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"Betel nut"

Sameer Shaikh, Mohammad Aljanakh, Ibrahim Khalil Al Ibrahim, Mohammad Sohail Memon
Numerous substances may have an adverse influence on the oral region by virtue of their potentially harmful effects. Dental practitioners are often the first to see these effects in the head and neck region. Knowledge of the damaging consequences of agents such as alcohol, tobacco, areca nut, medications, alcohol-containing mouthwashes, dental devices and materials can assist the practitioners in clinical decision-making and accurate diagnosis of associated lesions. More importantly, timely diagnosis and prompt reporting of such harmful effects improve the quality of care...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Rashmi Metgud, C J Murugesh, B N Shiva Kumar, N K Priya, P Rashmi, Smitha Naik, Aniruddh Tak
Aims: To assess the prevalence, knowledge, and attitude of gutkha chewing among school children of Arsikere, India. Materials and Methods: Two thousand school children aged between 10 and 15 years were examined with individual interviews along with a questionnaire to evaluate the presence of betel nut and paan chewing habit in various forms. Children of both sexes were included in the study. Responses of all study population and the association between dependent and explanatory variables were assessed using Chi-square test...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Yu-Hua Chu, Lee Wang, Pei-Chieh Ko, Shou-Jen Lan, Yung-Po Liaw
Background and Aim: The association of betel nut with liver cirrhosis among alcohol drinkers has been clearly shown. However, very few studies have shown such an association among non-alcohol drinkers. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between betel nut chewing and cirrhosis among non-alcohol drinkers. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed data retrieved from the 2012 Adult Preventive Medical Services and the National Health Insurance Research Datasets in Taiwan...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
A Lindemann, H Takahashi, A A Patel, A A Osman, J N Myers
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer worldwide and in the United States. OSCC remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancers. Tobacco and alcohol consumption alone or with chewing betel nut are potential risk factors contributing to the high prevalence of OSCC. Multimodality therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, biologic therapy, and radiotherapy, particularly intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), are the current treatments for OSCC patients...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Meng Wang, Si-Yi Yu, Zheng-Tao Lv, Ying Yao
PURPOSE: To investigate and quantify the potential association between betel nut chewing and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We searched five online databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Wanfang and CNKI to identify observational studies that published prior to May, 1, 2017. The primary outcome was the association between betel nut chewing and CKD expressed as odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) after adjustment for other covariates...
February 13, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Andrea Hettmann, Anett Demcsák, Ádám Bach, Gábor Decsi, Ágnes Dencs, Dóra Pálinkó, László Rovó, Gabriella Terhes, Edit Urbán, Krisztina Buzás, Katalin Nagy, Mária Takács, Janos Minarovits
In addition to traditional risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and betel nut use, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection also plays a role in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Although among European countries the highest incidence and mortality rates of head and neck cancer types were recorded in Hungary, data regarding HPV prevalence in HNSCCs is scarce. We collected biopsy and saliva samples from patients diagnosed with HNSCC or oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and tested them for the presence of HPV using the PCR consensus primer set MY09/11 and the GP5+/6+ primer pair...
January 31, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Malika Faouzi, Ram P Neupane, Jian Yang, Philip Williams, Reinhold Penner
Betel nut consumption has significant implications for the public health globally, as the wide-spread habit of Areca chewing throughout Asia and the Pacific is associated with a high prevalence of oral carcinoma and other diseases. Despite a clear causal association of betel nut chewing and oral mucosal diseases, the biological mechanisms that link Areca nut-contained molecules, inflammation and cancer remain underexplored. In this study we show that the whole Areca nut extract (ANE) is capable of mobilizing Ca2+ in various immune cell lines...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
R Karthik, N Mohan
Background: The practice of betel nut chewing with or without tobacco is still practiced in south india, salem inspite of its harmful effects. Methodology: 200 Patients visiting the outpatient department, Oral medicine and radiology from Aug 2015 to Aug 2016. Result and Conclusion: In our study, 3 women were exclusively churut smokers. Thirty-eight percent of the dental patients were beedi smoker, 32% were tobacco chewers, 12% were both betel nut and tobacco chewers, 8% were exclusively betel nut chewers, 1% of the dental population were exclusively churut smokers...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Romi Dasgupta, Indraneel Saha, Aniruddha Maity, Prajna Paramita Ray, B R Maiti
Betel nut of Areca catechu is chewed by millions of people for increased capacity to work and stress reduction, but it contains arecoline that causes hypothyroidism. The aim is to investigate the role of arecoline on thyroid activity in cold stress in mice. Arecoline treatment (10 mg/kg body wt/day, for 7 d) caused a reduction in thyroid weight and ultrastructural degeneration of thyro-follicular cells with depletion of T3 and T4 levels compared with the control mice. Cold stress (4 °C for 2 h, twice daily, for 7 d) stimulated thyroid activity ultrastructurally with an elevation of T3 and T4 levels...
