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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749007/reactive-oxygen-species-as-mediators-of-sperm-capacitation-and-pathological-damage
#1
REVIEW
R J Aitken
Oxidative stress plays a major role in the life and death of mammalian spermatozoa. These gametes are professional generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to derive from three potential sources: sperm mitochondria, cytosolic L-amino acid oxidases, and plasma membrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases. The oxidative stress created via these sources appears to play a significant role in driving the physiological changes associated with sperm capacitation through the stimulation of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate/Protein kinase A phosphorylation cascade, including the activation of Extracellular signal regulated kinase-like proteins, massive up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation in the sperm tail, as well as the induction of sterol oxidation...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748836/morphometric-and-morphological-appraisal-of-the-eggs-of-anopheles-stephensi-diptera-culicidae-from-india
#2
Varun Tyagi, Sunil Dhiman, Ajay K Sharma, A R Srivastava, Bipul Rabha, D Sukumaran, Vijay Veer
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Anopheles stephensi is one of the most important urban malaria vectors in India and contribute about 12% of total malaria cases. An. stephensi has three ecological variants; type, intermediate and mysorensis that can be differentiated on the basis of differences in number of ridges on egg float and on the basis of spiracular indices. Because of its anthropophilic nature the 'type' form is an efficient malaria vector. In the present study, the egg surface morphometry and morphology of An...
April 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748783/detection-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-and-other-foodborne-parasites-in-fox-cat-and-dog-faeces-collected-in-kitchen-gardens-in-a-highly-endemic-area-for-alveolar-echinococcosis
#3
Marie-Lazarine Poulle, Matthieu Bastien, Yolan Richard, Émilie Josse-Dupuis, Dominique Aubert, Isabelle Villena, Jenny Knapp
Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are foodborne parasites whose eggs or oocysts are spread in the environment via canid or felid faeces. They can cause infections in humans following the raw consumption of contaminated fruit or vegetables. In this study, their occurrence was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 254 carnivore faeces deposited in 94 kitchen gardens of northeastern France that were sampled between two and six times from October 2011 to April 2013...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748472/fetax-assay-for-evaluation-of-developmental-toxicity
#4
Isabelle Mouche, Laure Malésic, Olivier Gillardeaux
The frog embryo teratogenesis assay Xenopus (FETAX) test is a development toxicity screening test. Due to the small amount of compound needed and the capability to study organogenesis in a short period of time (96 h), FETAX test constitutes an efficient development toxicity alert test when performed early in drug safety development. The test is conducted on fertilized Xenopus laevis mid-blastula-stage eggs over the organogenesis period. Compound teratogenic potential is determined after analysis of the mortality and malformation observations on larvae...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748076/allergens-labeling-on-french-processed-foods-an-oqali-study
#5
Charlène Battisti, Amélie Chambefort, Olivier Digaud, Barbara Duplessis, Cécile Perrin, Jean-Luc Volatier, Julie Gauvreau-Béziat, Céline Menard
The French Observatory of Food Quality (Oqali) aims at collecting all nutritional data provided on labels of processed foods (nutritional information and composition), at branded products level, in order to follow nutritional labeling changes over time. This study carries out an overview of allergens labeling frequencies by distinguishing allergens used in recipes from those listed on precautionary statements, for the fourteen allergen categories for which labeling is mandatory according to European legislation...
July 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747985/comparative-study-of-fertilization-rates-of-c57bl-6nkorl-and-c57bl-6n-mice-obtained-from-two-other-sources
#6
Woo Bin Yun, Hye Ryeong Kim, Ji Eun Kim, Jun Young Choi, Mi Rim Lee, Jin Ju Park, Bo Ram Song, Young Suk Jung, Hyun Keun Song, Joon Young Cho, Kil Soo Kim, Dae Youn Hwang
C57BL/6N is the most widely used inbred mouse strain applied in a wide variety of research areas including cancer, cardiovascular biology, developmental biology, diabetes and obesity, genetics, immunology, neurobiology, and sensorineural research. To compare the fertilization rates of C57BL/6NKorl mice with two commercial C57BL/6N stocks, differences in reproductive organ structures, sperm and egg numbers, fertilization rates, and embryo development rates among C57BL/6NKorl (Korea FDA source), C57BL/6NA (USA source), and C57BL/6NB (Japan source) mice were determined...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747770/the-distribution-characteristics-and-applications-for-maternal-cells-on-chicken-egg-vitelline-membrane
#7
Quanlin Li, Wenbo Li, Xingzheng Li, Lulu Liu, Ying Zhang, Yuying Guo, Xia Chen, Guiyun Xu, Jiangxia Zheng
The major components of vitelline membrane (VM) are ovomucin, VM outer (VMO) I and VMO II. At present, the distribution pattern of maternal cells on the VM has not been described in detail. In this study, the existence and distribution characteristics of maternal cells on VM were observed. There were more than 3.2 × 10(5) somatic cells on VM, which were uneven distributed. The calcein AM/PI staining of the maternal cells on the VM showed that the cells' viability changed with the freshness of the eggs, and that the maternal cells gradually underwent apoptosis and became degraded...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747735/major-histocompatibility-complex-genes-partly-explain-early-survival-in-house-sparrows
