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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549061/central-hypothyroidism-a-neglected-thyroid-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Paolo Beck-Peccoz, Giulia Rodari, Claudia Giavoli, Andrea Lania
Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by a defect in thyroid hormone secretion in an otherwise normal thyroid gland due to insufficient stimulation by TSH. The disease results from the abnormal function of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, or both. Moreover, central hypothyroidism can be isolated or combined with other pituitary hormone deficiencies, which are mostly acquired and are rarely congenital. The clinical manifestations of central hypothyroidism are usually milder than those observed in primary hypothyroidism...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547936/fragment-based-drug-discovery-as-alternative-strategy-to-the-drug-development-for-neglected-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Juliana da Fonseca Rezende E Mello, Renan Augusto Gomes, Drielli Gomes Vital-Fujii, Glaucio Monteiro Ferreira, Gustavo Henrique Goulart Trossini
Neglected diseases (NDs) affect large populations and almost whole continents, representing 12% of the global health burden. In contrast, the treatment available today is limited and sometimes ineffective. Under this scenery, the Fragment-Based Drug Discovery (FBDD) emerged as one of the most promising alternatives to the traditional methods of drug development. This method allows achieving new lead compounds with smaller size of fragment libraries. Even with the wide Fragment-Based Drug Discovery success resulting in new effective therapeutic agents against different diseases, until this moment few studies have been applied this approach for NDs area...
May 26, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546822/commercial-essential-oils-as-potential-antimicrobials-to-treat-skin-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Ané Orchard, Sandy van Vuuren
Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545084/feasibility-study-of-tspo-quantification-with-18f-feppa-using-population-based-input-function
#4
Rostom Mabrouk, Antonio P Strafella, Dunja Knezevic, Christine Ghadery, Romina Mizrahi, Avideh Gharehgazlou, Yuko Koshimori, Sylvain Houle, Pablo Rusjan
PURPOSE: The input function (IF) is a core element in the quantification of Translocator protein 18 kDa with positron emission tomography (PET), as no suitable reference region with negligible binding has been identified. Arterial blood sampling is indeed needed to create the IF (ASIF). In the present manuscript we study individualization of a population based input function (PBIF) with a single arterial manual sample to estimate total distribution volume (VT) for [18F]FEPPA and to replicate previously published clinical studies in which the ASIF was used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542223/measuring-changes-in-transmission-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-malaria-and-enteric-pathogens-from-quantitative-antibody-levels
#5
Benjamin F Arnold, Mark J van der Laan, Alan E Hubbard, Cathy Steel, Joseph Kubofcik, Katy L Hamlin, Delynn M Moss, Thomas B Nutman, Jeffrey W Priest, Patrick J Lammie
BACKGROUND: Serological antibody levels are a sensitive marker of pathogen exposure, and advances in multiplex assays have created enormous potential for large-scale, integrated infectious disease surveillance. Most methods to analyze antibody measurements reduce quantitative antibody levels to seropositive and seronegative groups, but this can be difficult for many pathogens and may provide lower resolution information than quantitative levels. Analysis methods have predominantly maintained a single disease focus, yet integrated surveillance platforms would benefit from methodologies that work across diverse pathogens included in multiplex assays...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542202/unravelling-the-rate-of-action-of-hits-in-the-leishmania-donovani-box-using-standard-drugs-amphotericin-b-and-miltefosine
#6
Diana Tegazzini, Juan Cantizani, Imanol Peña, Julio Martín, Jose M Coterón
In recent years, the neglected diseases drug discovery community has elected phenotypic screening as the key approach for the identification of novel hit compounds. However, when this approach is applied, important questions related to the mode of action for these compounds remain unanswered. One of such questions is related to the rate of action, a useful piece of information when facing the challenge of prioritising the most promising hit compounds. In the present work, compounds of the "Leishmania donovani box" were evaluated using a rate of action assay adapted from a replicative intracellular high content assay recently developed...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538914/the-regulation-and-adoption-of-health-technologies-under-brazil-s-unified-health-system-barriers-to-access-to-medicines-for-diseases-of-poverty
#7
Rafael Santos Santana, Evandro de Oliveira Lupatini, Silvana Nair Leite
The study aimed to examine the regulation and adoption of health technologies for the diseases of poverty in the Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). An exploratory, descriptive study was conducted between January and May 2016 consisting of the search and analysis of relevant documents on the websites of Brazil's National Health Surveillance Agency, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the National Commission for the Adoption of Technologies by the SUS, and Saúde Legis (the Ministry of Health's Legislation System)...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533529/the-sustainable-development-goals-and-the-global-health-security-agenda-exploring-synergies-for-a-sustainable-and-resilient-world
#8
Sulzhan Bali, Jessica Taaffe
Both the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) represent bold initiatives to address systematically gaps in previous efforts to assure that societies can be resilient when confronted with potentially overwhelming threats to health. Despite their obvious differences, and differing criticisms of both, they shift away from vertical (problem- or disease-specific) to horizontal (comprehensive) solutions. Despite the comprehensiveness of the SDGs, they lack a specific target for global health security...
