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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550816/designing-an-hcv-vaccine-a-unique-convergence-of-prevention-and-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Christopher M Walker
Direct acting antivirals can cure chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection but whether they will reduce global liver disease burden is uncertain. Most chronic infections are undiagnosed and transmission has increased in recent years. The first trial of a preventive vaccine is now underway in humans at risk for HCV infection. It will test the novel hypothesis that T cell-mediated immunity alone can prevent persistent HCV infection. Another vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibodies is at an advanced stage of development...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550788/a-case-report-of-venous-thrombosis-after-kidney-transplantation-we-can-save-the-graft-time-is-the-success-factor
#2
Paulo Roberto Kawano, Hamilto Akihissa Yamamoto, Rodrigo Gerra, Paula Dalsoglio Garcia, Mariana Moraes Contti, Hong Si Nga, Henrique Mochida Takase, Ariane Moyses Bravin, Luis Gustavo Modelli de Andrade
INTRODUCTION: Venous thrombosis is a serious surgical complication that frequently results in loss of kidney graft. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a female patient recipient of a decease kidney transplant that in the tenth postoperative presented with hematuria, graft pain and oliguria. Ultrasound examination was suggestive of venous thrombosis with abnormal doppler waveform pattern and reversal of diastolic flow. She underwent emergency surgical intervention after 2h of diagnosis...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550760/exercise-training-ameliorates-matrix-metalloproteinases-2-and-9-messenger-rna-expression-and-mitigates-adverse-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#3
Flávio S Silva, Raul H Bortolin, Diego N Araújo, Dáfiny E S Marques, João Paulo M S Lima, Adriana A Rezende, Wouber H B Vieira, Naisandra B Silva, Karina C P Medeiros, Paul W Ackermann, Bento J Abreu, Fernando A L Dias
BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate whether exercise training (ExT) would ameliorate expression of key genes for myocardial morphostructure and mitigate adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in experimental type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC, n=9), trained control (TC, n=13), sedentary diabetic (SD, n=20), and trained diabetic (TD, n=17). T1D was induced by 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (single dose, i...
May 18, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550732/reversing-the-polarization-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-inhibits-tumor-metastasis
#4
Rufei Yuan, Shengfu Li, Hua Geng, Xin Wang, Qinglin Guan, Xiaohuan Li, Changle Ren, Xiaolin Yuan
OBJECTIVE: The M2 phenotype is dominant in tumor associated macrophages (TAM), and plays a key role in promoting tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Converting TAM polarization from M2 to M1 may contribute to eliciting anti-tumor-specific immune responses and inhibiting tumor metastasis. In this study, the effect of reversing the polarization of TAM on tumor metastasis was investigated. METHODS: Peritoneal macrophages were obtained from BABL/c mice, and M2 polarization was induced by IL-4...
May 24, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550712/combined-immune-checkpoint-blockade-anti-pd-1-anti-ctla-4-evaluation-and-management-of-adverse-drug-reactions
#5
REVIEW
Jessica C Hassel, Lucie Heinzerling, Jens Aberle, Oliver Bähr, Thomas K Eigentler, Marc-Oliver Grimm, Victor Grünwald, Jan Leipe, Niels Reinmuth, Julia K Tietze, Jörg Trojan, Lisa Zimmer, Ralf Gutzmer
Combined immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) provides unprecedented efficacy gains in numerous cancer indications, with PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab plus CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab in advanced melanoma as first-ever approved therapies for combined ICB. However, gains in efficacy must be balanced against a higher frequency and severity of adverse drug reactions (ADR). Because delays in diagnosis and management might result in symptom worsening and further complications, clinicians shall be well trained to identify ADR promptly and monitor patients adequately...
May 18, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550687/tanshinone-suppresses-arecoline-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-oral-submucous-fibrosis-by-epigenetically-reactivating-the-p53-pathway
#6
Lian Zheng, Zhen-Jie Guan, Wen-Ting Pan, Tian-Fang Du, Yu-Jia Zhai, Jia Guo
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) induced by the chewing of areca nut has been considered as a precancerous lesion with a higher probability of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma. Tanshinone (TSN) is the main component extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional Chinese medicine, which was found to have diverse pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. In current study, we aim to identify inhibitory effects and the underlying mechanism of Tanshinone on OSF progress. We found that treatment of TSN inhibited arecoline-mediated proliferation of primary human oral mucosal fibroblasts, and reversed the promotive effects of arecoline on EMT process...
May 21, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550686/microrna-186-suppresses-cell-proliferation-and-metastasis-through-targeting-sentrin-specific-protease-1-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#7
Dan Jiao, Man Wu, Lei Ji, Feng Liu, Yingying Liu
Recent evidence suggests that dysregulation of microRNAs are associated with the development of multiple malignancies.miR-186 has been reported as a critical cancer regulator in several types of cancers. However, its functional significance and molecular mechanism underlying renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unknown. In this study, our results showed that miR-186 expression was dramatically downregulated in RCC tissues and cell lines compared to that in adjacent normal tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-186 significantly inhibited cell growth, colony formation, cell invasion, caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, and induced cell apoptosis as detected by MTT, colony formation, Transwell assay, and flow cytometry assays in RCC cells...
