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Leptomeningeal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417657/a-kissing-lesion-in-vivo-7t-evidence-of-meningeal-inflammation-in-early-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Pierre Kolber, Amgad Droby, Alard Roebroeck, Rainer Goebel, Vinzenz Fleischer, Sergiu Groppa, Frauke Zipp
BACKGROUND: The role of cortical lesions (CLs) in disease progression and clinical deficits is increasingly recognized in multiple sclerosis (MS); however the origin of CLs in MS still remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Here, we report a para-sulcal CL detected two years after diagnosis in a relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patient without manifestation of clinical deficit. METHODS: Ultra-high field (7T) MR imaging using magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echoes (MP2RAGE) sequence was performed...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399903/overexpression-of-syndecan-1-muc-1-and-putative-stem-cell-markers-in-breast-cancer-leptomeningeal-metastasis-a-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-cytometry-study
#2
Iole Cordone, Serena Masi, Valentina Summa, Mariantonia Carosi, Antonello Vidiri, Alessandra Fabi, Alessia Pasquale, Laura Conti, Immacolata Rosito, Carmine Maria Carapella, Veronica Villani, Andrea Pace
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a mosaic of tumor cell subpopulations, where only a minority is responsible for disease recurrence and cancer invasiveness. We focused on one of the most aggressive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which, from the primitive tumor, spreads to the central nervous system (CNS), evaluating the expression of prognostic and putative cancer stem cell markers in breast cancer (BC) leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). METHODS: Flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (4...
April 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382437/diffuse-leptomeningeal-glioneuronal-tumor-dlgnt-mimicking-whipple-s-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Vega Karlowee, Manish Kolakshyapati, Vishwa Jeet Amatya, Takeshi Takayasu, Ryo Nosaka, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Kaoru Kurisu, Fumiyuki Yamasaki
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor is a new entity under the neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors in the WHO 2016 updated classification and commonly found in children and adolescents. The initial diagnosis is challenging because of its non-specific radiologic feature and negative CSF cytology analysis. A 17 years male was presented with intractable headache subsequently followed by back pain and joint pain. MRI showed enhancement of arachnoid membrane at basal cistern, bilateral sylvian fissure and cerebral cistern with slight enlargement of ventricles...
April 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381689/meningeal-infiltration-of-malignant-lymphoma-presenting-with-froin-s-syndrome
#4
Tomoyuki Saga, Toshimichi Ishihara, Michiyo Kanagawa
Froin's syndrome is characterized by a combination of marked coagulation, elevated protein levels, and xanthochromia of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is due to blockage of CSF flow by a spinal cord mass or results from meningeal irritation during meningitis. However, Froin's syndrome has not been reported in hematological malignancies. Herein, we present two cases of lymphomatous leptomeningitis with Froin's syndrome. A 66-year-old man suffered consciousness disturbance during chemotherapy for a relapse of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353226/proteomic-biomarker-identification-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-for-leptomeningeal-metastases-with-neurological-complications
#5
Norma Galicia, Paula Díez, Rosa M Dégano, Paul C Guest, Nieves Ibarrola, Manuel Fuentes
Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) from solid tumours, lymphoma and leukaemia are characterized by multifocal neurological deficits with a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are essential to kerb neurological deterioration. However, this is not always possible as 25% of cerebrospinal fluid samples produce false-negative results at first cytological examination. The identification of biomarkers that allow stratification of individuals according to risk for developing LM would be a major benefit...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348631/optic-neuropathy-as-the-initial-presenting-sign-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-encephalitis
#6
Mark Mugavin, Brett H Mueller, Masoom Desai, Karl C Golnik
A 52-year-old woman presented with painless vision loss for 3 months. She was in custody for allegedly robbing a bank and had recently been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. She had 20/100 VA OD, a 2+RAPD, and optic atrophy. Extensive diagnostic workup including MRI, Fluorescein Angiography, Infectious Disease Panel, lumbar puncture, and leptomeningeal biopsy were unrevealing. Vision in her right eye declined to NLP and her left eye declined to 20/200 VA. Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Autoimmune Encephalitis was diagnosed based on CSF serology and clinical suspicion...
April 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330942/primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system-magnetic-resonance-imaging-spectrum-of-parenchymal-meningeal-and-vascular-lesions-at-baseline
#7
Grégoire Boulouis, Hubert de Boysson, Mathieu Zuber, Loïc Guillevin, Eric Meary, Vincent Costalat, Christian Pagnoux, Olivier Naggara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. METHODS: Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included...
