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Method Development

Chen Zhou, Haimin Zou, Ming Li, Chengjun Sun, Dongxia Ren, Yongxin Li
A fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (FOSPR) sensor was developed for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) in water and juice, based on antimicrobial peptides (AMP), Magainin I, as recognition elements and silver nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs-rGO) nanocomposites assisted signal amplification. The uniform AgNPs-rGO was fixed on the surface of optical fiber and covered with gold film. Not only was the SPR response greatly enhanced, but also the AgNPs was prevented from being oxidized...
June 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Brompoj Prutthiwanasan, Leena Suntornsuk
A simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as micelles, for the determination of ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENR), norfloxacin (NOR) and ofloxacin (OFL) residues in surface water was developed. Peak Master was used for predicting amounts of analyte ionic forms to reduce numbers of tedious experiments in optimizing the analyte capacity factors. A baseline separation (Rs  > 2.8) of the analytes was achieved in 7 min using 15 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 6...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Xiaona Dong, Yiwei Zhang, Zhiyun Meng, Xiaoxia Zhu, Hui Gan, Ruolan Gu, Zhuona Wu, Jian Li, Ying Zheng, Baofeng Yang, Guifang Dou
HYD-PEP06 is a novel RGD-modified Endostar mimetic peptide with 30 amino acids that is intended to suppress the formation of neoplasm vessels. This assay was developed and validated to monitor the level of the peptide HYD-PEP06 in rat blood, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). HYD-PEP10, another peptide similar to the analyte, was used as an internal standard (IS). A triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode and an electrospray interface (ESI) in the positive mode were used for MS analysis...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Kayoko Kato, Akil A Kalathil, Ayesha M Patel, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), man-made chemicals with variable length carbon chains containing the perfluoroalkyl moiety (Cn F2n+1 -), are used in many commercial applications. Since 1999-2000, several long-chain PFAS, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), have been detected at trace levels in the blood of most participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-representative samples of the U.S. general population-while short-chain PFAS have not...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Yang Yang, Ting Fong May Chui
Attention is increasingly being paid to low impact development (LID) practices in urban stormwater management. Because LID practices offer a wide variety of hydro-environmental benefits, it is often necessary to account for these benefits collectively in cost-benefit analysis and LID alternative selection. The conventional methods of quantifying these benefits, however, can hardly incorporate the preferences of decision makers, and commonly involve tedious parameter estimations. To address these shortcomings, this study adopts a relative performance evaluation method to assess the various hydro-environmental impacts of LID alternatives in small urban catchments...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Victor Boureau, Robert McLeod, Benjamin Mayall, David Cooper
In this paper we discuss developments for Lorentz mode or "medium resolution" off-axis electron holography such that it is now routinely possible obtain very high sensitivity phase maps with high spatial resolution whilst maintaining a large field of view. Modifications of the usual Fourier reconstruction procedure have been used to combine series of holograms for sensitivity improvement with a phase-shifting method for doubling the spatial resolution. In the frame of these developments, specific attention is given to the phase standard deviation description and its interaction with the spatial resolution as well as the processing of reference holograms...
June 4, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Florence Mei Fung Wong
BACKGROUND: Small group work is an effective teaching-learning approach in nursing education to enhance students' learning in theoretical knowledge and skill development. Despite its potential advantageous effects on learning, little is known about its actual effects on students' learning from students' and educators' perspectives. OBJECTIVES: To understand students' learning through small group work from the perspectives of students and educators. DESIGN: A qualitative study with focus group interviews was carried out...
June 18, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Susanne M van Hooft, Yvonne N Becqué, Jolanda Dwarswaard, AnneLoes van Staa, Roland Bal
BACKGROUND: Nurses are expected to support people to self-manage. Student nurses therefore need to master competencies that include the assessment of peoples' needs and preferences, and shared decision-making, whilst respecting and enhancing peoples' autonomy. Adapting nurse education programmes to meet this goal requires insight into the practice of teaching self-management support. In order to reveal this practice, one can distinguish between the intended, the taught, and the received curriculum...
June 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Zhaoan Xu, Tao Li, Jun Bi, Ce Wang
Natural lakes play a vital role as receiving system of a cocktail of antibiotics (ABs) which have triggered a major health concern. The comparisons of ABs concentrations have been substantially implemented throughout the worldwide range. However, from lake management, the questions are not yet adequately solved: "when and where does the overall pollution level of ABs present more serious, and what AB species dominate". In this study, we detected 22 ABs in water column and sediment bottom in Taihu Lake Basin in January, April, July and October in 2017...
June 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
J A Lossio-Ventura, J Bian, C Jonquet, M Roche, M Teisseire
BACKGROUND: Rapid advancements in biomedical research have accelerated the number of relevant electronic documents published online, ranging from scholarly articles to news, blogs, and user-generated social media content. Nevertheless, the vast amount of this information is poorly organized, making it difficult to navigate. Emerging technologies such as ontologies and knowledge bases (KBs) could help organize and track the information associated with biomedical research developments. A major challenge in the automatic construction of ontologies and KBs is the identification of words with its respective sense(s) from a free-text corpus...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Marcos Dellaretti, Daniel Ronconi, Danilo Malta Batista, Renata Ferreira de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Romeu de Almeida, Renato Rinco Fontoura, Paulo Ramos Botelho Antunes, Ricardo Sousa Quadros
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the use of microsurgery for clipping aneurysms has decreased considerably. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms even in less developed countries. METHODS: Retrospective review of the medical records of 320 patients with 416 aneurysms treated with microsurgical clipping from 2008 to 2016 in a single neurosurgical center in Brazil. This study evaluated postoperative outcome, using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on hospital discharge, treatment efficacy, assessed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) performed postoperatively, and mortality...
