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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145626/twelve-month-outcomes-of-a-group-randomized-community-health-advocate-led-smoking-cessation-intervention-in-public-housing
#1
Daniel R Brooks, Joanna L Burtner, Belinda Borrelli, Timothy C Heeren, Tegan Evans, Jessica A Davine, Jonathan Greenbaum, Matthew Scarpaci, John Kane, Vaughan W Rees, Alan C Geller
Background: Lower rates of smoking cessation are a major reason for the higher prevalence of smoking among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults. Because barriers to quitting are both more numerous and severe, socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers may benefit from more intensive intervention. We sought to determine whether a smoking cessation intervention delivered by public housing residents trained as Tobacco Treatment Advocates (TTAs) could increase utilization of cessation resources and increase abstinence...
November 14, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144895/should-the-legal-age-for-tobacco-be-raised-results-from-a-national-sample-of-adolescents
#2
Sarah D Kowitt, Allison M Schmidt, Allison E Myers, Adam O Goldstein
Raising the minimum age of legal access to tobacco products may reduce smoking initiation and save lives. In a national telephone survey (2014-2015), US adolescents aged 13 to 17 years (N = 1,125; response rate, 66%) were asked about raising the age of legal access to tobacco products and randomized to hear one of 3 ages (19, 20, or 21 y). Most adolescents, across all US regions, favored raising the minimum age of legal access to 19 (75.7%), 20 (80.6%), or 21 (76.4%). These supportive attitudes may be useful to tobacco prevention and control practitioners who seek to reduce tobacco use among adolescents...
November 16, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144886/comparative-effectiveness-of-proactive-tobacco-treatment-among-smokers-with-and-without-chronic-lower-respiratory-disease
#3
Anne C Melzer, Barbara Clothier, Sandra J Japuntich, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Patrick Hammett, Diana J Burgess, Anne M Joseph, Steven S Fu
RATIONALE: Adults with chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) differ in their barriers to smoking cessation, but also suffer from tobacco related health concerns, which may motivate quit attempts. Few studies have examined differences in tobacco treatment response between smokers with and without CLRD. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effectiveness of a proactive outreach program for cessation among smokers with and without CLRD. METHODS: Subgroup analysis of the Veterans VICTORY Over Tobacco Study, a pragmatic randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of proactive outreach and the choice of tobacco treatments compared to usual care...
November 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143658/a-key-enzyme-of-animal-steroidogenesis-can-function-in-plants-enhancing-their-immunity-and-accelerating-the-processes-of-growth-and-development
#4
George V Shpakovski, Svetlana G Spivak, Irina N Berdichevets, Olga G Babak, Svetlana V Kubrak, Alexander V Kilchevsky, Andrey V Aralov, Ivan Yu Slovokhotov, Dmitry G Shpakovski, Ekaterina N Baranova, Marat R Khaliluev, Elena K Shematorova
BACKGROUND: The initial stage of the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in animals occurs in the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, where cytochrome P450SCC (CYP11A1) encoded by the CYP11A1 gene catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone - the general precursor of all the steroid hormones, starting with progesterone. This stage is missing in plants where mitochondrial cytochromes P450 (the mito CYP clan) have not been found. Generating transgenic plants with a mitochondrial type P450 from animals would offer an interesting option to verify whether plant mitochondria could serve as another site of P450 monooxygenase reaction for the steroid hormones biosynthesis...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143202/tobacco-plants-expressing-the-maize-nitrate-transporter-zmnrt2-1-exhibit-altered-responses-of-growth-and-gene-expression-to-nitrate-and-calcium
#5
Abubakar Ibrahim, Xiao-Lu Jin, Yu-Bin Zhang, Jessica Cruz, Paveena Vichyavichien, Nwadiuto Esiobu, Xing-Hai Zhang
BACKGROUND: Nitrate uptake is a highly regulated process. Understanding the intricate interactions between nitrate availability and genetically-controlled nitrate acquisition and metabolism is essential for improving nitrogen use efficiency and increasing nitrate uptake capacity for plants grown in both nitrate-poor and nitrate-enriched environments. In this report, we introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) the constitutively expressed maize high-affinity transporter ZmNrt2.1 gene that would bypass the tight control for the endogenous nitrate-responsive genes...
November 15, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141639/tobacco-use-and-health-insurance-literacy-among-vulnerable-populations-implications-for-health-reform
#6
Robert T Braun, Yaniv Hanoch, Andrew J Barnes
BACKGROUND: Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), millions of Americans have been enrolling in the health insurance marketplaces. Nearly 20% of them are tobacco users. As part of the ACA, tobacco users may face up to 50% higher premiums that are not eligible for tax credits. Tobacco users, along with the uninsured and racial/ethnic minorities targeted by ACA coverage expansions, are among those most likely to suffer from low health literacy - a key ingredient in the ability to understand, compare, choose, and use coverage, referred to as health insurance literacy...
