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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821523/effectiveness-of-a-pragmatic-school-based-universal-resilience-intervention-in-reducing-tobacco-alcohol-and-illicit-substance-use-in-a-population-of-adolescents-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Rebecca Kate Hodder, Megan Freund, Jenny Bowman, Luke Wolfenden, Elizabeth Campbell, Julia Dray, Christophe Lecathelinais, Christopher Oldmeadow, John Attia, John Wiggers
OBJECTIVES: Initiation of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use typically occurs during adolescence, with the school setting recommended to reduce adolescent substance use. Strengthening individual (eg, problem solving) and environmental (eg, caring relationships at school) resilience protective factors of adolescents has been suggested as a strategy for reducing substance use by adolescents; however, few studies have examined this potential. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal 'resilience' intervention in reducing the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use, and increasing the individual and environmental protective factors of students...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819433/alcohol-consumption-and-lung-cancer-according-to-ile349val-polymorphism-in-adh3-gene-beyond-the-tobacco-smoking-effect
#2
Ana Fernández-Somoano, Sara M Álvarez-Avellón, Ana Souto-García, Jesús Vioque, Eva M Navarrete-Muñoz, Adonina Tardón
Objectives: Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. However, several studies have suggested other factors such as alcohol consumption could also play a role through polymorphisms associated with alcohol metabolism. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and lung cancer according to the Ile349Val polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 3 ADH3 gene. Methods: We carried out a hospital-based case-control study, a total of 402 incident cases of lung cancer and 383 controls were genotyped for the Ile349Val polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818758/phytoremediation-of-arsenic-from-the-contaminated-soil-using-transgenic-tobacco-plants-expressing-acr2-gene-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Noor Nahar, Aminur Rahman, Neelu N Nawani, Sibdas Ghosh, Abul Mandal
We have cloned, characterized and transformed the AtACR2 gene (arsenic reductase 2) of Arabidopsis thaliana into the genome of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var Sumsun). Our results revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants are more tolerant to arsenic than the wild type ones. These plants can grow on culture medium containing 200μM arsenate, whereas the wild type can barely survive under this condition. Furthermore, when exposed to 100μM arsenate for 35days the amount of arsenic accumulated in the shoots of transgenic plants was significantly lower (28μg/g d wt...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818639/addictive-behaviors-and-healthcare-renunciation-for-economic-reasons-in-a-french-population-based-sample
#4
Stéphanie Baggio, Marc Dupuis, Jean-Baptiste Richard, François Beck
BACKGROUND: Healthcare renunciation for economic reasons is a major health concern, but it has been scarcely investigated among drug users, even if drug users constitute a vulnerable population in need of medical care. This study investigated associations of healthcare renunciation for economic reasons and addictive behaviors (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, illicit drug use, and gambling) in a population-based sample of adults living in France, a country with universal health coverage. METHODS: Data were collected using the 2014 Health Barometer, a French cross-sectional survey conducted among a random representative sample of the general population aged 18-64 (n=12,852)...
August 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818563/-lower-lymphocyte-response-in-severe-cases-of-acute-bronchiolitis-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#5
José Miguel Ramos-Fernández, David Moreno-Pérez, Cristina Antúnez-Fernández, Guillermo Milano-Manso, Ana María Cordón-Martínez, Antonio Urda-Cardona
INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchiolitis (AB) of the infant has a serious outcome in 6-16% of the hospital admitted cases. Its pathogenesis and evolution is related to the response of the T lymphocytes. The objective of the present study is to determine if the lower systemic lymphocytic response is related to a worse outcome of AB in hospitalised infants. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective observational-analytical study of cases-controls nested in a cohort of patients admitted due to RSV-AB between the period from October 2010 to March 2015...
