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mucus hyper secretion

Alison May, Denis Headon, David Rice, Alistair Noble, Abigail S Tucker
Hypertrophy, hyperplasia and altered mucus secretion from the respiratory submucosal glands (SMG) are characteristics of airway diseases such as cystic fibrosis, asthma and chronic bronchitis. More commonly, hyper-secretion of the nasal SMGs contributes to allergic rhinitis and upper airway infection. Considering the role of these glands in disease states, there is a significant dearth in understanding the molecular signals that regulate SMG development and patterning. Due to the imperative role of FGF signalling during the development of other branched structures, we investigated the role of Fgf10 during initiation and branching morphogenesis of murine nasal SMGs...
August 30, 2016: Developmental Biology
Cheng-Chi Chan, Chin-Wen Lai, Chia-Jen Wu, Li-Chen Chen, Mi-Hua Tao, Ming-Ling Kuo
Allergic airway inflammation driven by T helper 2 (Th2)-type immunity is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic infiltration, and elevated IgE production. Various novel strategies for managing asthma have been explored, such as DNA vaccines, T-cell peptides, and allergen-specific immunotherapy. A principal goal of most immunotherapeutic approaches is active and long-term allergen-specific tolerance. Liver-specific gene transfer using adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been shown to favorably induce tolerogenic responses to therapeutic products in various experimental models...
August 2016: Human Gene Therapy
J C Coltherd, D T Rodgers, R E Lawrie, L Al-Riyami, C J Suckling, W Harnett, M M Harnett
Chronic asthma is associated with persistent lung inflammation and long-term remodelling of the airways that have proved refractory to conventional treatments such as steroids, despite their efficacy in controlling acute airway contraction and bronchial inflammation. As its recent dramatic increase in industrialised countries has not been mirrored in developing regions, it has been suggested that helminth infection may protect humans against developing asthma. Consistent with this, ES-62, an immunomodulator secreted by the parasitic worm Acanthocheilonema viteae, can prevent pathology associated with chronic asthma (cellular infiltration of the lungs, particularly neutrophils and mast cells, mucus hyper-production and airway thickening) in an experimental mouse model...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ji-Won Park, In-Chul Lee, Na-Rae Shin, Chan-Mi Jeon, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, Je-Won Ko, Jong-Choon Kim, Sei-Ryang Oh, In-Sik Shin, Kyung-Seop Ahn
Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs), metal oxide nanoparticles were used in multiple applications including wood preservation, antimicrobial textiles, catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation and heat transfer fluid in machines. We investigated the effects of CuONPs on the respiratory system in Balb/c mice. In addition, to investigate the effects of CuONPs on asthma development, we used a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. CuONPs markedly increased airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cell counts, proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 2016: Nanotoxicology
M de Vries, L Hesse, M R Jonker, M van den Berge, A J M van Oosterhout, I H Heijink, M C Nawijn
Most patients with allergic asthma are sensitized to house dust mite (HDM). The allergenicity of HDM largely depends on disruption of the integrity and proinflammatory activation of the airway epithelium. In this study, we hypothesized that Pim1 kinase activity attenuates HDM-induced asthma by preserving airway epithelial integrity. The effects of Pim1 kinase activity on barrier function and release of the proinflammatory mediators IL-1α and CCL20 were studied in vitro in 16HBE and primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs)...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Tao Zhu, Xiao-Ling Wu, Wei Zhang, Min Xiao
Asthma is a common chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease, featured with mucus hyper-secretion in the airway. Recent studies found that glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs, including liraglutide and exenatide, possessed a potent anti-inflammatory property through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent signaling pathway. Therefore, the aim of current study was to investigate the value of GLP-1 analog therapy liraglutide in airway inflammation and mucus secretion in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma, and its underlying molecular mechanism...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bruce K Rubin
Airway mucus hypersecretion and secretion retention can result from inflammation, irritation, stimulation, or mucus-producing tumors. Secretion clearance can be furthered hampered by ciliary dysfunction and by weakness or restrictive lung disease, leading to an ineffective cough. There are a number of different mucoactive medications that have been used to reduce hypersecretion, make secretions easier to transport, or increase the efficiency of cough or mucus clearance. In this paper, I review the pathophysiology of secretory hyper-responsiveness and mucus hypersecretion and discuss the different aerosol medications that can be used to augment secretion clearance...