May 21, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550683/oncogenic-role-of-microrna-30b-5p-in-glioblastoma-through-targeting-proline-rich-transmembrane-protein-2
#8
Zhongjun Li, Junxiu Guo, Yujie Ma, Zhixiong Lin, Longbo Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRs) have been found to play promoting or suppressive roles in different human cancers. However, the exactregulatory mechanism of miR-30b in glioblastoma still remains unknown. Here we showed that the expression of miR-30b was significantly increased in glioblastoma tissues and cell lines. Moreover, high expression of miR-30b was significantly associated with shorter survival time of glioblastoma patients. Knockdown of miR-30b caused a significant reduction in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of U87 and A172 cells...
May 17, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550682/long-noncoding-rna-anril-promotes-cervical-cancer-development-by-acting-as-a-sponge-of-mir-186
#9
Jun-Jun Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Chen-Xiang Du, Yan Wang
Cervical cancer is a common malignancy of female reproductive system. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been reported tomodulate tumor progression in multiple cancers. The lncRNA antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) has been testified as oncogenic molecular in series tumors, however, the function and underlying mechanism involved in cervical cancer oncogenesis is still unclear. In present study, RT-PCR showed that ANRIL expression was significantly up-regulated in cervical cancer tumors and cell lines...
May 22, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550680/elemene-increases-autophagic-apoptosis-and-drug-sensitivity-in-human-cisplatin-ddp-resistant-lung-cancer-cell-line-spc-a-1-ddp-by-inducing-beclin-1-expression
#10
Kun Zhou, Liping Wang, Ruirui Cheng, Xia Liu, Shengya Mao, Yan Yan
Drug resistance is the major obstacle for the successful therapy of lung adenocarcinoma. It was suggested that ß-elemene, a major isoform of elemene, could reverse the drug resistance in lung cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remains poorly known. Here, we aimed to investigate whether elemene is involved in the cisplatin (DDP)-resistance of lung adenocarcinoma cells and further explore the underlying mechanism. The results showed that human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1 and its DDP-resistant strain SPC-A-1/DDP had a similar sensitivity to elemene treatment...
May 23, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550627/association-between-antithrombotic-drug-use-before-chronic-subdural-haematoma-and-outcome-after-drainage-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Michael T C Poon, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman
In view of their age and vascular co-morbidities, people are often taking an antithrombotic drug when diagnosed with chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH). It is unclear whether antithrombotic use at CSDH diagnosis, or resumption afterwards, is associated with recurrent CSDH or vaso-occlusive events. We systematically reviewed the literature for studies reporting CSDH recurrence or vaso-occlusive events after drainage of CSDH associated with antithrombotic drug use. We searched Medline 1946-2016 and Embase 1974-2016 inclusive for cohort studies reporting the risk of CSDH recurrence or vaso-occlusive events after CSDH associated with antithrombotic (anticoagulant or antiplatelet) drug use...
May 26, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550532/drug-induced-hsp90-inhibition-alleviates-pain-in-monoarthritic-rats-and-alters-the-expression-of-new-putative-pain-players-at-the-drg
#12
Diana Sofia Marques Nascimento, Catarina Soares Potes, Miguel Luz Soares, António Carlos Ferreira, Marzia Malcangio, José Manuel Castro-Lopes, Fani Lourença Moreira Neto
Purinergic receptors (P2XRs) have been widely associated with pain states mostly due to their involvement in neuron-glia communication. Interestingly, we have previously shown that satellite glial cells (SGC), surrounding dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, become activated and proliferate during monoarthritis (MA) in the rat. Here, we demonstrate that P2X7R expression increases in ipsilateral DRG after 1 week of disease, while P2X3R immunoreactivity decreases. We have also reported a significant induction of the activating transcriptional factor 3 (ATF3) in MA...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550529/single-administration-of-hbk-15-a-triple-5-ht1a-5-ht7-and-5-ht3-receptor-antagonist-reverses-depressive-like-behaviors-in-mouse-model-of-depression-induced-by-corticosterone
#13
Karolina Pytka, Monika Głuch-Lutwin, Magdalena Kotańska, Anna Waszkielewicz, Agnieszka Kij, Maria Walczak
Studies suggest that the blockade of 5-HT1A, 5-HT7, and 5-HT3 receptor may increase the speed of antidepressant response. 1-[(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15), dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists, showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like properties in our previous tests in rodents. In this study, we aimed to investigate their antidepressant potential using mouse model of corticosterone-induced depression...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550492/microrna-889-is-downregulated-by-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-and-confers-resistance-to-natural-killer-cytotoxicity-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#14
Haitao Xie, Qiugui Zhang, Hui Zhou, Jun Zhou, Ji Zhang, Yan Jiang, Jinghong Wang, Xianglin Meng, Leping Zeng, Xiaoxin Jiang
Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene B (MICB) is expressed on tumor cells and participates in natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antitumor immune response through engagement with the NKG2D receptor. This study was undertaken to identify novel microRNA (miRNA) regulators of MICB and clarify their functions in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay were conducted to search for MICB-targeting miRNAs. Overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed to determine the roles of candidate miRNAs in the susceptibility of HCC cells to NK lysis...
