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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941408/boar-seminal-plasma-inhibits-cryo-capacitation-of-frozen-thawed-ram-sperm-and-improves-fertility-following-intracervical-insemination
#1
Yi Fang, Rongzhen Zhong, Xiaosheng Zhang, Jinlong Zhang, Daowei Zhou
Cryopreservation has numerous deleterious effects on sperm structure and function, which can be reduced by adding seminal plasma (SP), either autologous or heterologous. The objective was to determine effects of adding boar SP to the freezing extender on sperm quality, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed ram sperm. Semen was collected from eight Small-tail Han rams and extended in a glucose-egg yolk buffer supplemented with 0, 20, 40, or 60% porcine SP (from Large white boars)...
September 18, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941390/severe-forms-of-food-allergy
#2
REVIEW
Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti Sarinho, Maria das Graças Moura Lins
OBJECTIVES: To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. DATA SOURCES: Search in the Medline database using the terms "severe food allergy," "anaphylaxis and food allergy," "generalized urticaria and food allergy," and "food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome" in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. SUMMARY OF DATA: Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening...
September 20, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938786/prediction-of-egg-freshness-during-storage-using-electronic-nose
#3
Samuel M Yimenu, J Y Kim, B S Kim
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of a fast gas chromatography (GC) e-nose for freshness discrimination and for prediction of storage time as well as sensory and internal quality changes during storage of hen eggs. All samples were obtained from the same egg production farm and stored at 20 °C for 20 d. Egg sampling was conducted every 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 d. During each sampling time, 4 egg cartons (each containing 10 eggs) were randomly selected: one carton for Haugh units, one carton for sensory evaluation and 2 cartons for the e-nose experiment...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938783/phytochemicals-reduce-aflatoxin-induced-toxicity-in-chicken-embryos
#4
Hsin-Bai Yin, Chi-Hung Chen, Michael J Darre, Ann M Donoghue, Dan J Donoghue, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which frequently contaminate poultry feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased bird performance and reduced egg production. Moreover, AF residues in fertilized eggs result in huge economic losses by decreasing embryo viability and hatchability. This study investigated the efficacy of 2 generally recognized as safe phytochemicals, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), in protecting chicken embryos from AF-induced toxicity...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938782/perch-use-by-broiler-breeders-and-its-implication-on-health-and-production
#5
S G Gebhardt-Henrich, M J Toscano, H Würbel
Broiler breeders are commonly kept without perches, although perching has been shown to be a high-priority behavior in laying hens. We studied whether broiler breeders used elevated perches of different lengths during the night and how access to perches affected health and production. Using the Ross 308 hybrid, pens offering 4 different perch spaces per bird (5, 10, 14, and 20 cm) in a cross-over design were compared with pens without perches. The number of birds on perches at midnight were recorded 7 times during production...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938781/differences-in-egg-nutrient-availability-and-embryo-development-in-white-layer-breeder-genotypes
#6
E E Onbasilar, M Kahraman, O Ahlat, Ö F Güngör, A Çalik, S Taban, S Yalçin
Because of consumers' preferences and also due to changes in production systems, the importance of pure breeds has increased again. There are a lot of differences among breeds which have been studied extensively, however, the differences during the incubation period are not yet fully known. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the composition of the egg parts, absorption of nutrients, and development of embryos from different genotypes. A total of 354 fresh hatching eggs were obtained from one hybrid (Lohman White, LW) and two pure breeds (Denizli and Gerze)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938780/effects-of-dietary-threonine-supplementation-on-intestinal-barrier-function-and-gut-microbiota-of-laying-hens
#7
X Y Dong, M M M Azzam, X T Zou
The effects of supplemental dietary threonine (Thr) on laying performance, expression of intestinal mucin 2 (MUC2) and secretory IgA (sIgA), and intestinal microbiota of laying hens fed a low CP diet were investigated. A total of 240 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 28 wk of age, was allocated to 3 dietary treatments, each of which included 5 replicates of 16 hens. Hens were fed a control diet (16% CP), a low CP diet (14% CP), or a low CP diet supplemented with 0.3% L-Thr for 12 weeks. Chemical analyses of the diets for Thr are 0...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938778/comparison-of-hatching-egg-characteristics-embryo-development-yolk-absorption-hatch-window-and-hatchability-of-pekin-duck-eggs-of-different-weights
#8
A Ipek, A Sozcu
