have demonstrated that mutations in Ptpn11 induce a JMML-like MPN through cell-autonomous mechanisms that are dependent on Shp2 catalytic activity...
October 26, 2016: Nature
Asghar Ghasemi, Soudabeh Fallah, Mohammad Ansari
Aberrant DNA methylation has been shown to inactivate tumor suppressor genes during carcinogenesis. MicroRNA-149 (miR-149) was recently demonstrated to function as a tumor suppressor gene in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, the potential linkage of miR-149 levels and the underlying epigenetic regulatory mechanism in human GBM has not been studied. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to investigate the levels of miR-149 in GBM tissues, their matched adjacent normal tissues, and glioblastoma U87MG cell line...
October 26, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Yongmin Zhang, Shuang Guo, Wentao Wu, Zhirong Qin, Xuefeng Liu
Herein, we describe a strategy of fabricating CO2-triggered oil-in-water Pickering emulsion based on silica nanoparticles func-tionalized in situ by a trace amount of conventional CO2-switchable surfactant, N-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)alkyl amide (CnPMA). By alternately bubbling CO2 and N2 at a moderate conditions (30 oC, 80 mL·min-1), silica nanoparticles reversibly switch between amphipathic and hydrophilic as a result of the adsorption of ammonium (CO2) and the desorption of ter-tiary amine (N2). The emulsion can then be smart switched "on (stable)" and "off (unstable)," along with homogenization, without needing cooling and heating...
October 26, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ethan P McMoran, Douglas R Powell, Felio Perez, Gerard T Rowe, Lei Yang
A series of copper complexes supported by a simple dipyridylamide ligand (H2pcp) were isolated and characterized. Treatment of H2pcp with NaH and copper(I) salts led to the formation of [Cu2(2pcp)2] (1a) and {Na[(Cu2(2pcp)2)2]PF6}n (1b). The X-ray crystal structures of both complexes feature Cu(I)Cu(I) cores with close Cu···Cu interactions. Electrochemical studies of 1a showed a reversible one-electron oxidation wave in CH2Cl2. On the basis of the work on 1a, we began studying the mixed-valence copper species supported by this ligand...
October 26, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Guangbin Li, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez, David Vilcherrez, Stefan Weiss, Callie Gill, Mark J Krzmarzick, Leif Abrell, Jim A Field
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Yusi Fu, He Chen, Lu Liu, Yanyi Huang
Prevalent single cell RNA amplification and sequencing chemistries mainly focus on polyadenylated RNAs in eukaryotic cells by using oligo(dT) primers for reverse transcription. We develop a new RNA amplification method, "easier-seq", to reverse transcribe and amplify the total RNAs, both with and without polyadenylate tails, from a single cell for transcriptome sequencing with high efficiency, reproducibility, and accuracy. By distributing the reverse transcribed cDNA molecules into 1.5x10(5) aqueous droplets in oil, the cDNAs are isothermally amplified using random primers in each of these 65-picoliter reactors separately...
October 26, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Yue Yu, Changlei Wang, Corey R Grice, Niraj Shrestha, Jing Chen, Dewei Zhao, Weiqiang Liao, Alexander J Cimaroli, Paul J Roland, Randy J Ellingson, Yanfa Yan
Formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3 ) is considered as an alternative to methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3 ) because of its lower band gap and better thermal stability. However, owing to the large size of FA cations, it is difficult to synthesize high-quality FAPbI3 thin films without the formation of an undesirable yellow phase. Smaller sized cations, such as MA and Cs, have been successfully used to suppress the formation of the yellow phase. Whereas FA and MA lead triiodide perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) have achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) higher than 20 %, the PCEs of formamidinium and cesium lead triiodide (FA1-x Csx PbI3 ) PVSCs have been only approximately 16...
October 26, 2016: ChemSusChem
Heitor F N de Oliveira, Matthew T Clough, Roberto Rinaldi
Organic electrolyte solutions (OES)-binary mixtures of an ionic liquid (IL) with a neutral polar aprotic co-solvent-are being recognized as excellent candidate solvents for the dissolution, derivatization, and sustainable processing of cellulose. These solutions exhibit the beneficially combined properties of rapid-to-instantaneous cellulose dissolution, raised thermal stability, and reduced viscosity, compared to cellulose solutions in the parent ILs. Herein, we report the reversible, thermally triggered phase separation of cellulose solutions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate with 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone...
October 26, 2016: ChemSusChem
Craig A Marshall, Ivan A Borbon, Robert P Erickson
Nicotinamide delivered in drinking water at about 2 g/kg/day significantly prolonged survival and showed a suggestive improvement on memory in the Npc1 (nih) / Npc1 (nih) mouse model of infantile NPC1 disease. It is likely that this role is due to its function as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor although another HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid, was without effect. Nicotinamide could also work by preventing/reversing oxidative stress.
October 25, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
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