June 2015: Respiratory Care
Benjamin M Manning, Audrey F Meyer, Sarah M Gruba, Christy L Haynes
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by narrowed airways, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, mucus hyper-secretion, and airway remodeling. Mast cell (MC) infiltration into airway smooth muscle (ASM) is a defining feature of asthma, and ASM regulates the inflammatory response by secreting chemokines, including CXCL10 and CCL5. Single cell analysis offers a unique approach to study specific cellular signaling interactions within large and complex signaling networks such as the inflammatory microenvironment in asthma...
September 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Katharina Maisel, Sumon Chattopadhyay, Thomas Moench, Craig Hendrix, Richard Cone, Laura M Ensign, Justin Hanes
Delivering drugs to the colorectum by enema has advantages for treating or preventing both local and systemic diseases. However, the properties of the enema itself are not typically exploited for improving drug delivery. Sodium ions are actively pumped out of the lumen of the colon, which is followed by osmotically-driven water absorption, so we hypothesized that this natural mechanism could be exploited to drive nanoparticles and drugs to the colorectal tissue surface. Here, we report that sodium-based, absorption-inducing (hypotonic) enemas rapidly transport hydrophilic drugs and non-mucoadhesive, mucus penetrating nanoparticles (MPP), deep into the colorectal folds to reach virtually the entire colorectal epithelial surface...
July 10, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Dan-Yang Zhou, Su-Rong Fang, Chun-Fang Zou, Qian Zhang, Wei Gu
Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation and airway remodeling. Our previous study revealed that grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) could inhibit asthmatic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness by down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a murine model of acute asthma. The present study aimed to evaluate GSPE's effects on airway inflammation and airway remodeling in a chronic asthmatic model. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and then were challenged three times a week for 8 weeks...
February 2015: Natural Product Communications
Aran Singanayagam, Nicholas Glanville, Ross P Walton, Julia Aniscenko, Rebecca M Pearson, James W Pinkerton, Jay C Horvat, Philip M Hansbro, Nathan W Bartlett, Sebastian L Johnston
Viral exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), commonly caused by rhinovirus (RV) infections, are poorly controlled by current therapies. This is due to a lack of understanding of the underlying immunopathological mechanisms. Human studies have identified a number of key immune responses that are associated with RV-induced exacerbations including neutrophilic inflammation, expression of inflammatory cytokines and deficiencies in innate anti-viral interferon. Animal models of COPD exacerbation are required to determine the contribution of these responses to disease pathogenesis...
August 2015: Clinical Science (1979-)
Rahim Farahani, Roya Sherkat, Mazdak Ganjalikhani Hakemi, Nahid Eskandari, Reza Yazdani
Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR), mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th) 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines...
2014: Advanced Biomedical Research
A Nadeem, N Siddiqui, Naif O Alharbi, Mohamed M Alharbi
Asthma is characterized by repeated episodes of airway obstruction and an ongoing cycle of airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by inflammatory cells in the lung play a key role in the pathogenesis as well as amplification of inflammation in asthmatic airways. Several enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants are available in the lung and systemic circulation to counteract ROS-mediated damage on various biomolecules such as lipid membranes, proteins, and DNA; however during asthmatic inflammation these defenses are overwhelmed due to excessive production of ROS thereby leading to inflammatory events in the airways/systemic circulation...
October 2014: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
H Rettmer, A M Hoffman, S Lanz, M Oertly, V Gerber
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: In clinical practice, veterinarians often depend on owner-reported signs to assess the clinical course of horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). OBJECTIVES: To test whether owner-reported information on frequency of coughing and observation of nasal discharge are associated with clinical, cytological and bronchoprovocation findings in RAO-affected horses in nonstandardised field conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study comparing healthy and RAO-affected horses...