December 26, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Sapna Khowal, Samar Husain Naqvi, Seema Monga, Swatantra Kumar Jain, Saima Wajid
The intriguing molecular pathways involved in oral carcinogenesis are still ambiguous. The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) ranks as the most common type constituting more than 90% of the globally diagnosed oral cancers cases. The elevation in the OSCC incidence rate during past ten years has an alarming impression on human healthcare. The major challenges associated with OSCC include delayed diagnosis, high metastatic rates, and low five-year survival rates. The present work foundations on reverse genetic strategy and involves the identification of genes showing expressional variability in an OSCC case lacking addictive proclivities for tobacco, betel nut and/or alcohol, major etiologies...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Moulshree Kohli, Puneet Ahuja, Monica Mehendiratta, Mohit Sharma, Jahnobi Dutta
Introduction: Micronuclei (MNi) are acentric chromatid or chromosome fragments produced via genetic damage through genotoxic agents contained in tobacco and betel nut. Evidently, the various Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMDs) like oral lichen Planus, oral leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) demonstrate MNi, as a substantiation of genetic damage. As these changes can be easily appreciated in oral exfoliated cells, an exfoliated cell based MNi assay might be utilized as handy and non invasive biomonitoring tool for gauging the genetic damage and hence the propensity for malignant transformation in OPMDs...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Lucy L Shi, Ella Bradford, Danielle E Depalo, Amy Y Chen
Betel nut (BN) is a psychoactive oral carcinogen that is commonly used among Asian communities. This study aims to investigate BN usage patterns and the effectiveness of a visually guided educational initiative in a high-risk refugee population. All adult patients presenting to a private practice clinic, free community clinic, or health fair in the refugee community of Clarkston, Georgia during days when survey staff were present were approached for the study. Participants were first categorized into a familiar and unfamiliar cohort depending on participant-reported familiarity with BN...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Yvette C Paulino, Eric L Hurwitz, Joanne C Ogo, Tristan C Paulino, Ashley B Yamanaka, Rachel Novotny, Lynne R Wilkens, Mary Jane Miller, Neal A Palafox
BACKGROUND: Areca (betel) nut is considered a Group 1 human carcinogen shown to be associated with other chronic diseases in addition to cancer. This paper describes the areca (betel) nut chewing trend in Guam, and health behaviors of chewers in Guam and Saipan. METHODS: The areca (betel) nut module in the Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey was used to calculate the 5-year (2011-2015) chewing trend. To assess the association between areca (betel) nut chewing and health risks in the Mariana Islands, a cross-section of 300 chewers, ≥18years old, were recruited from households in Guam and Saipan...
October 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
Yvette C Paulino, Reynolette Ettienne, Rachel Novotny, Lynne R Wilkens, Moria Shomour, Cecilia Sigrah, Shelley D Remengesau, Emihner L Johnson, Julia M Alfred, Daisy F Gilmatam
BACKGROUND: Chewing areca (betel) nut has been deemed carcinogenic. The practice has become a public health concern in Micronesia. The Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program included an areca (betel) nut questionnaire in a survey of household characteristics in the Freely Associated States (FAS). This paper describes areca (betel) nut chewing practices of adults and the health behaviors of their children. METHODS: A cross-section of 1200 children (2-8 year-olds) and their caregivers in Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Republic of Palau, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and Yap were recruited...
October 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
Rachael T Leon Guerrero, Rachel Novotny, Lynne R Wilkens, Marie Chong, Kami K White, Yurii B Shvetsov, Arielle Buyum, Grazyna Badowski, Michelle Blas-Laguaña
BACKGROUND: Chamorro Pacific Islanders in the Mariana Islands have breast cancer incidence rates similar to, but mortality rates higher than, those of U.S. women. As breast cancer risk factors of women of the Mariana Islands may be unique because of ethnic and cultural differences, we studied established and suspected risk factors for breast cancer in this unstudied population. METHODS: From 2010-2013, we conducted retrospective case-control study of female breast cancer (104 cases and 185 controls) among women in the Mariana Islands...
October 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
Brenda Y Hernandez, Renata A Bordallo, Michael D Green, Robert L Haddock
BACKGROUND: Cancer disparities within and across populations provide insight into the influence of lifestyle, environment, and genetic factors on cancer risk. METHODS: Guam cancer incidence and mortality were compared to that of Hawaii using data from their respective population-based, central cancer registries. RESULTS: In 2009-2013, overall cancer incidence was substantially lower in Guam than in Hawaii for both sexes while overall cancer mortality was higher for Guam males...
October 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
Yasmine Ghantous, Imad Abu Elnaaj
INTRODUCTION: Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world. Despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. The incidence and mortality caused by this tumor show variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed. However, in the last decade an increase was observed in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The main risk factors of head and neck cancer worldwide are smoking and alcohol, as well as DNA oncogenic viruses and habits, such as betel nut...
October 2017: Harefuah
Nicole A Horenstein, Marta Quadri, Clare Stokes, Mohammed Shoaib, Roger L Papke
Introduction: The use of betel quid is the most understudied major addiction in the world. The neuropsychological activity of betel quid has been attributed to alkaloids of Areca catechu. With the goal of developing novel addiction treatments, we evaluate the muscarinic and nicotinic activity of the four major Areca alkaloids: arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine and four structurally related compounds. Methods: Acetylcholine receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied with two-electrode voltage clamp...
October 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Wei-Chin Chang, Chun-Shu Lin, Cheng-Yu Yang, Chih-Kung Lin, Yuan-Wu Chen
OBJECTIVES: Lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a poor prognostic factor. The histopathologic stage (e.g., pN) is used to evaluate the severity of lymph node metastasis; however, the current staging system insufficiently predicts survival and recurrence. We investigated clinical outcomes and lymph node density (LND) in betel nut-chewing individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 389 betel nut-exposed patients with primary OSCC who underwent surgical resection in 2002-2015...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
Md Shahjahan, Md Golam Dostogir Harun, A B M Alauddin Chowdhury, Kapil Ahmed, Hafiz T A Khan
This study explored factors influencing the initiation of smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption in a low socioeconomic urban community in Bangladesh. The study conducted four focus group discussions among 33 informants involves school teachers, community leaders, women, and betel-nut shops owners. The results were prepared by thematic analysis of the transcripts where informants mean age was 30 ( SD ± 6.8) years with varying level of education. Tradition of hospitality, curiosity, offer from an elderly person, and avoiding nausea during pregnancy and at time of quitting smoking were key factors for the initiation of SLT consumption...
January 1, 2017: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
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