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tobacco control

Yanping Chen, Yingjun Chi, Qingchang Meng, Xiaolin Wang, Deyue Yu
In plants, various proteins are regulated by the ubiquitin-mediated system in response to different environmental stresses, such as drought, cold and heat. The Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complex, one of the multisubunit E3 ligases, has been shown to be involved in abiotic response pathways. In this study, Glycine max SKP1-like 1 (GmSK1), which had the typical characteristics of an SKP1 protein, with an alpha/beta structure, targeted to the cytoplasm and nucleus, was isolated from soybean [Glycine max (L.)]. GmSK1 was constitutively expressed in all the tested tissues, especially in the roots...
March 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yue Zhang, Jian-Song Ren, Hui-Yao Huang, Ju-Fang Shi, Ni Li, Yawei Zhang, Min Dai
Lung cancer is the commonly diagnosed cancer and one of the most important avoidable causes of death around the world. We conducted the study to investigate the pattern of lung cancer incidence worldwide. Joinpoint analysis was used to extend international lung cancer incidence rates by the latest data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents over the 35-year period 1973-2007 from 24 populations from Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of lung cancer were from 33.3 to 66...
March 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Roberta Pastorino, Anna Puggina, Robert Carreras-Torres, Pagona Lagiou, Ivana Holcátová, Lorenzo Richiardi, Kristina Kjaerheim, Antonio Agudo, Xavier Castellsagué, Tatiana V Macfarlane, Luigi Barzan, Cristina Canova, Nalin S Thakker, David I Conway, Ariana Znaor, Claire M Healy, Wolfgang Ahrens, David Zaridze, Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Jolanta Lissowska, Eleonora Fabianova, Ioan Nicolae Mates, Vladimir Bencko, Lenka Foretova, Vladimir Janout, Paul Brennan, Valérie Gaborieau, James D McKay, Stefania Boccia
With the aim to dissect the effect of adult height on head and neck cancer (HNC), we use the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to test the association between genetic instruments for height and the risk of HNC. 599 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as genetic instruments for height, accounting for 16% of the phenotypic variation. Genetic data concerning HNC cases and controls were obtained from a genome-wide association study. Summary statistics for genetic association were used in complementary MR approaches: the weighted genetic risk score (GRS) and the inverse-variance weighted (IVW)...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Becky Freeman, Suzan Burton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Shannon M Melody, Veronica Martin-Gall, Ben Harding, Mark Gk Veitch
OBJECTIVES: To describe the retail availability of tobacco and to examine the association between tobacco outlet density and area-level remoteness and socio-economic status classification in Tasmania. DESIGN: Ecological cross-sectional study; analysis of tobacco retail outlet data collected by the Department of Health and Human Services (Tasmania) according to area-level (Statistical Areas Level 2) remoteness (defined by the Remoteness Structure of the Australian Statistical Geographical Standard) and socio-economic status (defined by the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage)...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Kevin D Everett, Ginny Chadwick, Stanley R Cowan, Emily Kinkade
Tobacco control policies reduce the health and economic burden caused by tobacco. With over half of the United States communities lacking adequate protective policies, an examination of policy adoption factors can provide insights to facilitate policy adoption. A case study approach examines the rate of adoption, prominent media frames, policy leaders' perceptions and coalition activities for smokefree and Tobacco 21 policies adopted in Missouri. Findings show compared to smokefree policy, Tobacco 21 requires a considerably shorter timeframe and fewer resources for adoption...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Naowarut Charoenca, Nipapun Kungskulniti, Duangkamon Sritabutra, Siriwan Pitayarangsarit, Stephen L Hamann
Background: Because implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization (WHO) treaty to reduce tobacco use, is an important goal of the 2015 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Thailand has sought to fully comply with all its articles, a multiperspective assessment was developed to ensure that any gaps in compliance with FCTC provisions were identified and addressed. Method: One assessment mechanism of this multicomponent assessment was the development by experts and use by stakeholders of a 3-tiered rating of all major provisions of the main articles of the FCTC...
2018: Tobacco Use Insights
Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale, Dipak V Parmar, Parth Kavathia, Twinkle Rangnani, Jainy Thakkar, Girija Kartha
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Maxine D Fisher, Ancilla W Fernandes, Temitope O Olufade, Paul J Miller, Mark S Walker, Moon Fenton
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to describe patient characteristics, health resource utilization (HRU), and costs associated with treating recurrent or refractory head and neck cancer (HNC) among patients with disease progression in the community oncology setting. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted by using data from the Vector Oncology Data Warehouse. Patients had been diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic (stage III-IVc) HNC between January 1, 2007, and October 1, 2015...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Julianne Payne, Laurie Cluff, Jason Lang, Dyann Matson-Koffman, Antonio Morgan-Lopez
PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of elements of a workplace culture of health (COH) on employees' perceptions of employer support for health and lifestyle risk. DESIGN: We used 2013 and 2015 survey data from the National Healthy Worksite Program, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led initiative to help workplaces implement health-promoting interventions. SETTING: Forty-one employers completed the CDC Worksite Health Scorecard to document organizational changes...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Siddharth A Mahure, Joseph A Bosco, James D Slover, Jonathan Vigdorchik, Richard Iorio, Ran Schwarzkopf
BACKGROUND: Individuals coinfected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV represent a unique and growing population of patients undergoing orthopaedic surgical procedures. Data regarding complications for HCV monoinfection or HIV monoinfection are robust, but there are no data available, to our knowledge, on patients who have both HCV and HIV infections. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We sought to determine whether patients with coinfection differed in terms of baseline demographics and comorbidity burden as compared with patients without coinfection and whether these potential differences were translated into varying levels of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmission risk...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Sabeeh A Baig, M Justin Byron, Allison J Lazard, Noel T Brewer
Introduction: The U.S. Tobacco Control Act restricts advertising or labeling that suggests one tobacco product is less harmful than another. We sought to examine how "organic," "natural," and "additive-free" advertising claims and corresponding disclaimers affect perceptions of cigarettes' harm. Methods: Participants were a national probability sample of adults in the U.S. (n = 1,114, including 344 smokers). We conducted a 5 (claim) × 2 (disclaimer) between-subjects factorial experiment...