May 26, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550490/the-use-of-temporary-fecal-diversion-in-colonic-and-perianal-crohn-s-disease-does-not-improve-outcomes
#15
Andrea C Bafford, Anastasiya Latushko, Natasha Hansraj, Guruprasad Jambaulikar, Leyla J Ghazi
AIMS: To determine whether temporary fecal diversion for refractory colonic and/or perianal Crohn's disease can lead to clinical remission and restoration of intestinal continuity after optimization of medical therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively maintained database of patients treated at the University of Maryland for Crohn's disease between May 2004 and July 2014. Patients with colonic, perianal, or colonic and perianal Crohn's disease, who had fecal diversion for control of medically refractory and/or severe disease, were included...
May 26, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550396/genistein-protects-against-ox-ldl-induced-inflammation-through-microrna-155-socs1-mediated-repression-of-nf-%C3%A4-b-signaling-pathway-in-huvecs
#16
Huaping Zhang, Zhenxiang Zhao, Xuefen Pang, Jian Yang, Haixia Yu, Yinhong Zhang, Hui Zhou, Jiahui Zhao
Genistein plays an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully investigated. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with genistein (10, 100, and 1000 nM) for 6 h and then exposed to ox-LDL (50 mg/L) for another 24 h. Results showed that ox-LDL induced the expressions of E-selectin, P-selectin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-8, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which were counteracted by genistein...
May 27, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550293/stochastic-sensing-of-angiotensin-ii-with-lysenin-channels
#17
Nisha Shrestha, Sheenah L Bryant, Christopher Thomas, Devon Richtsmeier, Xinzhu Pu, Juliette Tinker, Daniel Fologea
The ability of pore-forming proteins to interact with various analytes has found vast applicability in single molecule sensing and characterization. In spite of their abundance in organisms from all kingdoms of life, only a few pore-forming proteins have been successfully reconstituted in artificial membrane systems for sensing purposes. Lysenin, a pore-forming toxin extracted from the earthworm E. fetida, inserts large conductance nanopores in lipid membranes containing sphingomyelin. Here we show that single lysenin channels may function as stochastic nanosensors by allowing the short cationic peptide angiotensin II to be electrophoretically driven through the conducting pathway...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550283/high-resolution-bioelectrical-imaging-of-a%C3%AE-induced-network-dysfunction-on-cmos-meas-for-neurotoxicity-and-rescue-studies
#18
Hayder Amin, Thierry Nieus, Davide Lonardoni, Alessandro Maccione, Luca Berdondini
Neurotoxicity and the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ) peptides are associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlate with neuronal activity and network dysfunctions, ultimately leading to cellular death. However, research on neurodegenerative diseases is hampered by the paucity of reliable readouts and experimental models to study such functional decline from an early onset and to test rescue strategies within networks at cellular resolution. To overcome this important obstacle, we demonstrate a simple yet powerful in vitro AD model based on a rat hippocampal cell culture system that exploits large-scale neuronal recordings from 4096-electrodes on CMOS-chips for electrophysiological quantifications...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550271/the-pleiotropic-vasoprotective-functions-of-high-density-lipoproteins-hdl
#19
Boyce Guilaine, Button Emily, Soo Sonja, Wellington Cheryl
The pleiotropic functions of circulating high density lipoprotein (HDL) on peripheral vascular health are well established. HDL plays a pivotal role in reverse cholesterol transport and is also known to suppress inflammation, endothelial activation and apoptosis in peripheral vessels. Although not expressed in the central nervous system, HDL has nevertheless emerged as a potential resilience factor for dementia in multiple epidemiological studies. Animal model data specifically support a role for HDL in attenuating the accumulation of β-amyloid within cerebral vessels concomitant with reduced neuroinflammation and improved cognitive performance...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550255/sembragiline-in-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-ii-trial-mayflower-road
#20
Stephane Nave, Rachelle S Doody, Mercè Boada, Timo Grimmer, Juha-Matti Savola, Paul Delmar, Meike Pauly-Evers, Tania Nikolcheva, Christian Czech, Edilio Borroni, Benedicte Ricci, Juergen Dukart, Marie Mannino, Tracie Carey, Emma Moran, Inma Gilaberte, Nicoletta Milani Muelhardt, Irene Gerlach, Luca Santarelli, Susanne Ostrowitzki, Paulo Fontoura
BACKGROUND: Sembragiline is a potent, selective, long-acting, and reversible MAO-B inhibitor developed as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of sembragiline in patients with moderate AD. METHODS: In this Phase II study (NCT01677754), 542 patients with moderate dementia (MMSE 13-20) on background acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with/without memantine were randomized (1:1:1) to sembragiline 1 mg, 5 mg, or placebo once daily orally for 52 weeks...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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