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Leptomeningeal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915102/acceleration-selective-arterial-spin-labeling-mr-angiography-used-to-visualize-distal-cerebral-arteries-and-collateral-vessels-in-moyamoya-disease
#1
Osamu Togao, Akio Hiwatashi, Makoto Obara, Koji Yamashita, Kazufumi Kikuchi, Ryotaro Kamei, Ataru Nishimura, Koichi Arimura, Koji Yoshimoto, Koji Iihara, Marc Van Cauteren, Hiroshi Honda
Purpose To evaluate and compare the performance of acceleration-selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in the visualization of cerebral arteries and collateral vessels in patients with Moyamoya disease with that of time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography, with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. Materials and Methods Thirty-six cerebral hemispheres from 22 patients with Moyamoya disease underwent TOF and AccASL MR angiography and DSA. Qualitative evaluations included imaging of the terminal internal carotid artery (ICA), distal middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), Moyamoya vessels, and leptomeningeal anastomosis (LMA) collaterals with reference to DSA...
September 15, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902082/contrast-enhanced-3-dimensional-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-sequences-have-greater-sensitivity-for-detection-of-leptomeningeal-metastases-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-compared-with-conventional-spoiled-gradient-echo-sequences
#2
Michael J Utz, Mandeep S Tamber, Gary E Mason, Ian F Pollack, Ashok Panigrahy, Giulio Zuccoli
Postcontrast 3-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) sequences have reduced vascular and flow-related artifacts and high sensitivity to low gadolinium concentrations. We compared the performance of postcontrast spoiled gradient echo images to 3D-FLAIR in the detection of leptomeningeal metastases in 47 pediatric patients with brain tumors. We found 10 cases with more leptomeningeal signal abnormalities on 3D-FLAIR. Overall there were significantly more lesions on 3D-FLAIR than spoiled gradient echo sequences...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881814/diagnostic-and-prognostic-values-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-cyfra-21-1-in-patients-with-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis
#3
Jae-Won Hyun, Ji Hyun Park, Boo Gil Kang, Eun Young Park, Boram Park, Jungnam Joo, Jong Kuk Kim, Su-Hyun Kim, Jee Hyang Jeong, Hyang Woon Lee, Kee Duk Park, Kyung Gyu Choi, Sang-Hyun Hwang, Ho-Shin Gwak, Ho Jin Kim
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic values of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CYFRA 21-1 in patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC). METHODS: Concentration of CSF CYFRA 21-1 was detected using electro-chemiluminescent immunoassay. The difference in level of CYFRA 21-1 between 61 patients with LMC and 200 patients with other neurological disease was evaluated, and diagnostic performance of CSF CYFRA 21-1 was investigated. In LMC patients treated with ventriculo-lumbar perfusion (VLP) chemotherapy, prognostic performance of CSF CYFRA 21-1 was evaluated...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872108/induction-of-paralysis-and-visual-system-injury-in-mice-by-t-cells-specific-for-neuromyelitis-optica-autoantigen-aquaporin-4
#4
Sharon A Sagan, Andrés Cruz-Herranz, Collin M Spencer, Peggy P Ho, Lawrence Steinman, Ari J Green, Raymond A Sobel, Scott S Zamvil
While it is recognized that aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-specific T cells and antibodies participate in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune demyelinating disease, creation of an AQP4-targeted model with both clinical and histologic manifestations of CNS autoimmunity has proven challenging. Immunization of wild-type (WT) mice with AQP4 peptides elicited T cell proliferation, although those T cells could not transfer disease to naïve recipient mice. Recently, two novel AQP4 T cell epitopes, peptide (p) 135-153 and p201-220, were identified when studying immune responses to AQP4 in AQP4-deficient (AQP4(-/-)) mice, suggesting T cell reactivity to these epitopes is normally controlled by thymic negative selection...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870642/high-dose-thiotepa-busulfan-cyclophosphamide-and-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-as-upfront-consolidation-for-systemic-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-with-synchronous-central-nervous-system-involvement
#5
David Qualls, Andrew Sullivan, Shuli Li, Andrew M Brunner, Kerry Collier, Ephraim Hochberg, Philippe Armand, Tracy T Batchelor, Yi-Bin Chen, Zachariah DeFilipp
INTRODUCTION: Synchronous involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) at the diagnosis of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is associated with an increased risk for relapse despite complete remission to initial therapy. High-dose chemotherapy with a CNS-directed conditioning regimen followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) holds promise as a consolidative approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients with systemic B-cell NHL and synchronous CNS involvement who received upfront consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy with thiotepa, busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and ASCT while in first complete remission between July 2008 and June 2016 at 2 partner academic institutions...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862550/voxel-based-lesion-mapping-of-meningioma-a-comprehensive-lesion-location-mapping-of-260-lesions