February 26, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Mary E Cooley, Hermine Poghosyan, Kim Sprunck-Harrild, Jonathan P Winickoff, Stephen B Edge, Karen M Emmons
Cancer survivors are a rapidly growing population and an important target for tobacco treatment interventions. Continued smoking after the diagnosis of cancer is associated with a higher risk of cancer recurrence and mortality. Systematic tobacco cessation programs are effective. This study surveyed American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer (CoC) programs in the Northeast region of the USA regarding their tobacco control programs. Seventy percent of cancer survivors are treated within CoC programs. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent of implementation of tobacco treatment and determine the organizational delivery of tobacco treatment as measured by the presence of goals to address smoking, leadership support, and integration of tobacco treatment guidelines into care delivery...
March 8, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Robin Newhouse, Ha Do Byon, Emily Storkman Wolf, Meg Johantgen
PROBLEM: High-quality smoking cessation counseling guidelines for people who use tobacco are not fully integrated in acute-care services presenting missed opportunities to improve health outcomes. The role of the practice environment on enhancing or inhibiting guideline use is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the nurse practice environment and nurses' use of smoking cessation counseling practices, and to evaluate the effect of the individual nurse and organization characteristics on nurse smoking cessation counseling practices...
March 12, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Luke N Allen, Jessica Pullar, Kremlin Khamarj Wickramasinghe, Julianne Williams, Nia Roberts, Bente Mikkelsen, Cherian Varghese, Nick Townsend
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with low-income and middle-income countries experiencing a disproportionately high burden. Since 2010 WHO has promoted 24 highly cost-effective interventions for NCDs, dubbed 'best buys'. It is unclear whether these interventions have been evaluated in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs). Aim: To systematically review research on interventions aligned to WHO 'best buys' for NCDs in LLMICs...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Hyun G Kong, Teak S Shin, Tae H Kim, Choong-Min Ryu
The volatile compound 2,3-butanediol, which is produced by certain strains of root-associated bacteria, consists of three stereoisomers, namely, two enantiomers (2R,3R- and 2S,3S-butanediol) and one meso compound (2R,3S-butanediol). The ability of 2,3-butanediol to induce plant resistance against pathogenic fungi and bacteria has been investigated; however, little is known about its effects on induced resistance against viruses in plants. To investigate the effects of 2,3-butanediol on plant systemic defense against viruses, we evaluated the disease control capacity of each of its three stereoisomers in pepper...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
M C Jiménez-González, D Santiago-Germán, E F Castillo-Henkel, J A Alvarado-Moreno, J Hernández-Juárez, A Leaños-Miranda, A Majluf-Cruz, I Isordia-Salas
INTRODUCTION: Numerous polymorphisms in candidate genes coding for haemostatic system proteins have been proposed as risk factors for thrombosis. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of consecutive ischaemic stroke survivors aged ≤ 45 years, treated at our neurology department from 2006 to 2014. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism identified the following polymorphisms: Thr325Ile and Ala147Thr in TAFI, 4G/5G in PAI-1, PLA1/A2 in platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, Glu298Asp in eNOS, and C677T in 5,10-MTHFR...
March 8, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Sebastian Łaźniak, Anna Lutkowska, Żaneta Wareńczak-Florczak, Anna Sowińska, Alexander Tsibulski, Andrzej Roszak, Stefan Sajdak, Pawel P Jagodziński
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported a significant contribution of NC_000008.10:g.128413305 G>T (rs6983267) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MYC enhancer region to the susceptibility of various cancers. However, the role of rs6983267 SNP in cervical cancer (CC) development and progression has not been demonstrated to date. Therefore, we evaluated the role of rs6983267 SNP in MYC expression in cervical cancers and non-cancerous cervical tissues. In addition, we assessed the role of this SNP in the development and progression of CC...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Marlies Hesselman, Brigit Toebes
This Commentary forms a response to Nikogosian's and Kickbusch's forward-looking perspective about the legal strength of international health instruments. Building on their arguments, in this commentary we consider what we can learn from the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) for the adoption of new legal international health instruments.
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Jorge Del Cueto, Birger Lindberg Møller, Federico Dicenta, Raquel Sánchez-Pérez
Almond bitterness is the most important trait for breeding programs since bitter-kernelled seedlings are usually discarded. Amygdalin and its precursor prunasin are hydrolyzed by specific enzymes called β-glucosidases. In order to better understand the genetic control of almond bitterness, some studies have shown differences in the location of prunasin hydrolases (PH, the β-glucosidase that degrades prunasin) in sweet and bitter genotypes. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize different PHs in sweet- and bitter-kernelled almonds to determine whether differences in their genomic or protein sequences are responsible for the sweet or bitter taste of their seeds...
December 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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