#8
B Lukasch, H Westerdahl, M Strandh, F Knauer, H Winkler, Y Moodley, H Hoi
Environmental factors and genetic incompatibilities between parents have been suggested as important determinants for embryonic mortality and survival. The genetic set-up of the immune system, specifically the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may also influence individual resistance to infections. MHC proteins are important for an appropriate adaptive immune response and enable T-cells to separate 'self' from 'non-self'. Here we investigate the importance of MHC functional diversity for early development in birds, more specifically, if offspring survival and body mass or size depends on number of different functional MHC alleles, specific functional MHC alleles or similarity of MHC alleles in the parents...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747726/association-of-micrornas-with-argonaute-proteins-in-the-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae-after-blood-ingestion
#9
Xiaonan Fu, George Dimopoulos, Jinsong Zhu
Drastic changes in gene expression occur after adult female mosquitoes take a blood meal and use the nutrients for egg maturation. A growing body of evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to this tightly controlled tissue- and stage-specific gene expression. To investigate the role of miRNAs, we monitored miRNA expression in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae during the 72-h period immediately after blood feeding. We also measured the association of miRNAs with Argonaute 1 (Ago1) and Argonaute 2 (Ago2) to assess the functional status of individual miRNA species...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747724/effects-of-testosterone-and-flutamide-on-reproduction-in-brachionus-calyciflorus
#10
Jian Tian, Lulu Liu, Yajie Han, Yuanhao Yang, Sichen Jin, Jiaxin Yang
The effects of testosterone and flutamide on reproduction in Brachionus calyciflorus were studied. Asexual reproduction in B. calyciflorus was not affected by testosterone at different concentrations of flutamide. Flutamide in combination with 0, 25, 50, or 75 µg L(-1) testosterone had a significant effect on mixis rate. The combination of 5 µg L(-1) flutamide with 25 µg L(-1) or 50 µg L(-1) testosterone resulted in a mixis rate that was 2.2× lower than that with flutamide alone. Fertilization rate was significantly decreased by 7...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747546/inhibition-of-avian-tumor-virus-replication-by-ccch-type-zinc-finger-antiviral-protein
#11
Mingjun Zhu, Xiaoqian Ma, Xiyao Cui, Jing Zhou, Chengui Li, Libo Huang, Yingli Shang, Ziqiang Cheng
CCCH type zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of a variety of viruses in mammals. However, little is known about its antiviral activity on avian tumor virus. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, induces myelocytomas and various other tumors in meat and egg type chickens. Here, we identified a chicken ZAP (chZAP) that increased at early stage, and subsequently decreased after infection of ALV-J in DF-1 cells, indicating the inducible feature of the endogenous chZAP...
July 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747475/daphniid-zooplankton-assemblage-shifts-in-response-to-eutrophication-and-metal-contamination-during-the-anthropocene
#12
Mary Alta Rogalski, Peter R Leavitt, David K Skelly
Human activities during the Anthropocene result in habitat degradation that has been associated with biodiversity loss and taxonomic homogenization of ecological communities. Here we estimated effects of eutrophication and heavy metal contamination, separately and in combination, in explaining zooplankton species composition during the past 125-145 years using analysis of daphniid diapausing egg banks from four lakes in the northeastern USA. We then examined how these community shifts influenced patterns of diversity and homogenization...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747474/male-female-relatedness-at-specific-snp-linkage-groups-influences-cryptic-female-choice-in-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#13
Cornelia Geßner, Sheri L Johnson, Paul Fisher, Shannon Clarke, Kim Rutherford, Jane Symonds, Neil J Gemmell
In a range of taxa, the relatedness between mates influences both pre- and post-mating processes of sexual selection. However, relatively little is known about the genetic loci facilitating such a bias, with the exception of the major histocompatibility complex. Here, we performed tightly controlled replicated in vitro fertilization trials to explore the impact of relatedness on two possible mechanisms of cryptic female choice (CFC) in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We tested (i) whether relatedness of mates, assessed using 682 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on 29 SNP-linkage groups (LGs), biases a male's sperm velocity in ovarian fluid (a parameter previously shown to predict male fertilization success), and (ii) whether relatedness of mates governs fertilization success via other mechanisms, probably via sperm-egg interactions...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747239/palaeoparasitology-and-palaeogenetics-review-and-perspectives-for-the-study-of-ancient-human-parasites
#14
Nathalie M-L Côté, Matthieu LE Bailly
While some species of parasites can be identified to species level from archaeological remains using microscopy (i.e. Enterobius vermicularis, Clonorchis sinensis), others can only be identified to family or genus level as different species produce eggs with similar morphology (i.e. Tænia sp. and Echinococcus sp.). Molecular and immunological approaches offer the possibility to provide more precise determination at the species level. They can also identify taxa when classic parasite markers such as eggs or cysts have been destroyed over time...