August 14, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818250/bars-nightclubs-and-cancer-prevention-new-approaches-to-reduce-young-adult-cigarette-smoking
#6
Pamela M Ling, Louisa M Holmes, Jeffrey W Jordan, Nadra E Lisha, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco contributes to multiple cancers, and it is largely preventable. As overall smoking prevalence in California declines, smoking has become concentrated among high-risk groups. Targeting social/cultural groups (i.e., "peer crowds") that share common values, aspirations, and activities in social venues like bars and nightclubs may reach high-risk young adult smokers. Lack of population data on young adult peer crowds limits the ability to assess the potential reach of such interventions...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818248/cancer-risk-promoting-information-the-communication-environment-of-young-adults
#7
Rachel F McCloud, Racquel E Kohler, K Viswanath
Young adulthood represents a time of myriad transitions, which leave young adults (YAs) more susceptible to the influences of cancer risk-promoting information. The tobacco, alcohol, indoor tanning, and food and beverage industries engage in aggressive marketing strategies through both traditional and social media to target this age group to consume their products, which have known links to cancer. Despite this barrage of messaging, detailed data are lacking on the communication behaviors of subgroups of this diverse age group, particularly those from low SES...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818246/cancer-prevention-during-early-adulthood-highlights-from-a-meeting-of-experts
#8
Dawn M Holman, Mary C White, Meredith L Shoemaker, Greta M Massetti, Mary C Puckett, Claire D Brindis
Using a life course approach, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control and the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors co-hosted a 2-day meeting with 15 multidisciplinary experts to consider evidence linking factors in early adulthood to subsequent cancer risk and strategies for putting that evidence into practice to reduce cancer incidence. This paper provides an overview of key themes from those meeting discussions, drawing attention to the influence that early adulthood can have on lifetime cancer risk and potential strategies for intervention during this phase of life...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818243/mental-health-problems-and-cancer-risk-factors-among-young-adults
#9
Greta M Massetti, Cheryll C Thomas, Jessica King, Kathleen Ragan, Natasha Buchanan Lunsford
INTRODUCTION: Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. METHODS: In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817334/community-health-worker-support-for-disadvantaged-patients-with-multiple-chronic-diseases-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Shreya Kangovi, Nandita Mitra, David Grande, Hairong Huo, Robyn A Smith, Judith A Long
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a community health worker (CHW) intervention improved outcomes in a low-income population with multiple chronic conditions. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind, randomized clinical trial in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (2013-2014). Participants (n = 302) were high-poverty neighborhood residents, uninsured or publicly insured, and diagnosed with 2 or more chronic diseases (diabetes, obesity, tobacco dependence, hypertension). All patients set a disease-management goal...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817323/rural-versus-urban-use-of-traditional-and-emerging-tobacco-products-in-the-united-states-2013-2014
#11
Megan E Roberts, Nathan J Doogan, Cassandra A Stanton, Amanda J Quisenberry, Andrea C Villanti, Diann E Gaalema, Diana R Keith, Allison N Kurti, Alexa A Lopez, Ryan Redner, Antonio Cepeda-Benito, Stephen T Higgins
OBJECTIVES: To examine urban-rural differences in US prevalences of traditional and emerging tobacco product use as well as dual or polytobacco use of these products. METHODS: Our data were derived from wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. We estimated weighted prevalences of adult tobacco use across urban-rural geographies and examined prevalences classified by gender, poverty level, and region of the country. RESULTS: Nationally, cigarette use and smokeless tobacco use, as well as dual or polytobacco use of traditional products, were more prevalent in rural than in urban areas...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816610/tobacco-control-law-implementation-in-a-middle-income-country-transnational-tobacco-control-network-overcoming-tobacco-industry-opposition-in-colombia
#12
Randy Uang, Eric Crosbie, Stanton A Glantz
The objective of this paper is to examine the implementation of Colombia's tobacco control law. Methods involved are triangulated government legislation, news sources, and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Colombia. Colombia, a middle-income country, passed a tobacco control law in 2009 that included a prohibition on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; and required pictorial health warning labels, ingredients disclosure, and a prohibition on individual cigarette sales. Tobacco companies challenged the implementation through litigation, tested government enforcement of advertising provisions and regulations on ingredients disclosure, and lobbied local governments to deprioritise policy responses to single cigarette sales...
August 17, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816572/effects-on-alcohol-consumption-and-alcohol-related-harm-of-a-community-based-prevention-intervention-with-national-support-in-sweden
#13
Tony Nilsson, Peter Allebeck, Håkan Leifman, Sven Andréasson, Thor Norström, Karin Guldbrandsson
BACKGROUND: In order to strengthen local alcohol prevention work in Sweden the Swedish government has for the past almost 15 years commissioned the Public Health Agency of Sweden to initiate a series of community-based alcohol prevention projects. The latest of these, labeled local development with ambitions (LUMA), included 25 municipalities in Sweden. OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to examine if LUMA municipalities that received financial support, with requirements, increased local alcohol prevention and if alcohol consumption and harm declined...