March 22, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302609/enhancing-brain-lesions-during-acute-optic-neuritis-and-or-longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis-may-portend-a-higher-relapse-rate-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#8
G Orman, K Y Wang, Y Pekcevik, C B Thompson, M Mealy, M Levy, I Izbudak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are inflammatory demyelinating disorders with optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis episodes. We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. Immune-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier may manifest as contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging. We aimed to delineate the extent and frequency of contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and to correlate contrast enhancement with outcome measures...
March 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298807/diagnostic-value-of-cyfra-21-1-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-for-leptomeningeal-metastasis
#9
Zhen Zhang, Chenglin Tian, Qiang Shi, Jing Hao, Na Zhao, Zhijie Liu
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology has low sensitivity for leptomeningeal metastasis (LM); thus, new markers are needed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of LM. We measured carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1) in paired samples of CSF and serum from patients with LM and patients with nonmalignant neurological diseases (NMNDs) as controls. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed to assess their diagnostic accuracy for LM. In patients with NMNDs, CEA and CYFRA 21-1 levels in the CSF were significantly lower than the serum levels...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298418/disrupting-the-cd47-sirp%C3%AE-anti-phagocytic-axis-by-a-humanized-anti-cd47-antibody-is-an-efficacious-treatment-for-malignant-pediatric-brain-tumors
#10
Sharareh Gholamin, Siddhartha S Mitra, Abdullah H Feroze, Jie Liu, Suzana A Kahn, Michael Zhang, Rogelio Esparza, Chase Richard, Vijay Ramaswamy, Marc Remke, Anne K Volkmer, Stephen Willingham, Anitha Ponnuswami, Aaron McCarty, Patricia Lovelace, Theresa A Storm, Simone Schubert, Gregor Hutter, Cyndhavi Narayanan, Pauline Chu, Eric H Raabe, Griffith Harsh, Michael D Taylor, Michelle Monje, Yoon-Jae Cho, Ravi Majeti, Jens P Volkmer, Paul G Fisher, Gerald Grant, Gary K Steinberg, Hannes Vogel, Michael Edwards, Irving L Weissman, Samuel H Cheshier
Morbidity and mortality associated with pediatric malignant primary brain tumors remain high in the absence of effective therapies. Macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of tumor cells via blockade of the anti-phagocytic CD47-SIRPα interaction using anti-CD47 antibodies has shown promise in preclinical xenografts of various human malignancies. We demonstrate the effect of a humanized anti-CD47 antibody, Hu5F9-G4, on five aggressive and etiologically distinct pediatric brain tumors: group 3 medulloblastoma (primary and metastatic), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma...
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283598/leptomeningeal-gadolinium-enhancement-across-the-spectrum-of-chronic-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#11
Martina Absinta, Irene C M Cortese, Luisa Vuolo, Govind Nair, Manori P de Alwis, Joan Ohayon, Alessandro Meani, Vittorio Martinelli, Roberta Scotti, Andrea Falini, Bryan R Smith, Avindra Nath, Steven Jacobson, Massimo Filippi, Daniel S Reich
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and the specificity of leptomeningeal enhancement (LME) on postcontrast T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI in multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to a variety of inflammatory and noninflammatory neurologic conditions assessed in 2 academic research hospitals. METHODS: On 3T postcontrast T2-FLAIR images, the presence of focal gadolinium enhancement was evaluated in the leptomeningeal compartment in 254 people with non-MS neurologic conditions or neurotropic viral infections...
April 11, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283064/complement-component-3-adapts-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-for-leptomeningeal-metastasis
#12
Adrienne Boire, Yilong Zou, Jason Shieh, Danilo G Macalinao, Elena Pentsova, Joan Massagué
We molecularly dissected leptomeningeal metastasis, or spread of cancer to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is a frequent and fatal condition mediated by unknown mechanisms. We selected lung and breast cancer cell lines for the ability to infiltrate and grow in CSF, a remarkably acellular, mitogen-poor metastasis microenvironment. Complement component 3 (C3) was upregulated in four leptomeningeal metastatic models and proved necessary for cancer growth within the leptomeningeal space. In human disease, cancer cells within the CSF produced C3 in correlation with clinical course...
March 9, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248916/light-induced-hemiplegia-an-atypical-case-of-retinal-steal-syndrome
#13
David Kerek, Sami Al Kasab, Michael U Antonucci, Raymond D Turner, Tanya N Turan
Atherosclerosis affecting the carotid arteries accounts for up to 20% of ischemic strokes 1. The clinical effects of atherosclerotic occlusive disease vary according to multiple factors, one of which is collateral circulation. In response to a chronic decrease in cerebral perfusion from atherosclerotic occlusion, alternative flow pathways, or collaterals, develop in a variety of patterns. In the setting of carotid occlusion, flow from the Circle of Willis, if complete, often comprises the main cerebral collateral network...
