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Leptomeningeal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548244/primary-histiocytic-sarcoma-presenting-as-diffuse-leptomeningeal-disease-case-description-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Magda Zanelli, Moira Ragazzi, Giovanni Marchetti, Alessandra Bisagni, Massimo Principi, Daniela Fanni, Elisabetta Froio, Silvia Serra, Eleonora Zanetti, Loredana De Marco, Felice Giangaspero, Stefano Ascani
Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm arising most commonly in lymph nodes, intestinal tract, skin and soft tissue. The incidence of primary CNS histiocytic sarcoma is even rarer with a total of just 27 cases reported in the literature so far. Herein we describe the first autopsy case of histiocytic sarcoma presenting as a diffuse leptomeningeal disease in absence of a CNS tumor-forming parenchymal lesion. The clinical, pathological and immunophenotypic features are described and an updated literature review on primary CNS histiocytic sarcoma is included...
May 26, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538229/treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-primary-central-nervous-system-germ-cell-tumour-clinical-experience-from-a-regional-cancer-centre-in-north-india
#2
Ahitagni Biswas, Pramod Kumar Julka, Sameer Bakhshi, Manmohan Singh, Goura Kishor Rath
BACKGROUND: Primary intracranial germ cell tumour is a rare entity and constitutes 2-3% of all paediatric brain tumours in Western countries. We herein intend to report the clinical features and treatment outcome of patients with primary central nervous system germ cell tumour treated at our institute. METHODS: Clinical data were collected by retrospective chart review from 2006 to 2012. Histopathology slides were reviewed and relevant immunohistochemistry stains were done...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536993/stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-focal-leptomeningeal-disease-in-patients-with-brain-metastases
#3
Amparo Wolf, Bernadine Donahue, Joshua S Silverman, Abraham Chachoua, Jean K Lee, Douglas Kondziolka
Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is well described in patients with brain metastases, presenting symptomatically in approximately 5% of patients. Conventionally, the presence of LMD is an indication for whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and not suitable for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the local control and overall survival of patients who underwent SRS to focal LMD. We reviewed our prospective registry and identified 32 brain metastases patients with LMD, from a total of 465 patients who underwent SRS between 2013 and 2015...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528606/vitiligo-not-simply-a-skin-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jusleen Ahluwalia, Lilia M Correa-Selm, Babar K Rao
Melanocytes, the cells responsible for skin pigmentation, are present in other parts of the body, such as the ocular, auditory, nervous, and cardiac systems. Within these systems, their roles serve a different purpose than their classical counterparts in skin as pigment cells. Such roles include cell turnover in retinal pigment epithelium, maintenance of balance and prevention of environmental damage in the auditory neuroepithelium, role-playing as dendritic cells within the leptomeninges, and prevention of oxidative damage in adipose tissue...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516076/primary-central-nervous-system-vasculitis-mimicking-a-cortical-brain-tumor-a-case-report
#5
Joo-Seok Lee, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Seul-Kee Kim
We report a case of primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) mimicking a cortical brain tumor. A 25-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of headache and transient right hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cortical-involving lesion on the left frontal lobe. The 6-cm sized lesion showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The lesion had continual linear enhancement on the subcortical white matter and leptomeninges...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512411/spinal-intradural-intramedullary-dissemination-in-the-absence-of-intracranial-relapse-of-a-previously-radically-treated-temporal-lobe-glioblastoma-multiforme
#6
Lucas Serrano, Eleftherios Archavlis, Elke Januschek, Pavel Timofeev, Peter Ulrich
Intracranial glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) constitutes the most frequent and unfortunately aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy. Despite the high tendency of these tumors to show local relapse within the brain after primary therapy, dissemination into the spinal axis is an infrequent event. If spinal metastases occur they are leptomeningeal in the vast majority of cases and always in the context of intracranial progressive disease. Spinal intramedullary metastases of intracranial GBM have rarely been described to date...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490517/atoh1-promotes-leptomeningeal-dissemination-and-metastasis-of-sonic-hedgehog-subgroup-medulloblastomas
#7
Katie B Grausam, Samuel Dr Dooyema, Laure Bihannic, Hasitha Premathilake, A Sorana Morrissy, Antoine Forget, Amanda M Schaefer, Justin H Gundelach, Slobodan Macura, Diane M Maher, Xin Wang, Alex H Heglin, Xijin Ge, Erliang Zeng, Stephanie Puget, Indra Chandrasekar, Kameswaran Surendran, Richard J Bram, Ulrich Schüller, Michael D Taylor, Olivier Ayrault, Haotian Zhao
Medulloblastoma (MB) arising from the cerebellum is the most common pediatric brain malignancy, with leptomeningeal metastases often present at diagnosis and recurrence associated with poor clinical outcome. In this study, we employed mouse MB models to explore the relationship of tumor pathophysiology and dysregulated expression of the Notch pathway transcription factor ATOH1, which is present in aggressive MB subtypes driven by aberrant Sonic Hedgehog/Patched (SHH/PTCH) signaling. In experiments with conditional Atoh1 mouse mutants crossed to Ptch1(+/-) mice which develop SHH-driven MB[63], animals with Atoh1 transgene expression developed highly penetrant MB at a young age with extensive leptomeningeal disease and metastasis to the spinal cord and brain, resembling xenografts of human SHH MB...