#6
Ryuichi Hirayama, Manabu Kinoshita, Hideyuki Arita, Naoki Kagawa, Haruhiko Kishima, Naoya Hashimoto, Yasunori Fujimoto, Toshiki Yoshimine
OBJECTIVE In the present study the authors aimed to determine preferred locations of meningiomas by avoiding descriptive analysis and instead using voxel-based lesion mapping and 3D image-rendering techniques. METHODS Magnetic resonance images obtained in 248 treatment-naïve meningioma patients with 260 lesions were retrospectively and consecutively collected. All images were registered to a 1-mm isotropic, high-resolution, T1-weighted brain atlas provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute (the MNI152), and a lesion frequency map was created, followed by 3D volume rendering to visualize the preferred locations of meningiomas in 3D...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833469/clinicopathologic-features-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-24-cats-with-histopathologically-confirmed-neurologic-feline-infectious-peritonitis
#7
A H Crawford, A L Stoll, D Sanchez-Masian, A Shea, J Michaels, A R Fraser, E Beltran
BACKGROUND: Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is the most common infectious central nervous system (CNS) disease in the cat and is invariably fatal. Improved means of antemortem diagnosis is required to facilitate clinical decision making. Information regarding the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of neurologic FIP currently is limited, resulting in the need for better descriptions to optimize its use as a diagnostic tool. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinicopathologic features and MRI findings in cases of confirmed neurologic FIP...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806983/profiling-of-metalloprotease-activities-in-cerebrospinal-fluids-of-patients-with-neoplastic-meningitis
#8
Catharina Conrad, Kristina Dorzweiler, Miles A Miller, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Herwig Strik, Jörg W Bartsch
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic invasion into leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, resulting in neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a fatal complication of advanced solid and hematological neoplasms. Identification of malignant involvement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) early in the disease course has crucial prognostic and therapeutic implications, but remains challenging. As indicators of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier, Matrix Metalloproteases (MMPs) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteases (ADAMs) are potential analytes for cerebral pathophysiology and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells into the CSF...
August 14, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802798/most-common-sites-on-mri-of-intracranial-neoplastic-leptomeningeal-disease
#9
J Matthew Debnam, Rory R Mayer, T Linda Chi, Leena Ketonen, Jeffrey S Weinberg, Wei Wei, Morris D Groves, Nandita Guha-Thakurta
Neoplastic leptomeningeal disease (LMD) represents infiltration of the leptomeninges by tumor cells. Knowledge of the frequencies of locations of LMD on MRI may assist in early detection, help elucidate the process of leptomeningeal spread of cancer and understand how LMD affects the central nervous system. Our goal was to identify intracranial sites of neoplastic LMD predilection on MRI in patients with cytologically-proven LMD. The presence of FLAIR signal hyperintensity and T1-weighted post-contrast enhancement in the sulci of the supratentorial compartment and cerebellum and enhancement of the cranial nerves (CNs), basal cisterns, pituitary stalk, and ependymal surface of the lateral ventricles, as well as the presence of parenchymal metastasis were recorded...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780251/convexity-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-due-to-cardioembolic-stroke-in-a-woman-with-thyrotoxicosis-%C3%AE-case-report
#10
Ioanna Spanou, Sophia Vassilopoulou, Eleni Koroboki, Argyro Tountopoulou, Georgios Velonakis, Dimos Dimitrios Mitsikostas
BACKGROUND: Non-traumatic convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) is a rarely reported condition with a wide spectrum of etiologies. Cerebral ischemia secondary to extracranial or intracranial atherosclerotic disease has been identified as a relatively uncommon cause of cSAH. CASE REPORT: We report a case of cSAH caused by cardioembolic stroke. A 69-year old female patient developed suddenly left-sided face and body weakness and numbness and visual neglect on the left...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779849/the-necessity-of-intrathecal-chemotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer-patients-with-leptomeningeal-metastasis-a-systematic-review-and-pooled-analysis
#11
Yen-Chien Lee, Chung-Cheng Hsieh, Jen-Pin Chuang, Chung-Yi Li
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is a devastating disease. Despite its numerous complications, intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy remains a longstanding treatment for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Using case studies with internationally reported results, we attempted to determine the necessity of IT chemotherapy in treating leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. We conducted a systematic review and pooled analysis to compare hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and IT therapy. We excluded articles on IT trastuzumab therapy. We performed our literature search without language restriction...