June 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Alberto Berardi, Lorina Bisharat, Anaheed Blaibleh, Lucia Pavoni, Marco Cespi
Tablets disintegration is often the result of a size expansion of the tablets. In this study, we quantified the extent and direction of size expansion of tablets during disintegration, using readily available techniques, i.e. a digital camera and a public domain image analysis software. After validating the method, the influence of disintegrants concentration and diluents type on kinetics and mechanisms of disintegration were studied. Tablets containing diluent, disintegrant (sodium starch glycolate-SSG, crospovidone-PVPP or croscarmellose sodium-CCS) and lubricant were prepared by direct compression...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Md Abdullah Al Maruf, Swakkahr Shatabda
Recombination hotspots in a genome are unevenly distributed. Hotspots are regions in a genome that show higher rates of meiotic recombinations. Computational methods for recombination hotspot prediction often use sophisticated features that are derived from physico-chemical or structure based properties of nucleotides. In this paper, we propose iRSpot-SF that uses sequence based features which are computationally cheap to generate. Four feature groups are used in our method: k-mer composition, gapped k-mer composition, TF-IDF of k-mers and reverse complement k-mer composition...
June 20, 2018: Genomics
D Horvath, B Brutovsky
We developed simulation methodology to assess eventual therapeutic efficiency of exogenous multiparametric changes in a four-component cellular system described by the system of ordinary differential equations. The method is numerically implemented to simulate the temporal behavior of a cellular system of multiple myeloma cells. The problem is conceived as an inverse optimization task where the alternative temporal changes of selected parameters of the ordinary differential equations represent candidate solutions and the objective function quantifies the goals of the therapy...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Jian Li, Manyu Xiang, Ruixiang Zhang, Bin Xu, Wei Hu
Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that threaten over 600 million people globally. In recent years, RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely used as a molecular tool in research into the genomic function of parasites. We aim to develop effective protocols for application of RNAi technology in the intra-mammalian life stages of Schistosoma japonicum. In this work, the expression of the parasite gene encoding cathepsin B1 (SjCB1) was targeted by exposing the worms to 10 μg of long dsRNA dissolved in 0...
June 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Siok-Fong Chin, Junaida Osman, Rahman Jamal
A simple and economical method has been developed for simultaneous determination of human serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OHD2 ) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3 ) using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). Non-human matrix of 4% BSA was used to construct the calibration curve and in quality control samples' preparation to avoid interference of the endogenous 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) present in the human serum. 25OHD2 , 25OHD3 and dodecanophenone (internal standard, IS) were separated on a CORTECS solid-core particle column and monitored by photodiode array detector at wavelength of 265 nm within five min run time...
June 20, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Mark G Swain, David E J Jones
The management of fatigue associated with chronic liver disease is a complex and major clinical challenge. Although fatigue can complicate many chronic diseases, it is particularly common in diseases with an inflammatory component. Fatigue can have both peripheral (i.e., neuromuscular) and central (i.e., resulting from changes in neurotransmission within the brain) causes. However, fatigue in chronic liver disease has strong social/contextual components and is often associated with behavioural alterations including depression and anxiety...
June 23, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Shengsong Huang, Yu Qin, Yingna Chen, Jing Pan, Chengdang Xu, Denglong Wu, Wan-Yu Chao, John T Wei, Scott A Tomlins, Xueding Wang, J Brian Fowlkes, Paul L Carson, Qian Cheng, Guan Xu
PURPOSE: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy is the standard procedure for evaluating the presence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer. TRUS biopsy involves tissue removal, and suffers from low core yield as well as high false negative rate. A less invasive and more accurate diagnostic procedure for prostate cancer is therefore highly desired. Combining the optical sensitivity and ultrasonic resolution to resolve the spatial distribution of the major molecular components in tissue, photoacoustic (PA) technology could be an alternative approach for the diagnosis of prostate cancer...
June 23, 2018: Medical Physics
Lucia Mergola, Ciriana Orabona, Elisa Albini, Giuseppe Vasapollo, Sonia Scorrano, Roberta Del Sole
l-Kynurenine is an endogenous metabolite generated by the catabolic pathway of l-tryptophan and it could be a potential biomarker to test the efficacy of several checkpoint inhibitors that have already reached the clinical trials in the antitumor therapy. Thus, a molecularly imprinted polymer specific for the recognition of this metabolite was synthesized and used as innovative system in solid-phase extraction technique for the specific extraction and quantification of l-kynurenine in human urine. The off-line system was firstly tested on l-kynurenine standard solutions, allowing recoveries up to 97...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
James Rijken, Tanya Kairn, Scott Crowe, Luis Muñoz, Jamie Trapp
PURPOSE: The ability to accurately predict skin doses and thereby design radiotherapy treatments that balance the likelihood of skin reactions against other treatment objectives is especially important when hypofractionated prescription regimes are used. However, calculations of skin dose provided by many commercial radiotherapy treatment planning systems are known to be inaccurate, especially if the presence of immobilization equipment is not accurately taken into account. This study proposes a simple method by which the accuracy of skin dose calculations can be substantially improved, to allow informed evaluation of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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