May 2015: Equine Veterinary Journal
Samir N P Kelada, Danielle E Carpenter, David L Aylor, Peter Chines, Holly Rutledge, Elissa J Chesler, Gary A Churchill, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, David A Schwartz, Francis S Collins
Airway allergen exposure induces inflammation among individuals with atopy that is characterized by altered airway gene expression, elevated levels of T helper type 2 cytokines, mucus hypersecretion, and airflow obstruction. To identify the genetic determinants of the airway allergen response, we employed a systems genetics approach. We applied a house dust mite mouse model of allergic airway disease to 151 incipient lines of the Collaborative Cross, a new mouse genetic reference population, and measured serum IgE, airway eosinophilia, and gene expression in the lung...
September 2014: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Desiderio Passali, Jacopo Cambi, Francesco Maria Passali, Luisa Bellussi
BACKGROUND: Nasal obstruction is a primary symptom of common upper respiratory tract disorders. In clinical practice nasal saline solutions are recommended for the cleansing of nasal cavities and relieving nasal symptoms. METHODS: 55 patients (aged 25-70 years) suffering from obstructive rhinopathy, with nasal obstruction/congestion of moderate severity persistent since at least 10 days in advance of recruitment with/without rhinosinusitis was randomly treated with an hypertonic solution composed by Silver Sucrose Octasulfate and Potassium Sucrose Octasulfate (SILSOS) or isotonic solution for 20 days...
2013: SpringerPlus
S S Vutukuru, Kalpana Basani
Presence of mercury and other heavy metals above permissible levels in water bodies across the globe is posing a serious threat to aquatic biota and public health. Occurrence of mercury above the permissible limits in the aquatic ecosystem of Hyderabad city is well established. In this context, we carried out static- renewal bioassays on the zebra fish, Danio rerio exposed to different concentrations of mercuric chloride, and the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) was found to be 0.077 mgl(-1). Behavioral manifestations like loss of scales, hyper secretion of mucus, surfacing and darting movements, loss of balance, irregular swimming patterns were noticed in the fish exposed to 0...
March 2013: Journal of Environmental Biology
M Tiwari, U N Dwivedi, P Kakkar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers is an important constituent of several ayurvedic medicinal preparations. In Ayurveda it is mentioned as "rasayan" and traditionally used for the treatment of asthma, chronic cough besides other ailments. This study was carried out to study the mechanisms involved in protection accorded by extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) stem to asthmatic mice by regulation of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory mediator release and redox signaling involving NFκB...
April 28, 2014: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hui Xin Ong, Daniela Traini, Giulia Ballerin, Lucy Morgan, Lachlan Buddle, Santo Scalia, Paul M Young
This study focuses on the co-engineering of salbutamol sulphate (SS), a common bronchodilator, and mannitol (MA), a mucolytic, as a potential combination therapy for mucus hypersecretion. This combination was chosen to have a synergic effect on the airways: the SS will act on the β2-receptor for relaxation of smooth muscle and enhancement of ciliary beat frequency, whilst mannitol will improve the fluidity of mucus, consequently enhancing its clearance from the lung. A series of co-spray-dried samples, containing therapeutically relevant doses of SS and MA, were prepared...
March 2014: AAPS Journal
Sandro Montefusco, Roberta Esposito, Luca D'Andrea, Maria Chiara Monti, Ciara Dunne, Brendan Dolan, Alessandra Tosco, Liberato Marzullo, Marguerite Clyne
The trefoil peptides (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) are a family of small highly conserved proteins that play an essential role in epithelial regeneration within the gastrointestinal tract, where they are mainly expressed. TFF1 expression is strongly induced after mucosal injury and it has been proposed that tff1 functions as a gastric tumor suppressor gene. Several studies confirm that tff1 expression is frequently lost in gastric cancer because of deletions, mutations or methylation of the tff1 promoter. Infection by Helicobacter pylori (H...
2013: PloS One
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