July 12, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769567/thyroid-cancer-in-a-patient-with-lynch-syndrome-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Monika Fazekas-Lavu, Andrew Parker, Allan D Spigelman, Rodney J Scott, Richard J Epstein, Michael Jensen, Katherine Samaras
Lynch syndrome describes a familial cancer syndrome comprising germline mutations in one of four DNA mismatch repair genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 and is characterized by colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies. Thyroid cancer is not usually considered to be part of the constellation of Lynch syndrome cancers nor have Lynch syndrome tumor gene mutations been reported in thyroid malignancies. This study reports a woman with Lynch syndrome (colonic cancer and a DNA mismatch repair mutation in the MSH2 gene) with a synchronous papillary thyroid cancer...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728749/numb-chin-with-mandibular-pain-or-masticatory-weakness-as-indicator-for-systemic-malignancy-a-case-series-study
#13
Shin-Yu Lu, Shu-Hua Huang, Yen-Hao Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Numb chin syndrome (NCS) is a critical sign of systemic malignancy; however it remains largely unknown by clinicians and dentists. The aim of this study was to investigate NCS that is more often associated with metastatic cancers than with benign diseases. METHODS: Sixteen patients with NCS were diagnosed and treated. The oral and radiographic manifestations were assessed. RESULTS: Four (25%) of 16 patients with NCS were affected by nonmalignant diseases (19% by medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw and 6% by osteopetrosis); yet 12 (75%) patient conditions were caused by malignant metastasis, either in the mandible (62%) or intracranial invasion (13%)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721010/antiglioma-effects-of-cytarabine-on-leptomeningeal-metastasis-of-high-grade-glioma-by-targeting-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#14
Kai-Hong Zhao, Can Zhang, Yue Bai, Yan Li, Xun Kang, Jian-Xin Chen, Kun Yao, Tao Jiang, Xiao-Song Zhong, Wen-Bin Li
Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) of high-grade glioma is a highly lethal disease requiring new effective therapeutic measures. For both de novo or relapsed glioma with LM, intrathecal cytarabine chemotherapy is not frequently used for first-line and relapse protocols. We encountered a clinical case demonstrating effective application of cytarabine in high-grade glioma with LM, prompting us to explore the effects of cytarabine on malignant glioma and molecular mechanisms of such effects through in vivo and in vitro experiments...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713152/metastatic-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-1-alk-1-rearranged-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-sarcoma-to-the-brain-with-leptomeningeal-involvement-favorable-response-to-serial-alk-inhibitors-a-case-report
#15
Cai Yuan, Muchou J Ma, John V Parker, Tarek M Mekhail
BACKGROUND ALK gene rearrangements as oncogenic drivers have been described in many cancers, including inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma (IMS). The first-generation ALK inhibitor was limited in its ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier to treat brain metastasis. Drug-resistance invariably develops over time in ALK-rearranged tumors, which leads to disease progression. The newer generations of ALK inhibitors are designed to have higher potency in ALK inhibition and improved CNS penetration. CASE REPORT We report a rare case of pulmonary IMS with ALK-1 gene rearrangement and multiple brain metastases as initial presentation...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709170/-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-as-a-rare-metastatic-spreading-of-braf-mutated-microsatellite-stable-colon%C3%A2-cancer
#16
Aksana Höblinger, Stephanie Weber, Florian Tschirner, Stefan Kröber, Konrad Streetz
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is a rare but serious complication of solid tumors such as melanoma, breast and lung cancer, as well as gastrointestinal carcinomas. Its clinical manifestation is highly variable, presenting as radicular pain with or without neurological deficits, as well as with headaches and hallucinatory irritation symptoms. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is often misdiagnosed, which delays treatment. Here we report a rare case of a patient with BRAF-mutated microsatellite stable colon carcinoma with lymphatic and skeletal metastases, who developed neurological symptoms one month after the initial diagnosis of malignancy...