November 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140651/fda-required-tobacco-product-inserts-onserts%C3%A2-and-the-first-amendment
#7
Eric N Lindblom, Micah L Berman, James F Thrasher
In 2012, a federal court of appeals struck down an FDA rule requiring graphic health warnings on cigarettes as violating First Amendment commercial speech protections. Tobacco product inserts and onserts can more readily avoid First Amendment constraints while delivering more extensive information to tobacco users, and can work effectively to support and encourage smoking cessation. This paper examines FDA’s authority to require effective inserts and onserts and shows how FDA could design and support them to avoid First Amendment problems...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140104/corrective-statements-from-the-tobacco-industry-more-evidence-for-why-we-need-effective-tobacco-control
#8
Harold J Farber, Enid R Neptune, Gary W Ewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138736/prevalence-of-tobacco-smoking-and-factors-associated-with-the-initiation-of-smoking-among-university-students-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#9
Sahadat Hossain, Shakhaoat Hossain, Fahad Ahmed, Rabiul Islam, Tajuddin Sikder, Abdur Rahman
Introuduction: Tobacco smoking is considered to be the key preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality at the global level. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and factors associated with the initiation of smoking among university students in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted with 264 students of Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2015. A standard, self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on socio-demographic variables, tobacco smoking status, family and peer tobacco smoking history, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco smoking, as well as knowledge about the negative health consequences of tobacco smoking was administered to participants...
2017: Central Asian Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137678/disentangling-regional-trade-agreements-trade-flows-and-tobacco-affordability-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Adriana Appau, Jeffrey Drope, Ronald Labonté, Michal Stoklosa, Raphael Lencucha
BACKGROUND: In principle, trade and investment agreements are meant to boost economic growth. However, the removal of trade barriers and the provision of investment incentives to attract foreign direct investments may facilitate increased trade in and/or more efficient production of commodities considered harmful to health such as tobacco. We analyze existing evidence on trade and investment liberalization and its relationship to tobacco trade in Sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: We compare tobacco trading patterns to foreign direct investments made by tobacco companies...
November 14, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137467/evaluation-of-serum-copper-level-in-naswar-smokeless-tobacco-addicts-using-flame-atomic-absorption-spectroscopy
#11
Asmat Ullah, Abad Khan, Zafar Iqbal, Ismail Khan
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse and its consequences are a matter of great concern in South-East Asian countries, especially Pakistan and Afghanistan. Due to contamination of Naswar with copper, or by any other physiological mechanism, there is a great chance of copper poisoning in addicts. Keeping in view the literature, there is no comparative study on serum copper levels (SCuL) in Naswar addicts. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate SCuL in this population. METHODS: The current study was performed in September 2016 where a total of 75 volunteers (selected from villages near the University of Peshawar, Pakistan) were grouped as Naswar addicts (n = 45) and the control group (n = 30)...
October 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137277/ningnanmycin-inhibits-tobacco-mosaic-virus-virulence-by-binding-directly-to-its-coat-protein-discs
#12
Xiangyang Li, Gefei Hao, Qingmin Wang, Zhuo Chen, Yan Ding, Lu Yu, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) causes severe plant diseases worldwide; however, effective antiviral agents for controlling TMV infections are not available. This lack of effective antiviral agents is mainly due to the poor understanding of potential targets associated with TMV infections. During infection, the coat protein (CP), which is delivered by viral particles into susceptible host cells, provides protection for viral RNA. Here, we found that Ningnanmycin (NNM), a commercially used plant antibacterial agent, inhibits the assembly of the CP by directly binding several residues...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136217/smoking-cessation-benefit-utilization-comparing-methodologies-for-measurement-using-new-york-state-s-medicaid-data
#13
Kevin Malloy, Anisa Proj, Haven Battles, Theresa Juster, Christina Ortega-Peluso, Meng Wu, Harlan Juster
Introduction: Pharmacotherapy and counseling for tobacco cessation are evidence based methods that increase successful smoking cessation attempts. Medicaid programs are required to provide coverage for smoking cessation services. Monitoring utilization is desirable for program evaluation and quality improvement. Various methodologies have been used to study utilization. Many factors can influence results, perhaps none more than how smokers are identified. This study evaluated utilization of smoking cessation services using various methods to estimate the number of smokers within New York State's (NYS's) Medicaid program in 2015...