August 17, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816197/cytological-changes-in-normal-oral-mucosa-of-individuals-with-tobacco-habits-a-cytomorphometric-study
#14
Pavan Palakurthy, Pavan G Kulkarni, Rateesh K Nandan, T Madhusudan Rao, D Shyam P Reddy, Keerthi Muddana
INTRODUCTION: Oral cancer is one of the six most common cancers in the world, and globally more than 50% of head and neck cancers occur in Asia, remarkably in India. Overall, 200,000 cases of head and neck cancers occur each year in India, among which 80,000 are oral cancers. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a causative role of tobacco use in the evolution of oral potentially malignant and malignant disorders. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to evaluate independently and compare the cytological effects of smoking, tobacco chewing, and smoking in conjunction with tobacco chewing on oral mucosa by cytomorphometric analysis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816192/tobacco-abuse-and-associated-oral-lesions-among-interstate-migrant-construction-workers
#15
Anzil Ks Ali, Arshad Mohammed, Archana A Thomas, Shann Paul, M Shahul, K Kasim
AIM: The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816053/in-vitro-exposure-systems-and-dosimetry-assessment-tools-for-inhaled-tobacco-products-workshop-proceedings-conclusions-and-paths-forward-for-in-vitro-model-use
#16
Holger Behrsing, Erin Hill, Hans Raabe, Raymond Tice, Suzanne Fitzpatrick, Robert Devlin, Kent Pinkerton, Günter Oberdörster, Chris Wright, Roman Wieczorek, Michaela Aufderheide, Sandro Steiner, Tobias Krebs, Bahman Asgharian, Richard Corley, Michael Oldham, Jason Adamson, Xiang Li, Irfan Rahman, Sonia Grego, Pei-Hsuan Chu, Shaun McCullough, Rodger Curren
In 2009, the passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act facilitated the establishment of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP), and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed 'modified risk'. On 4-6 April 2016, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) convened a workshop conference entitled, In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products, to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia and industry to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA CTP...
July 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815457/overexpression-of-a-peroxidase-gene-atprx64-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-in-tobacco-improves-plant-s-tolerance-to-aluminum-stress
#17
Yuanshuang Wu, Zhili Yang, Jingyi How, Huini Xu, Limei Chen, Kunzhi Li
AtPrx64 is one of the peroxidases gene up-regulated in Al stress and has some functions in the formation of plant second cell wall. Its overexpression may improve plant tolerance to Al by some ways. Studies on its function under Al stress may help us to understand the mechanism of plant tolerance to Al stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the expressions of some genes (AtPrxs) encoding class III plant peroxidases have been found to be either up-regulated or down-regulated under aluminum (Al) stress. Among 73 genes that encode AtPrxs in Arabidopsis, AtPrx64 is always up-regulated by Al stress, suggesting this gene plays protective roles in response to such stress...
August 16, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814454/air-pollution-as-a-catalyst-for-supporting-tobacco-control-policies-evidence-from-a-nationwide-study-on-chinese-medical-students
#18
Xiaozhao Yousef Yang, Tingzhong Yang, Fanhao Nie
PURPOSE: Few studies have discussed how the increasing ambient air pollution may affect policy-related attitudes. Medical professionals constitute an important interest group who analyse and solve public issues within a medicalised framework. The current study investigates whether ambient air pollution is associated with a greater likelihood of supporting tobacco control measures among medical students. METHODS: We conducted multistage sampling among the medical students from 42 cities in China...
August 16, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812817/is-it-time-to-say-farewell-to-the-isds-system-comment-on-the-trans-pacific-partnership-is-it-everything-we-feared-for-health
#19
Raphael Lencucha
Investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) continues to plague health-oriented government regulation. This is particularly reflected in recent challenges to tobacco control measures through bilateral investment agreements. There are numerous reform proposals circulating within the public health community. However, I suggest that perhaps it is time for the community to explore a stronger position on ISDS. I draw from mounting evidence on the problematic uses of the ISDS to explore the proposition that ISDS is no longer justified...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812472/modifiable-risk-factors-associated-with-bronchiolitis
#20
Raffaella Nenna, Renato Cutrera, Antonella Frassanito, Claudia Alessandroni, Ambra Nicolai, Giulia Cangiano, Laura Petrarca, Serena Arima, Serena Caggiano, Nicola Ullman, Paola Papoff, Enea Bonci, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: We sought to clarify possibly modifiable risk factors related to pollution responsible for acute bronchiolitis in hospitalized infants. METHODS: For this observational study, we recruited 213 consecutive infants with bronchiolitis (cases: median age: 2 months; age range: 0.5-12 months; boys: 55.4%) and 213 children aged <3 years (controls: median age: 12 months; age range: 0.5-36 months; boys: 54.5%) with a negative medical history for lower respiratory tract diseases hospitalized at 'Sapienza' University Rome and IRCCS Bambino Gesù Hospital...
August 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
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