This study was carried out to determine the hatching egg characteristics, embryo development and yolk absorption during incubation, hatch window, and hatchability of Pekin duck eggs of different weights. A total of 960 hatching eggs was obtained from a breeder flock 35 to 36 wk of age. The eggs were classed into 3 weight categories: "light" (L; <75 g), "medium" (M; 76 to 82 g), and "heavy" (H; >83 g). The albumen weight was the highest in the heavy eggs, whereas the yolk weight was higher in the medium and heavy eggs...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938777/role-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-during-the-transition-from-incubation-behavior-to-rearing-behavior-in-the-female-native-thai-chicken
#9
S Namken, P Sinpru, B Kamkrathok, N Sartsoongnoen, Y Chaiseha
It is well documented that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an avian prolactin-releasing factor, regulating the reproductive cycle, that initiates and maintains incubation behavior in avian species. Native Thai chicken has strong maternal behaviors. Thus, it is an excellent animal model to study this phenomenon. Changes in the numbers of VIP neurons within the nucleus inferioris hypothalami (IH) and nucleus infundibuli hypothalami (IN) are associated with maternal behaviors in the native Thai chicken...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938775/effects-of-different-types-of-dark-brooders-on-injurious-pecking-damage-and-production-related-traits-at-rear-and-lay-in-layers
#10
A B Riber, D A Guzman
Injurious pecking (IP) remains one of the major welfare challenges in housing of laying hens worldwide due to the negative consequences it inflicts on animal welfare and economy. One potential solution to reduce IP is the use of dark brooders as the primary heat source during rearing. The objective was to investigate effects of rearing layer chicks with different management strategies and size allowances of dark brooders on IP and production-related traits during rear and lay. Groups of 100 to 103 Isa Warren chicks were reared either with one of 4 brooder types (n = 4 per treatment) or with whole-house heating (control: n = 6)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938772/susceptibility-to-keel-bone-fractures-in-laying-hens-and-the-role-of-genetic-variation
#11
Laura Candelotto, Ariane Stratmann, Sabine G Gebhardt-Henrich, Christina Rufener, Teun van de Braak, Michael J Toscano
Keel bone fractures are a well-known welfare problem in modern commercial laying hen systems. The present study sought to identify genetic variation in relation to keel bone fracture susceptibility of 4 distinct crossbred and one pure line, and by extension, possible breeding traits. Susceptibility to fractures were assessed using an ex vivo impact testing protocol in combination with a study design that minimized environmental variation to focus on genetic differences. The 5 crossbred/pure lines differed in their susceptibility to keel bone fractures with the greatest likelihood of fracture in one of the 3 commercial lines and the lowest susceptibility to fractures in one of the experimental lines...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938769/recent-advances-in-avian-egg-science-a-review
#12
Philippe B Wilson
Eggs and egg products form an integral part of the food chain. As such, research into egg structure, function, and production has made an important contribution to the field of poultry science. The past decade has seen significant advances in avian egg science research, with work supplementing our understanding of the nature of the avian egg, and its biological, chemical, and physical properties. Eggshell color, strength, and chemical composition, poultry nutrition, and genetics have all been intensively studied recently, with significant progress being made in a number of these areas...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938765/advanced-oxidation-process-sanitization-of-hatching-eggs-reduces-salmonella-in-broiler-chicks
#13
A C Rehkopf, J A Byrd, C D Coufal, T Duong
The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery is an important critical control point for biosecurity, pathogen reduction, and food safety programs in poultry production. Developing interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination of eggs is important to improving the microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet light (UV) Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) has been previously demonstrated to be effective in reducing Salmonella on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938603/inhibition-of-avian-tumor-virus-replication-by-ccch-type-zinc-finger-antiviral-protein
#14
Mingjun Zhu, Xiaoqian Ma, Xiyao Cui, Jing Zhou, Chengui Li, Libo Huang, Yingli Shang, Ziqiang Cheng
CCCH type zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of a variety of viruses in mammals. However, little is known about its antiviral activity on avian tumor virus. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, induces myelocytomas and various other tumors in meat and egg type chickens. Here, we identified a chicken ZAP (chZAP) that increased at early stage, and subsequently decreased after infection of ALV-J in DF-1 cells, indicating the inducible feature of the endogenous chZAP...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937855/eggshell-biliverdin-and-protoporphyrin-pigments-in-a-songbird-are-they-derived-from-erythrocytes-blood-plasma-or-the-shell-gland
#15
Rita Hargitai, Nóra Boross, Susanne Hámori, Eszter Neuberger, Zoltán Nyiri