November 9, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135700/safety-outcomes-following-spine-and-cranial-neurosurgery-evidence-from-the-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program
#14
Andrew K Rock, Charles F Opalak, Kathryn G Workman, William C Broaddus
BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) was used to establish predictors for 30-day postoperative complications following spine and cranial neurosurgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ACS-NSQIP participant use files were queried for neurosurgical cases between 2005 and 2015. Prevalence of postoperative complications following neurosurgery was determined. Nested multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify demographic, comorbidity, and perioperative characteristics associated with any complication and mortality for spine and cranial surgery...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135582/hiv-is-associated-with-airway-obstruction-a-matched-controlled-study
#15
Alain Makinson, Maurice Hayot, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Céline Ribet, François Raffi, Gilles Pialoux, David Zucman, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Fabrice Bonnet, Sophie Abgrall, Pierre Tattevin, Antoine Cheret, Tristan Ferry, Jean-Marc Mauboussin, Lucie Marchand, Claire Rouzaud, Jacques Reynes, Marie Zins, Vincent Le Moing
OBJECTIVE: to explore whether airway obstruction (AO) is associated with HIV in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected smokers. METHODS: People living with HIV (PLWHIV) participated in the ANRS EP48 HIV CHEST study, an early lung cancer diagnosis study with low dose Chest Tomography. HIV-uninfected subjects were from the CONSTANCES cohort. Inclusion criteria were an age > 40 years, a smoking history ≥20 pack-years, and for PLWHIV, a CD4 T-lymphocyte nadir < 350/μl and last CD4 cell count > 100 cells/μl...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135396/serum-telomerase-levels-in-smokers-and-smokeless-tobacco-users-as-maras-powder
#16
Fulsen Bozkuş, Nurhan Atilla, Seçil Şimşek, Ergül Kurutaş, Anıl Samur, Hüseyin Arpağ, Hasan Kahraman
Introduction: To the best of our knowledge, no previous study regarding the serum telomerase levels in Maras powder users (MPUs) has been founded. The aim of the current study was to investigate serum telomerase levels in smokers and MPUs. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out with 98 patients (36 MPUs, 32 smokers and 30 non-smokers). Blood samples were collected, and after having measured the serum telomerase and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the patients, comparison were made between the groups...
September 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134653/association-between-environmental-factors-including-second-hand-smoke-and-primary-lung-cancer-in-dogs
#17
A Zierenberg-Ripoll, R E Pollard, S L Stewart, S D Allstadt, L E Barrett, J M Gillem, K A Skorupski
OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and other environmental toxins in dogs with primary lung tumours and to analyse association between exposure and lung tumour development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this case-control study, an owner survey was developed to collect data on patient characteristics, general health care and environmental exposures. Dogs diagnosed with primary lung carcinomas formed the Case group. Dogs diagnosed with mast cell tumours served as Control Group 1 and dogs diagnosed with neurologic disease served as Control Group 2...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132954/weight-status-and-cigarette-and-electronic-cigarette-use-in-adolescents
#18
Joanne Delk, MeLisa R Creamer, Cheryl L Perry, Melissa B Harrell
INTRODUCTION: Research shows that adolescents who are overweight or obese may be at greater risk of cigarette smoking, and that this relationship may vary by gender. However, this relationship is understudied for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Given the high rate of adolescent obesity and the rise in e-cigarette use in adolescents, this relationship should be investigated. METHODS: Data are from the third wave (collected October 2015-January 2016) of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance system...
November 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130031/the-use-of-tobacco-tax-revenues-to-fund-the-guam-cancer-registry-a-double-win-for-cancer-control
#19
Annette M David, Robert L Haddock, Renata Bordallo, Janet T Dirige, Les Mery
Cancer registries that provide reliable data on cancer incidence, mortality and burden are essential to cancer control. However, establishing sustainable local funding mechanisms to support cancer registries remains a challenge in many countries. Guam, an unincorporated Territory of the United States of America in the Western Pacific, enacted a bill that raised tobacco taxes, and earmarked a percentage of tobacco tax revenues to support its Cancer Registry. This provided a reliable funding stream for the Registry, allowing for continued staffing and capacity building; at the same time, youth tobacco consumption decreased following the tax increase...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128712/the-impact-of-a-brief-cessation-induction-intervention-for-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Eleanor L S Leavens, Ellen Meier, Alayna P Tackett, Mary Beth Miller, Noor N Tahirkheli, Emma I Brett, Dana M Carroll, Leslie M Driskill, Michael P Anderson, Theodore L Wagener
BACKGROUND: Waterpipe (WP) tobacco smoking delivers many of the same harmful toxicants as cigarette smoking and is on the rise in the US. This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a brief personalized feedback intervention in affecting changes in WP smoking among current WP smokers. METHODS: Participants (N=109) were recruited as they entered WP lounges and completed a questionnaire and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) testing before entering the WP lounge...
October 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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