July 27, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747233/post-mating-spermatophore-storage-strategies-in-two-species-of-crayfish-implications-for-broodstock-management
#15
B Yazicioglu, A Kouba, P Kozák, H Niksirat
Female crayfish stores male gametes after mating until the beginning of egg laying and fertilization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the duration of post-mating spermatophore storage as well as the timing and temperature of spawning in two crayfish species of economic importance, namely the signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and the noble crayfish Astacus astacus. Results showed that the average duration of the post-mating spermatophore storage is significantly (P<0.05) longer in the noble crayfish (34...
July 27, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747222/prevalence-and-seasonal-transmission-of-schistosoma-haematobium-infection-among-school-aged-children-in-kaedi-town-southern-mauritania
#16
N'Guessan G C Gbalégba, Kigbafori D Silué, Ousmane Ba, Hampâté Ba, Nathan T Y Tian-Bi, Grégoire Y Yapi, Aboudramane Kaba, Brama Koné, Jürg Utzinger, Benjamin G Koudou
BACKGROUND: Mauritania is at the fringe of transmission of human schistosomiasis, which mainly occurs in the southern and southeastern parts of the country. This study aimed to assess the influence of rainfall seasonality on the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection among school-aged children in Kaedi, southern Mauritania. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys (i.e. parasitological, malacological and observations on water-related human activities) were carried out in Kaedi between September 2014 and May 2015, during both the wet and dry seasons...
July 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747071/a-hibernation-like-state-for-transplantable-organs-is-h-sub-2-sub-s-therapy-the-future-of-organ-preservation
#17
George Dugbartey, Hjalmar Bouma, Manujendra N Saha, Ian Lobb, Robert H Henning, Alp Sener
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, during which renal grafts from deceased donors are routinely cold stored to suppress metabolic demand and thereby limit ischemic injury. However, prolonged cold storage followed by reperfusion induces extensive tissue damage termed cold ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and puts the graft at risk of both early and late rejection. The underlying mechanism of IRI is not completely understood and a reliable/ suitable method to protect the renal graft against cold IRI is lacking...
July 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746998/bioaccumulation-distribution-and-elimination-of-chlordecone-in-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-field-and-laboratory-studies
#18
Anne Lafontaine, Eric Gismondi, Nathalie Dodet, Célia Joaquim-Justo, Céline Boulangé-Lecomte, Fanny Caupos, Soazig Lemoine, Laurent Lagadic, Joëlle Forget-Leray, Jean-Pierre Thomé
Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide that has been widely used in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) to control the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus from 1972 to 1993. A few years after its introduction, widespread contamination of soils, rivers, wild animals and aquatic organisms was reported. Although high chlordecone concentrations have been reported in several crustacean species, its uptake, internal distribution, and elimination in aquatic species have never been described. This study aimed at investigating the accumulation and tissue distribution of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using both laboratory (30 days exposure) and field (8 months exposure) approaches...
July 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746620/reproductive-biology-of-the-green-ground-snake-erythrolamprus-poecilogyrus-sublineatus-serpentes-dipsadidae-in-subtropical-brazil
#19
Fernando M Quintela, Wiliam C Marques, Daniel Loebmann
We investigated reproductive features of the dipsadid snake Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus in the southernmost Brazilian coast, a subtropical region characterized by well-marked seasons. Females are significantly smaller than males, have a shorter tail, and reach sexual maturity at later times along their development. In contrast to tropical subspecies, E. p. sublineatus females presented a seasonal pattern, with secondary follicles occurring from late winter to early autumn and egg production restricted to the whole spring and early summer...
July 24, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746447/the-first-assessment-of-the-stress-inducible-defense-of-leucaena-leucocephala-with-acaricidal-potential-effect-against-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus-acari-ixodidae
#20
Lêdia Feitosa Wanderley, Karla Lílian Rodrigues Batista, Jorgiane Furtado de Carvalho, Aldilene da Silva Lima, Gabriel Alves Landulfo, Alexandra Martins Dos Santos Soares, Livio Martins Costa
Plants respond to wounding caused by mechanical stress or herbivory by synthesizing defense proteins. There are no studies reporting the action of induced plant proteins against ticks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanically wounded Leucaena leucocephala leaves against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Initially, we carried out time course experiments to evaluate the impact of mechanical wounding on the protein content and the peroxidase, catalase and protease inhibitor activities in L...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
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