March 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248859/seizure-syndrome-as-a-first-manifestation-of-solitary-tumor-like-mass-lesion-of-pacns-two-case-reports
#14
De-Sheng Zhu, Xiao-Li Yang, Hui-Hui Lv, Chen-Guang Bai, Pang-Pan Yang, Ze-Zhi Li, Yong Hao, Ying Zhang, Yang-Tai Guan
RATIONALE: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is an inflammatory disease involving cerebrovascular and parenchymal, and solitary tumor-like mass lesion of PACNS (TLML-PACNS) is frequently misdiagnosed as neoplastic or other inflammatory diseases. However, seizure syndrome as a first manifestation of TLML-PACNS has rarely reported before. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we report 2 cases of seizure syndrome, which was the first sign that presented prior to the diagnosis of TLML-PACNS by brain biopsy...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246336/apolipoprotein-e-and-alzheimer-disease-the-influence-of-apoe-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-other-amyloidogenic-proteins
#15
Tien-Phat V Huynh, Albert A Davis, Jason D Ulrich, David M Holtzman
Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the fastest-growing causes of death and disability in persons 65 years or older, affecting more than 5 million Americans alone. Clinical manifestations of AD include progressive decline in memory, executive function, language, and other cognitive domains. Research efforts within the last three decades have identified the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) as the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset AD, which accounts for >99% of cases. The apoE protein is hypothesized to affect AD pathogenesis through a variety of mechanisms, from its effects on the blood brain barrier, the innate immune system, synaptic function, to the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ)...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245967/pulsatile-erlotinib-in-egfr-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-with-leptomeningeal-and-brain-metastases-review%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Joan How, Janelle Mann, Andrew N Laczniak, Maria Q Baggstrom
Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive (EGFR(+)) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) show improved response rates when treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as erlotinib. However, standard daily dosing of erlotinib often does not reach therapeutic concentrations within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in progression of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Intermittent, high-dose administration of erlotinib reaches therapeutic concentrations within the CSF and is well tolerated in patients...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243595/cns-metastases-from-bone-and-soft-tissue-sarcomas-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-are-they-really-so-rare
#17
Monika Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Agnieszka Duczkowska, Marek Duczkowski, Hanna Bragoszewska, Anna Romaniuk-Doroszewska, Beata Iwanowska, Sylwia Szkudlinska-Pawlak, Jaroslaw Madzik, Katarzyna Bilska, Anna Raciborska
Purpose. To check whether primary involvement of brain/spinal cord by bone/soft tissue sarcomas' metastases in children is as rare as described and to present various morphological forms of bone/soft tissue sarcomas' CNS metastases. Methods. Patients with first diagnosis in 1999-2014 treated at single center were included with whole course of disease evaluation. Brain/spinal canal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography were performed in cases suspicious for CNS metastases. Extension from skull/vertebral column metastases was excluded...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215459/leptomeningeal-metastases-presenting-exclusively-with-ocular-disturbance-in-34-patients-a-tertiary-care-cancer-hospital-experience
#18
Rory Richard Mayer, Benjamin Jay Frankfort, Ben A Strickland, James Matthew Debnam, Ian E McCutcheon, Morris D Groves, Jeffrey S Weinberg
Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) represents disseminated intracranial metastatic disease that requires early detection and initiation of therapy. Patients with LMD typically present with a variety of neurologic problems, including ocular disturbances. However, little is reported on LMD presenting exclusively with ocular-related disturbances in the absence of any other central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Our goal was to describe the workup for ocular disturbances in the setting of known cancer diagnosis. Retrospective case study utilizing prospectively collected database at a tertiary cancer care center for all patients with diagnosis of LMD between 2001 and 2009...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210185/neoplastic-leptomeningeal-disease-masquerading-as-central-serous-retinopathy-a-case-report
#19
Ibrahim Elaraoud, Hanif J Suleman, Peter Cikatricis, Helen Palmer
A 69-year-old man became aware of people's speech being out of synch with their lip movements alongside persistent headaches, both of which progressively worsened. A few weeks later, he developed progressive and painless visual loss in one eye. Initial neurological evaluation, inflammatory markers and head computed tomography scan were normal. Ophthalmological examination and OCT scan revealed right macular subretinal fluid with choroidal indentation, which prompted urgent further investigations including head MRI revealing extensive leptomeningeal disease...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190444/management-of-neuro-oncologic-emergencies
#20
REVIEW
J T Jo, D Schiff
Patients with brain tumors and systemic malignancies are subject to diverse neurologic complications that require urgent evaluation and treatment. These neurologic conditions are commonly due to the tumor's direct effects on the nervous system, such as cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, seizures, spinal cord compression, and leptomeningeal metastases. In addition, neurologic complications can develop as a result of thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, hyperviscosity syndromes, infection, immune-related disorders, and adverse effects of treatment...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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