May 10, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489796/leptomeningeal-metastasis-of-poorly-differentiated-uterine-cervical-adenosquamous-carcinoma-following-reirradiation-to-metastatic-vertebrae-a-case-report
#8
Yueh-Feng Lu, Vai Hong Fong, Wen-Yih Wu, Li-Ying Wang, Chen-Hsi Hsieh
RATIONALE: Leptomeningeal metastasis from cervical adenosquamous carcinoma is extremely rare especially after radiotherapy for vertebral metastasis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 52-year-old woman with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIB adenosquamous carcinoma of cervix presented with bilateral lower limbs weakening after 2 courses radiotherapy to thoracic vertebral metastases. DIAGNOSES: Initial spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no obvious nerve compression, and radiation myelopathy was suspected by the clinician...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479262/diagnosing-neuroleukemiosis-is-there-a-role-for-18-f-fdg-pet-ct
#9
A Sabaté-Llobera, M Cortés-Romera, E Gamundí-Grimalt, J J Sánchez-Fernández, L Rodríguez-Bel, C Gámez-Cenzano
An imaging case is presented on a patient referred to our department for an (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, as a paraneoplastic syndrome was suspected due to his clinical situation. He had a history of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated two years earlier, with sustained complete remission to date. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT findings revealed hypermetabolism in almost all nerve roots, suggesting meningeal spread, consistent with the subsequent MRI findings. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings confirmed a leptomeningeal reactivation of AML...
May 4, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417657/a-kissing-lesion-in-vivo-7t-evidence-of-meningeal-inflammation-in-early-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Pierre Kolber, Amgad Droby, Alard Roebroeck, Rainer Goebel, Vinzenz Fleischer, Sergiu Groppa, Frauke Zipp
BACKGROUND: The role of cortical lesions (CLs) in disease progression and clinical deficits is increasingly recognized in multiple sclerosis (MS); however the origin of CLs in MS still remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Here, we report a para-sulcal CL detected two years after diagnosis in a relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patient without manifestation of clinical deficit. METHODS: Ultra-high field (7T) MR imaging using magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echoes (MP2RAGE) sequence was performed...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399903/overexpression-of-syndecan-1-muc-1-and-putative-stem-cell-markers-in-breast-cancer-leptomeningeal-metastasis-a-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-cytometry-study
#11
Iole Cordone, Serena Masi, Valentina Summa, Mariantonia Carosi, Antonello Vidiri, Alessandra Fabi, Alessia Pasquale, Laura Conti, Immacolata Rosito, Carmine Maria Carapella, Veronica Villani, Andrea Pace
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a mosaic of tumor cell subpopulations, where only a minority is responsible for disease recurrence and cancer invasiveness. We focused on one of the most aggressive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which, from the primitive tumor, spreads to the central nervous system (CNS), evaluating the expression of prognostic and putative cancer stem cell markers in breast cancer (BC) leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). METHODS: Flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (4...
April 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382437/diffuse-leptomeningeal-glioneuronal-tumor-dlgnt-mimicking-whipple-s-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Vega Karlowee, Manish Kolakshyapati, Vishwa Jeet Amatya, Takeshi Takayasu, Ryo Nosaka, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Kaoru Kurisu, Fumiyuki Yamasaki
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor is a new entity under the neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors in the WHO 2016 updated classification and commonly found in children and adolescents. The initial diagnosis is challenging because of its non-specific radiologic feature and negative CSF cytology analysis. A 17 years male was presented with intractable headache subsequently followed by back pain and joint pain. MRI showed enhancement of arachnoid membrane at basal cistern, bilateral sylvian fissure and cerebral cistern with slight enlargement of ventricles...