Biliverdin and protoporphyrin pigments are deposited into the eggshell when the developing egg is in the shell gland. However, the site of synthesis of eggshell pigments is still uncertain, although it may influence the possible costs and potential functions of eggshell coloration in avian species. Eggshell pigments may be derived from red blood cells or be produced in other organs and then transferred to the shell gland, or they may be synthesized de novo in the shell gland. We studied in the canary (Serinus canaria) whether eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations are associated with experimentally elevated anemia, female hematocrit level, immature erythrocyte percentage, and feces and plasma pigment levels during egg laying to find out the possible origin of eggshell pigments...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937642/essential-oils-as-an-alternative-to-pyrethroids-resistance-against-anopheles-species-complex-giles-diptera-culicidae
#16
REVIEW
Olivier Gnankiné, Imaël Henri Nestor Bassolé
Widespread resistance of Anopheles sp. populations to pyrethroid insecticides has led to the search for sustainable alternatives in the plant kingdom. Among many botanicals, there is great interest in essential oils and their constituents. Many researchers have explored essential oils (EOs) to determine their toxicity and identify repellent molecules that are effective against Anopheles populations. Essential oils are volatile and fragrant substances with an oily consistency typically produced by plants. They contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components at quite different concentrations with a significant insecticide potential, essentially as ovicidal, larvicidal, adulticidal, repellency, antifeedant, growth and reproduction inhibitors...
September 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937594/molecular-tools-for-the-detection-and-the-identification-of-hymenoptera-parasitoids-in-tortricid-fruit-pests
#17
Pierre Franck, Mariline Maalouly-Matar, Jérôme Olivares
Biological control requires specific tools for the accurate detection and identification of natural enemies in order to estimate variations in their abundance and their impact according to changes in environmental conditions or agricultural practices. Here, we developed two molecular methods of detection based on PCR-RFLP with universal primers and on PCR with specific primers to identify commonly occurring larval parasitoids of the tortricid fruit pests and to estimate parasitism in the codling moth. Both methods were designed based on DNA sequences of the COI mitochondrial gene for a range of parasitoids that emerged from Cydia pomonella and Grapholitamolesta caterpillars (102 parasitoids; nine species) and a range of potential tortricid hosts (40 moths; five species) damaging fruits...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936664/analysis-of-proteins-enriched-in-rice-gamete
#18
Takashi Okamoto
In angiosperms, female gamete differentiation, fertilization, and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries. Despite their importance in plant reproduction and development, how the egg cell is specialized, fuses with the sperm cell, and converts into an active zygote for early embryogenesis remains unclear. Proteins enriched in each cell type are thought to reflect the biological function of the cells, since the composition of cellular proteins generally differs depending on cell type...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936662/manual-isolation-of-living-cells-from-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-female-gametophyte-by-micromanipulation
#19
Maria Englhart, Lucija Šoljić, Stefanie Sprunck
The few-celled female gametophyte, or embryo sac, of flowering plants is not easily accessible as it is buried within the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. Nevertheless, it has become an attractive model system to study the molecular mechanisms underlying patterning and cell type specification, as well as fertilization of the two female gametes, the egg and the central cell. While female gametes, zygotes, and early embryos can be manually isolated from the embryo sacs in maize, wheat, tobacco, and rice by micromanipulation, this approach had been considered impossible for the much smaller embryo sac of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936125/vitrification-as-an-alternative-approach-for-sperm-cryopreservation-in-marine-fishes
#20
Rafael Cuevas-Uribe, E Hu, Harry Daniels, Adriane O Gill, Terrence R Tiersch
The Southern Flounder Paralichthys lethostigma is a high-value species and a promising aquaculture candidate. Because sperm volume can be limited in this species (<500 μL), new sperm cryopreservation methods need to be evaluated. Vitrification is an alternative to conventional slow-rate freezing, whereby small volumes are cryopreserved at high cooling rates (>1,000°C/min). The goal of this work was to develop a standardized approach for vitrification of Southern Flounder sperm. The specific objectives were to (1) evaluate thawing methods and vitrification solutions, (2) evaluate the postthaw membrane integrity of sperm vitrified in different cryoprotectant solutions, (3) examine the relationship between membrane integrity and motility, and (4) evaluate the ability of vitrified sperm to fertilize eggs...
2017: North American Journal of Aquaculture
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