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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092681/genomic-analysis-of-globally-diverse-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-provides-insights-into-the-emergence-and-spread-of-multidrug-resistance
#1
Abigail L Manson, Keira A Cohen, Thomas Abeel, Christopher A Desjardins, Derek T Armstrong, Clifton E Barry, Jeannette Brand, Sinéad B Chapman, Sang-Nae Cho, Andrei Gabrielian, James Gomez, Andreea M Jodals, Moses Joloba, Pontus Jureen, Jong Seok Lee, Lesibana Malinga, Mamoudou Maiga, Dale Nordenberg, Ecaterina Noroc, Elena Romancenco, Alex Salazar, Willy Ssengooba, A A Velayati, Kathryn Winglee, Aksana Zalutskaya, Laura E Via, Gail H Cassell, Susan E Dorman, Jerrold Ellner, Parissa Farnia, James E Galagan, Alex Rosenthal, Valeriu Crudu, Daniela Homorodean, Po-Ren Hsueh, Sujatha Narayanan, Alexander S Pym, Alena Skrahina, Soumya Swaminathan, Martie Van der Walt, David Alland, William R Bishai, Ted Cohen, Sven Hoffner, Bruce W Birren, Ashlee M Earl
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), caused by drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an increasingly serious problem worldwide. Here we examined a data set of whole-genome sequences from 5,310 M. tuberculosis isolates from five continents. Despite the great diversity of these isolates with respect to geographical point of isolation, genetic background and drug resistance, the patterns for the emergence of drug resistance were conserved globally. We have identified harbinger mutations that often precede multidrug resistance...
January 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049716/sideroflexin-3-is-a-%C3%AE-synuclein-dependent-mitochondrial-protein-that-regulates-synaptic-morphology
#2
Inês S Amorim, Laura C Graham, Roderick N Carter, Nicholas M Morton, Fella Hammachi, Tilo Kunath, Giuseppa Pennetta, Sarah M Carpanini, Jean C Manson, Douglas J Lamont, Thomas M Wishart, Thomas H Gillingwater
α-synuclein plays a central role in Parkinson's disease, where it contributes to the vulnerability of synapses to degeneration. However, the downstream mechanisms through which α-synuclein controls synaptic stability and degeneration are not fully understood. Here, comparative proteomics on synapses isolated from α-synuclein(-/-) mouse brain identified mitochondrial proteins as primary targets of α-synuclein, revealing 37 mitochondrial proteins not previously linked to α-synuclein or neurodegeneration pathways...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049454/identifying-mechanisms-for-facilitating-knowledge-to-action-strategies-targeting-the-built-environment
#3
Ghazal S Fazli, Maria I Creatore, Flora I Matheson, Sara Guilcher, Vered Kaufman-Shriqui, Heather Manson, Ashley Johns, Gillian L Booth
BACKGROUND: In recent years, obesity-related diseases have been on the rise globally resulting in major challenges for health systems and society as a whole. Emerging research in population health suggests that interventions targeting the built environment may help reduce the burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, translation of the evidence on the built environment into effective policy and planning changes requires engagement and collaboration between multiple sectors and government agencies for designing neighborhoods that are more conducive to healthy and active living...