May 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531996/poly-epsilon-caprolactone-nanoparticles-enhance-ursolic-acid-in-vivo-efficacy-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#9
Juliana Palma Abriata, Josimar O Eloy, Thalita Bachelli Riul, Patricia Mazureki Campos, Marcelo Dias Baruffi, Juliana Maldonado Marchetti
Despite affecting millions of people worldwide, Chagas disease is still neglected by the academia and industry and the therapeutic option available, benznidazole, presents limited efficacy and side effects. Within this context, ursolic acid may serve as an option for treatment, however has low bioavailability, which can be enhanced through the encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles. Therefore, herein we developed ursolic acid-loaded nanoparticles with poly-ε-caprolactone by the nanoprecipitation method and characterized them for particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity, encapsulation efficiency, morphology by scanning electron microscopy and thermal behavior by differential scanning calorimetry...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529130/the-future-of-drug-development-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-how-the-european-commission-can-continue-to-make-a-difference
#10
Raymond J Pierce, Jane MacDougall, Rob Leurs, Maria Paola Costi
In this article, the four coordinators of neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug development projects funded under the European Commission (EC) Framework Programme 7 argue that the EC should reassess their funding strategy to cover the steps necessary to translate a lead compound into a drug candidate for testing in clinical trials, and suggest ways in which this might be achieved.
May 18, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528302/nanomolar-anti-sickling-compounds-identified-by-ligand-based-pharmacophore-approach
#11
Odailson Santos Paz, Milena de Jesus Pinheiro, Renan Fernandes do Espirito Santo, Cristiane Flora Villarreal, Marcelo Santos Castilho
Adenosine receptors are considered as potential targets for drug development against several diseases. The discovery of subtype 2B adenosine receptors role in erythrocyte sickling process proved its importance to neglected diseases such as sickle cell anemia, which affects approximately 29.000 people around the world, but whose treatment is restricted to just one FDA approved drug (hydroxyurea). In order to widen the therapeutic arsenal available to treat sickle cell anemia patients, it is imperative to identify new lead compounds that modify the sickling course and not just its symptoms...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526978/cytogenetic-biodosimetry-and-dose-rate-effect-after-radioiodine-therapy-for-thyroid-cancer
#12
Igor K Khvostunov, Vladimir A Saenko, Valeri Krylov, Andrei Rodichev, Shunichi Yamashita
This study set out to investigate chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of thyroid cancer patients receiving (131)I for thyroid remnant ablation or treatment of metastatic disease. The observed chromosomal damage was further converted to the estimates of whole-body dose to project the adverse side effects. Chromosomal aberration analysis was performed in 24 patients treated for the first time or after multiple courses. Blood samples were collected before treatment and 3 or 4 days after administration of 2-4 GBq of (131)I...
