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Drugs of Abuse

Nancy A Gonzales, Michaeline Jensen, Jenn Yun Tein, Jessie J Wong, Larry E Dumka, Anne Marie Mauricio
Importance: Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. Objective: To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
Drug use during pregnancy constitutes a major preventable worldwide public health issue. Birth defects, growth retardation and neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with tobacco, alcohol or drugs of abuse exposure during pregnancy. Besides these adverse health effects, drug use during pregnancy also raises legal and social concerns. Identification and quantification of drug markers in maternal and newborn biological samples offers objective evidence of exposure and complements maternal questionnaires...
March 21, 2018: Bioanalysis
Smit D Patel, Rupak Desai, Upenkumar Patel, Sandeep Singh, Zinal Patel, Neel Patel, Allan Zhang, Amruta H Panwala, Vinshi N Khan, Gagandeep Singh, Nihar Shah
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (LGIH) are 2 of the most common reasons for hospital admissions across the United States. The 30-day readmission after index admission poses a major burden on the health care infrastructure, and thus, it is important to assess the causes of 30-day readmission for patients with UGIH and LGIH. METHODS: The study cohort was derived from the 2013 National Readmission Database...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Matt Luther, Fergus Gardiner, Shane Lenson, David Caldicott, Ryan Harris, Ryan Sabet, Mark Malloy, Jo Perkins
Specific Event Identifiers a. Event type: Outdoor music festival. b. Event onset date: December 3, 2016. c. Location of event: Regatta Point, Commonwealth Park. d. Geographical coordinates: Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia (-35.289002, 149.131957, 600m). e. Dates and times of observation in latitude, longitude, and elevation: December 3, 2016, 11:00-23:00. f. Response type: Event medical support. Abstract Introduction Young adult patrons are vulnerable to risk-taking behavior, including drug taking, at outdoor music festivals...
March 21, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, Atami O Sagna, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: US suicide rates among older women have substantially increased over the past decade. We examined potential differences in sociodemographic and risk/precipitating factors among older female suicide decedents who died by drug overdose versus firearms, hanging/suffocation, and other means, and postmortem toxicology results by suicide means. METHODS: Data are from the 2005 to 2015 US National Violent Death Reporting System (N = 12,401 female decedents aged 50 years and over)...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Bridget W Brox, Bart A Ellenbroek
BACKGROUND: Despite ongoing study and research to better understand drug addiction, it continues to be a heavy burden. Only a small percentage of individuals who take drugs of abuse go on to develop addiction. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that a reduction in the serotonin transporter may play an important role for those that transition to compulsive drug taking. Studies have demonstrated that reduced serotonin transporter function potentiates self-administration of psychostimulant drugs ("ecstasy," MDMA; cocaine); however, additional research revealed no differences between genotypes when the opioid heroin was self-administered...
March 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Joshua W Elder, Garrett DePalma, Jesse M Pines
The opioid epidemic is the most significant modern-day, public health crisis. Physicians and lawmakers have developed methods and practices to curb opioid use. This article describes one method, prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP), through the lens of how to optimize use for emergency departments (ED). EDs have rapidly become a central location to combat opioid abuse and drug diversion. PDMPs can provide emergency physicians with comprehensive prescribing information to improve clinical decisions around opioids...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Eboni G Price-Haywood, Wanda Robinson, Jewel Harden-Barrios, Jeffrey Burton, Todd Burstain
Background: Opioid prescription drug abuse is a major public health concern. Healthcare provider prescribing patterns, especially among non-pain management specialists, are a major factor. Practice guidelines recommend what to do for safe opioid prescribing but do not provide guidance on how to implement best practices. Methods: We describe the implementation of electronic medical record clinical decision support (EMR CDS) for opioid management of chronic noncancer pain in an integrated delivery system...
2018: Ochsner Journal
John A Pugliese, Garen J Wintemute, Stephen G Henry
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to extend prior research on barriers to use of a prescription drug monitoring program by examining psychosocial correlates of intended use among physicians and pharmacists. METHODS: Overall, 1,904 California physicians and pharmacists responded to a statewide survey (24.1% response rate) from August 2016 to January 2017. Participants completed an online survey examining attitudes toward prescription drug misuse and abuse, prescribing practices, prescription drug monitoring program design and ease of use, professional obligations, and normative beliefs regarding prescription drug monitoring program use...
March 17, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Bobbi Jo H Yarborough, Felicia W Chi, Carla A Green, Agatha Hinman, Jennifer Mertens, Arne Beck, Michael Horberg, Constance Weisner, Cynthia I Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Understand patient and system characteristics associated with performance on the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Initiation and Engagement of Treatment (IET) measures. METHODS: This mixed-methods study linked patient and health system data from four Kaiser Permanente regions to HEDIS performance measure data for 44,320 commercially or Medicare-insured adults with HEDIS-eligible AOD diagnoses in 2012...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Antonella Sorrentino, Silvia Trotta, Anna Pia Colucci, Lucia Aventaggiato, Andrea Marzullo, Biagio Solarino
"Krokodil" is a home-made opioid drug obtained by synthesizing desomorphine from codeine and combining it with other low-cost additives. Initially introduced in the former Soviet countries, it was then imported to Western Europe as a heroin substitute. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Italian case of lethal krokodil abuse, that occurred in a 39-year-old man, who died suddenly after transportation to the Emergency Department (ED) for hyperthermia associated with sweating, dyspnoea and tachycardia...