April 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381689/meningeal-infiltration-of-malignant-lymphoma-presenting-with-froin-s-syndrome
#13
Tomoyuki Saga, Toshimichi Ishihara, Michiyo Kanagawa
Froin's syndrome is characterized by a combination of marked coagulation, elevated protein levels, and xanthochromia of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is due to blockage of CSF flow by a spinal cord mass or results from meningeal irritation during meningitis. However, Froin's syndrome has not been reported in hematological malignancies. Herein, we present two cases of lymphomatous leptomeningitis with Froin's syndrome. A 66-year-old man suffered consciousness disturbance during chemotherapy for a relapse of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353226/proteomic-biomarker-identification-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-for-leptomeningeal-metastases-with-neurological-complications
#14
Norma Galicia, Paula Díez, Rosa M Dégano, Paul C Guest, Nieves Ibarrola, Manuel Fuentes
Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) from solid tumours, lymphoma and leukaemia are characterized by multifocal neurological deficits with a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are essential to kerb neurological deterioration. However, this is not always possible as 25% of cerebrospinal fluid samples produce false-negative results at first cytological examination. The identification of biomarkers that allow stratification of individuals according to risk for developing LM would be a major benefit...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348631/optic-neuropathy-as-the-initial-presenting-sign-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-encephalitis
#15
Mark Mugavin, Brett H Mueller, Masoom Desai, Karl C Golnik
A 52-year-old woman presented with painless vision loss for 3 months. She was in custody for allegedly robbing a bank and had recently been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. She had 20/100 VA OD, a 2+RAPD, and optic atrophy. Extensive diagnostic workup including MRI, Fluorescein Angiography, Infectious Disease Panel, lumbar puncture, and leptomeningeal biopsy were unrevealing. Vision in her right eye declined to NLP and her left eye declined to 20/200 VA. Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Autoimmune Encephalitis was diagnosed based on CSF serology and clinical suspicion...
April 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330942/primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system-magnetic-resonance-imaging-spectrum-of-parenchymal-meningeal-and-vascular-lesions-at-baseline
#16
Grégoire Boulouis, Hubert de Boysson, Mathieu Zuber, Loïc Guillevin, Eric Meary, Vincent Costalat, Christian Pagnoux, Olivier Naggara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. METHODS: Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included...
May 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302609/enhancing-brain-lesions-during-acute-optic-neuritis-and-or-longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis-may-portend-a-higher-relapse-rate-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#17
G Orman, K Y Wang, Y Pekcevik, C B Thompson, M Mealy, M Levy, I Izbudak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are inflammatory demyelinating disorders with optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis episodes. We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. Immune-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier may manifest as contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging. We aimed to delineate the extent and frequency of contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and to correlate contrast enhancement with outcome measures...
May 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298807/diagnostic-value-of-cyfra-21-1-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-for-leptomeningeal-metastasis
#18
Zhen Zhang, Chenglin Tian, Qiang Shi, Jing Hao, Na Zhao, Zhijie Liu
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology has low sensitivity for leptomeningeal metastasis (LM); thus, new markers are needed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of LM. We measured carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1) in paired samples of CSF and serum from patients with LM and patients with nonmalignant neurological diseases (NMNDs) as controls. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed to assess their diagnostic accuracy for LM. In patients with NMNDs, CEA and CYFRA 21-1 levels in the CSF were significantly lower than the serum levels...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298418/disrupting-the-cd47-sirp%C3%AE-anti-phagocytic-axis-by-a-humanized-anti-cd47-antibody-is-an-efficacious-treatment-for-malignant-pediatric-brain-tumors
#19
Sharareh Gholamin, Siddhartha S Mitra, Abdullah H Feroze, Jie Liu, Suzana A Kahn, Michael Zhang, Rogelio Esparza, Chase Richard, Vijay Ramaswamy, Marc Remke, Anne K Volkmer, Stephen Willingham, Anitha Ponnuswami, Aaron McCarty, Patricia Lovelace, Theresa A Storm, Simone Schubert, Gregor Hutter, Cyndhavi Narayanan, Pauline Chu, Eric H Raabe, Griffith Harsh, Michael D Taylor, Michelle Monje, Yoon-Jae Cho, Ravi Majeti, Jens P Volkmer, Paul G Fisher, Gerald Grant, Gary K Steinberg, Hannes Vogel, Michael Edwards, Irving L Weissman, Samuel H Cheshier
Morbidity and mortality associated with pediatric malignant primary brain tumors remain high in the absence of effective therapies. Macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of tumor cells via blockade of the anti-phagocytic CD47-SIRPα interaction using anti-CD47 antibodies has shown promise in preclinical xenografts of various human malignancies. We demonstrate the effect of a humanized anti-CD47 antibody, Hu5F9-G4, on five aggressive and etiologically distinct pediatric brain tumors: group 3 medulloblastoma (primary and metastatic), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma...
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283598/leptomeningeal-gadolinium-enhancement-across-the-spectrum-of-chronic-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Martina Absinta, Irene C M Cortese, Luisa Vuolo, Govind Nair, Manori P de Alwis, Joan Ohayon, Alessandro Meani, Vittorio Martinelli, Roberta Scotti, Andrea Falini, Bryan R Smith, Avindra Nath, Steven Jacobson, Massimo Filippi, Daniel S Reich
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and the specificity of leptomeningeal enhancement (LME) on postcontrast T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI in multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to a variety of inflammatory and noninflammatory neurologic conditions assessed in 2 academic research hospitals. METHODS: On 3T postcontrast T2-FLAIR images, the presence of focal gadolinium enhancement was evaluated in the leptomeningeal compartment in 254 people with non-MS neurologic conditions or neurotropic viral infections...
April 11, 2017: Neurology
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