January 3, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039414/eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-presenting-with-a-vesicovaginal-fistula
#4
Bamidele Famokunwa, Jeremy Ockrim, Jessica J Manson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018887/residents-of-highly-walkable-neighbourhoods-in-canadian-urban-areas-do-substantially-more-physical-activity-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#5
Justin Thielman, Heather Manson, Maria Chiu, Ray Copes, Laura C Rosella
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that neighbourhood walkability is associated with small differences in physical activity; however, the health impacts of these small differences have been questioned. We examined the size of the association of walkability with accelerometer-measured physical activity in a large, national-level Canadian population, and compared results to physical activity levels recommended in international guidelines. Our primary objective was to investigate the direction and size of the differences in physical activity that were related to walkability, and whether these differences depended on age...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008638/when-is-a-choice-not-a-choice-sham-offers-and-the-asymmetry-of-adolescent-consent-and-refusal
#6
Neil C Manson
In some jurisdictions there is a puzzling asymmetry between consent and refusal, where, for some kinds of treatment, the adolescent patient has the power to permit her own treatment but her refusal does not have the same kind of normative significance as refusal of treatment by a competent adult. In this journal I recently offered a clarification and defence of this asymmetry in terms of a paternalistic justification of the sharing of normative powers between adolescents and other parties. Lawlor (2016) offers a number of objections to this account...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002287/salpingo-oophorectomy-at-the-time-of-benign-hysterectomy-a-systematic-review
#7
William H Parker, Michael S Broder, Jonathan S Berek, JoAnn E Manson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999982/the-prognostic-effect-of-ddx3-upregulation-in-distant-breast-cancer-metastases
#8
Marise R Heerma van Voss, Willemijne A M E Schrijver, Natalie D Ter Hoeve, Laurien D Hoefnagel, Quirine F Manson, Elsken van der Wall, Venu Raman, Paul J van Diest
Metastatic breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of death in women and identification of novel treatment targets is therefore warranted. Functional studies showed that the RNA helicase DDX3 promotes metastasis, but DDX3 expression was never studied in patient samples of metastatic cancer. In order to validate previous functional studies and to evaluate DDX3 as a potential therapeutic target, we investigated DDX3 expression in paired samples of primary and metastatic breast cancer. Samples from 79 breast cancer patients with distant metastases at various anatomical sites were immunohistochemically stained for DDX3...
December 20, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959647/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-there-really-a-pandemic
#9
JoAnn E Manson, Patsy M Brannon, Clifford J Rosen, Christine L Taylor
In recent years, numerous clinical research articles have concluded that large proportions of North American and global populations are "deficient" in vitamin D. Most of the evidence cited focuses on one of two observations: that many people have serum concentrations of vitamin D (i.e...
November 10, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955824/assessment-of-trochanteric-osteotomy-fragment-union-after-acetabular-fracture-surgery
#10
Andrew G Dubina, Niluka Wickramaratne, Robert V O'Toole, Theodore T Manson
BACKGROUND: Trochanteric osteotomies are performed in conjunction with standard approaches to improve surgical exposure during open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of acetabular fractures. The literature on total hip arthroplasty reports nonunion rates as high as 30% associated with trochanteric osteotomies; however, few data exist regarding the outcomes of trochanteric osteotomies for acetabular fracture surgery. Our hypotheses were 1) patients receiving trochanteric osteotomies during ORIF of acetabular fractures have a low rate of nonunion of the osteotomy fragment, and 2) hip abduction precautions are not necessary with digastric type osteotomies...
August 29, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942715/osteoporosis-and-fracture-risk-evaluation-and-management-shared-decision-making-in-clinical-practice
#11
Nelson B Watts, JoAnn E Manson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934427/spin-lattice-coupling-in-ni-hf2-pyrazine-2-sbf6-involving-the-hf2-superexchange-pathway
#12
Kenneth R O'Neal, Brian S Holinsworth, Zhiguo Chen, Peter K Peterson, Kimberly E Carreiro, Changhoon Lee, Jamie L Manson, Myung-Hwan Whangbo, Zhiqiang Li, Zhenxian Liu, Janice L Musfeldt
Magnetoelastic coupling in the quantum magnet [Ni(HF2)(pyrazine)2]SbF6 has been investigated via vibrational spectroscopy using temperature, magnetic field, and pressure as tuning parameters. While pyrazine is known to be a malleable magnetic superexchange ligand, we find that HF2(-) is surprisingly sensitive to external stimuli and is actively involved in both the magnetic quantum phase transition and the series of pressure-induced structural distortions. The amplified spin-lattice interactions involving the bifluoride ligand can be understood in terms of the relative importance of the intra- and interplanar magnetic energy scales...