May 19, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526608/microrna-analysis-of-taenia-crassiceps-cysticerci-under-praziquantel-treatment-and-genome-wide-identification-of-taenia-solium-mirnas
#13
Matías Gastón Pérez, Natalia Macchiaroli, Gabriel Lichtenstein, Gabriela Conti, Sebastián Asurmendi, Diego Humberto Milone, Georgina Stegmayer, Laura Kamenetzky, Marcela Cucher, Mara Cecilia Rosenzvit
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and perform critical functions in development and disease. In spite of the increased interest in miRNAs from helminth parasites, no information is available on miRNAs from Taenia solium, the causative agent of cysticercosis, a neglected disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs from Taenia crassiceps, a laboratory model for T. solium studies, and identified miRNAs in the T...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526564/direct-detection-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-followed-by-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-from-human-blood
#14
Heimo Lagler, Nicole Harrison, Manuel Kussmann, Markus Obermüller, Heinz Burgmann, Athanasios Makristathis, Michael Ramharter
Bacterial pathogens not detectable in commercial blood culture assays constitute an important challenge for infectious disease physicians, in particular if clinical symptoms of the illness are unspecific. In this report Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected directly from a peripheral blood sample of a febrile patient reporting a tick bite by a commercial system based on polymerase chain reaction followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Therefore, the diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis infection was established by this diagnostic methodology for the first time...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526064/seasonal-variation-in-the-prevalence-of-toxocara-eggs-on-children-s-playgrounds-in-the-city-of-hanover-germany
#15
Annika Kleine, Andrea Springer, Christina Strube
BACKGROUND: Roundworms of the genus Toxocara are worldwide distributed zoonotic parasites of carnivores. Based on case numbers and the potential impact on human health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) categorised toxocarosis as one of the most important neglected parasitic diseases. As contact with contaminated soil, e.g. in sandpits, is considered the primary transmission route, data on playground contamination are needed to assess infection risk for children. Here, playground contamination rates and their seasonal variation in the city of Hanover, Germany, were investigated...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526047/the-paradigm-of-eave-tubes-scaling-up-house-improvement-and-optimizing-insecticide-delivery-against-disease-transmitting-mosquitoes
#16
Fredros Okumu
Control of mosquito-borne diseases is greatly compromised by spread of insecticide resistance, high implementation costs and sub-optimal compliance among users. Improved housing has potential to reduce malaria transmission nearly as much as long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), while also preventing other arthropod-borne diseases and improving overall well-being. Yet, it is hardly promoted as mainstream intervention, partly because of high costs, minimal communal benefits to people in non-improved houses, and low scalability...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525612/an-effectiveness-hierarchy-of-preventive-interventions-neglected-paradigm-or-self-evident-truth
#17
Simon Capewell, Ann Capewell
Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525508/analysis-of-hypo-and-hyperphosphatemia-in-an-intensive-care-unit-cohort
#18
Marcus Broman, Amanda M J Wilsson, Fredrik Hansson, Bengt Klarin
BACKGROUND: Blood phosphate levels are vulnerable to fluctuations and changes in phosphate levels are often neglected. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether deviations in phosphate levels correlate to higher 180-day overall mortality or morbidity. METHODS: Four thousand six hundred fifty-six patients with 19,467 phosphate values treated at the adult intensive care unit at Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden during 2006-2014 were retrospectively divided into a control group and 3 study groups: hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphatemia, and a mixed group showing both hypo/hyperphosphatemia...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524151/-etiopathogenesis-of-ocular-ischemic-syndrome
#19
D К Makhkamova
Ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) is a collection of symptoms of carotid and ophthalmic artery disease of common genesis accompanied by ischemia of eyeball membranes. Specifically, the intraocular blood flow becomes impaired due to inflow reduction or arrest, while the venous outflow remains patent. Causes of OIS include arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, aortoarteritis and other vascular diseases. Clinical features depend on the extent, nature, and site of vascular involvement as well as the concurrent pathology...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521698/leishmanicidal-and-trypanocidal-activity-of-metal-complexes-with-1-2-4-triazolo-1-5-a-pyrimidines-insights-on-their-therapeutic-potential-against-leishmaniasis-and-chagas-disease
#20
Juan M Salas, Ana B Caballero, Ginés M Esteban-Parra, José M Méndez-Arriaga
Since their first synthesis back in the early 20th century, 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines have aroused increasing interest in very diverse areas ranging from chemotherapy to agriculture or even photography. Their similarity to purines confers a potential bioactivity and this feature has been wisely exploited for therapeutic use, including antifungal, antipyretic, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antitumoral and antiparasitic properties. In this review, we focus on the compounds that these nitrogen heterocycles form with metal ions and their antiparasitic activity and therapeutic potential against two neglected diseases of tropical prevalence, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease...
May 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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