March 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Amna Zehra, Jamie Burns, Christopher Kure Liu, Peter Manza, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Cannabis is the most commonly used substance of abuse in the United States after alcohol and tobacco. With a recent increase in the rates of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and a decrease in the perceived risk of cannabis use, it is imperative to assess the addictive potential of cannabis. Here we evaluate cannabis use through the neurobiological model of addiction proposed by Koob and Volkow. The model proposes that repeated substance abuse drives neurobiological changes in the brain that can be separated into three distinct stages, each of which perpetuates the cycle of addiction...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Xiabin Chen, Jing Deng, Wenpeng Cui, Shurong Hou, Jinling Zhang, Xirong Zheng, Xin Ding, Huimei Wei, Ziyuan Zhou, Kyungbo Kim, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fang Zheng
Cocaine abuse is a worldwide public health and social problem without a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication. Accelerating cocaine metabolism that produces biologically inactive metabolites by administration of an efficient cocaine hydrolase (CocH) has been recognized as a promising strategy for cocaine abuse treatment. However, the therapeutic effects of CocH are limited by its short biological half-life (e.g., 8 h or shorter in rats). In this study, we designed and prepared a set of Fc-fusion proteins constructed by fusing Fc(M3) with CocH3 at the N-terminus of CocH3...
March 19, 2018: AAPS Journal
Nalini Vadivelu, Alice M Kai, Gopal Kodumudi, Dan Haddad, Vijay Kodumudi, Niketh Kuruvilla, Alan David Kaye, Richard D Urman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the present investigation, current literature on the relationship between substance abuse and pain is evaluated in order to improve clinical management and its implications on the increasingly challenging chronic pain and substance abuse epidemic. The relationship between substance abuse and chronic pain are evaluated, and this review provides recommendations on the management of this special patient population. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, there are limited guidelines for prescribing opioids and other analgesics in the chronic pain population...
March 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Amneh Al-Husseini, Rana Abu-Farha, Mayyada Wazaify, Marie Claire Van Hout
Objectives: Pregabalin is currently approved for the treatment of epilepsy, generalized anxiety disorder, neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Rising attention to the abuse liability of pregabalin causing addictive behaviors is partially based on case reports and published literature of pregabalin used in dosages that override the approved therapeutic range. This study was conducted to provide background data regarding the abuse/misuse of pregabalin from community pharmacy in Jordan. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional observational study design was used, which was conducted at different community pharmacies in Amman-Jordan...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Albert Dahan, Rutger van der Schrier, Terry Smith, Leon Aarts, Monique van Velzen, Marieke Niesters
The ventilatory control system is highly vulnerable to exogenous administered opioid analgesics. Particularly respiratory depression is a potentially lethal complication that may occur when opioids are overdosed or consumed in combination with other depressants such as sleep medication or alcohol. Fatalities occur in acute and chronic pain patients on opioid therapy and individuals that abuse prescription or illicit opioids for their hedonistic pleasure. One important strategy to mitigate opioid-induced respiratory depression is cotreatment with nonopioid respiratory stimulants...
March 19, 2018: Anesthesiology
Xiao-Meng Zhang, Fan Li, Bing Zhang, Xiao-Fen Chen, Jing-Zhu Piao
The common Aconitum herbs in clinical application mainly include Aconiti Radix(Chuanwu), Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix(Caowu) and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia(Fuzi), all of which have toxicity. Therefore, the safety of using Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum herbs has become an hot topic in clinical controversy. Based on the data-mining methods, this study explored the characteristics and causes of adverse drug reactions/events (ADR/ADE) of the Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum, in order to provide pharmacovigilance and rational drug use suggestions for clinical application...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Wai-Kay Seto, Siu-King Mak, Keith Chiu, Varut Vardhanabhuti, Ho-Fai Wong, Heng-Tat Leong, Paul S F Lee, Y C Ho, Chi-Kei Lee, Ka-Shing Cheung, Man-Fung Yuen, Wai K Leung
BACKGROUND: Recreational ketamine use has emerged as an important health and social issue worldwide. Although ketamine is associated with biliary tract damage, the clinical and radiological profiles of ketamine-related cholangiopathy have not been well-described. METHODS: We prospectively recruited consecutive Chinese individuals who used ketamine recreationally at least twice per month over 6 months in the past 2 years via a territory-wide community network of charitable organizations tackling substance abuse...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Guillermo Benítez, Martí March-Salas, Alberto Villa-Kamel, Ulises Cháves-Jiménez, Javier Hernández, Nuria Montes-Osuna, Joaquín Moreno-Chocano, Paloma Cariñanos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The different species of the genus Datura have been used traditionally by some pre-Columbian civilizations, as well as in medieval rituals linked to magic and witchcraft in both Mexico and Europe. It is also noteworthy the use of different alkaloids obtained from the plants for medicinal purposes in the treatment of various groups of diseases, especially of the respiratory and muscularskeletal systems. AIM OF THE STUDY: A review of the ethnobotanical uses of the genus Datura in Mexico and Spain has been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Danielle Gulick, Joshua J Gamsby
Although potent effects of psychoactive drugs on circadian rhythms were first described over 30 years ago, research into the reciprocal relationship between the reward system and the circadian system - and the impact of this relationship on addiction - has only become a focus in the last decade. Nonetheless, great progress has been made in that short time toward understanding how drugs of abuse impact the molecular and physiological circadian clocks, as well as how disruption of normal circadian rhythm biology may contribute to addiction and ameliorate the efficacy of treatments for addiction...
March 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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