July 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696016/central-nervous-system-relapse-of-rhabdomyosarcoma
#17
Brian De, Michael D Kinnaman, Leonard H Wexler, Kim Kramer, Suzanne L Wolden
PURPOSE: The optimal management of central nervous system (CNS) relapse of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is unclear. We examined diagnosis, management, and outcomes of patients with RMS developing CNS relapse. METHODS: Records of 23 patients diagnosed with CNS relapse between 1999 and 2016 were reviewed. Median age at presentation of CNS relapse was 15 years (range, 1-34 years). High-risk features at initial presentation were as follows: 16 alveolar patients, 13 Stage IV, and 13 with primary tumor in parameningeal locations...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686125/atypical-choroid-plexus-papilloma-spontaneous-resolution-of-diffuse-leptomeningeal-contrast-enhancement-after-primary-tumor-removal-in-2-pediatric-cases
#18
Marcello Scala, Giovanni Morana, Claudia Milanaccio, Marco Pavanello, Paolo Nozza, Maria Luisa Garrè
Atypical choroid plexus papillomas can metastasize in the form of leptomeningeal seeding. Postoperative chemotherapy is the recommended first-line treatment when gross-total removal is not achieved or in cases of disseminated disease. Here the authors report on 2 children with atypical choroid plexus papillomas and MRI findings of diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement at diagnosis, later presenting with spontaneous resolution of the leptomeningeal involvement after removal of the primary lesions. Observations in this report expand our knowledge about the natural history and biological behavior of these tumors and highlight the role of close neuroimaging surveillance in the management of atypical choroid plexus papillomas in cases with MRI evidence of diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement at presentation...
September 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676785/atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-two-case-reports-and-an-analysis-of-adult-cases-with-implications-for-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#19
Christopher Dardis, Jared Yeo, Kelly Milton, Lynn S Ashby, Kris A Smith, Shwetal Mehta, Emad Youssef, Jenny Eschbacher, Kathy Tucker, Laughlin Dawes, Neil Lambie, Elizabeth Algar, Elizabeth Hovey
We present the first quantitative analysis of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) in adults, including two patients from our own institutions. These are of interest as one occurred during pregnancy and one is a long-term survivor. Our review of pathological findings of 50 reported cases of adult ATRT leads us to propose a solely ectodermal origin for the tumor and that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a defining feature. Thus, the term ATRT may be misleading. Our review of clinical findings shows that ATRT tends to originate in mid-line structures adjacent to the CSF, leading to a high rate of leptomeningeal dissemination...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660318/reduced-volume-radiotherapy-for-patients-with-localized-intracranial-nongerminoma-germ-cell-tumors
#20
Brian De, Oren Cahlon, Ira J Dunkel, Kevin C De Braganca, Yasmin Khakoo, Stephen W Gilheeney, Mark M Souweidane, Suzanne L Wolden
Craniospinal irradiation is standard radiotherapy (RT) for localized intracranial nongerminoma germ cell tumors (NGGCT). Given its toxicity, there is interest in using smaller fields. We examined outcomes of NGGCT patients receiving reduced-volume RT at a single institution. Records of 16 patients who received reduced-volume RT as part of definitive treatment between 1996 and 2016 were reviewed. Median age at presentation was 10.8 years (range 4.6-41.0 years). Ten patients had pineal tumors and 6 had suprasellar tumors...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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