December 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932373/sickle-cell-trait-is-not-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-heart-failure-or-abnormalities-of-cardiac-structure-and-function
#13
Natalie A Bello, Hyacinth I Hyacinth, Nicholas S Roetker, Samantha R Seals, Rakhi P Naik, Vimal K Derebail, Abhijit V Kshirsagar, Nigel S Key, James G Wilson, Adolfo Correa, Robert J Adams, Leonard D Egede, Will Longstreth, Gaurav Choudhary, Beatrice E Gee, Austin L Hughes, Amil M Shah, JoAnn E Manson, Matthew Allison, Gregory L Burke, Aaron R Folsom, Cara L Carty, Alexander P Reiner, Scott D Solomon, Suma H Konety
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926633/effects-of-calcium-vitamin-d-and-hormone-therapy-on-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Peter F Schnatz, Xuezhi Jiang, Aaron K Aragaki, Matthew Nudy, David M OʼSullivan, Mark Williams, Erin S LeBlanc, Lisa W Martin, JoAnn E Manson, James M Shikany, Karen C Johnson, Marcia L Stefanick, Martha E Payne, Jane A Cauley, Barbara V Howard, John Robbins
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the treatment effect of calcium+vitamin D supplementation, hormone therapy, both, and neither on cardiovascular disease risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants. The predefined primary outcome was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). RESULTS: Between September 1993 and October 1998, a total of 68,132 women aged 50-79 years were recruited and randomized to the WHI-Dietary Modification (n=48,835) and WHI-Hormone Therapy trials (n=27,347)...
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923086/shared-decision-making-regarding-aspirin-in-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-reply
#15
LETTER
Samia Mora, JoAnn E Manson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923034/reply-to-comment-on-statin-use-and-all-cancer-survival-prospective-results-from-the-women-s-health-initiative
#16
Ange Wang, Aaron K Aragaki, Jean Y Tang, Allison W Kurian, JoAnn E Manson, Rowan T Chlebowski, Michael Simon, Pinkal Desai, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Simin Liu, Stephen Kritchevsky, Heather A Wakelee, Marcia L Stefanick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917515/associations-between-benign-cutaneous-nevi-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-men-and-women-results-from-two-prospective-cohort-studies
#17
H Dai, Q Sun, C Zhang, X Zhang, W-Q Li, J E Manson, F B Hu, Y Song
AIM: To examine the association of cutaneous nevi with Type 2 diabetes risk. METHODS: We prospectivly examined the associations between nevus count and risk of Type 2 diabetes among 26 240 men (1988-2010) from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 67 050 women (1986-2010) from the Nurses' Health Study. Information on the numbers of cutaneous nevi on arms at baseline and incident cases of Type 2 diabetes was collected using validated questionnaires. RESULTS: During 1 879 287 person-years of follow-up, we documented 9040 incident cases of Type 2 diabetes...
December 5, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914662/surgical-site-infection-in-tibial-plateau-fractures-with-ipsilateral-compartment-syndrome
#18
Andrew G Dubina, Ebrahim Paryavi, Theodore T Manson, Christopher Allmon, Robert V O'Toole
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of compartment syndrome and timing of fasciotomy wound closure on surgical site infection (SSI) after surgical fixation of tibial plateau fractures. Our primary hypothesis was that SSI rate is increased for fractures with compartment syndrome versus those without, even accounting for confounders associated with infection. Our secondary hypothesis was that infection rates are unrelated to timing of fasciotomy closure or fixation...
October 18, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911769/reductive-carboxylation-is-a-major-metabolic-pathway-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#19
Jianhai Du, Aya Yanagida, Kaitlen Knight, Abbi L Engel, Anh Huan Vo, Connor Jankowski, Martin Sadilek, Van Thi Bao Tran, Megan A Manson, Aravind Ramakrishnan, James B Hurley, Jennifer R Chao
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of pigmented cells that requires an active metabolism to maintain outer retinal homeostasis and compensate for oxidative stress. Using (13)C metabolic flux analysis in human RPE cells, we found that RPE has an exceptionally high capacity for reductive carboxylation, a metabolic pathway that has recently garnered significant interest because of its role in cancer cell survival. The capacity for reductive carboxylation in RPE exceeds that of all other cells tested, including retina, neural tissue, glial cells, and a cancer cell line...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910443/x-ray-intensity-and-source-size-characterizations-for-the-25-kv-upgraded-manson-source-at-sandia-national-laboratories
#20
G Loisel, P Lake, P Gard, G Dunham, L Nielsen-Weber, M Wu, E Norris
At Sandia National Laboratories, the x-ray generator Manson source model 5 was upgraded from 10 to 25 kV. The purpose of the upgrade is to drive higher characteristics photon energies with higher throughput. In this work we present characterization studies for the source size and the x-ray intensity when varying the source voltage for a series of K-, L-, and M-shell lines emitted from Al, Y, and Au elements composing the anode. We used a 2-pinhole camera to measure the source size and an energy dispersive detector to monitor the spectral content and intensity of the x-ray source...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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