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Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158044/chemical-analysis-and-in-vitro-toxicological-evaluation-of-aerosol-from-a-novel-tobacco-vapor-product-a-comparison-with-cigarette-smoke
#1
Yasunori Takahashi, Yuki Kanemaru, Toshiro Fukushima, Kentaro Eguchi, Shinya Yoshida, Jacqueline Miller-Holt, Ian Jones
The recent rapid increase in the prevalence of emerging tobacco- and nicotine-containing products, such as e-cigarettes, is being driven in part by their reduced-risk potential compared to tobacco smoking. In this study, we examined emission levels for selected cigarette smoke constituents, so-called "Hoffmann analytes", and in vitro toxicity of aerosol from a novel tobacco vapor product (NTV). The NTV thermally vaporizes a nicotine-free carrier liquid to form an aerosol which then passes through tobacco, where it absorbs tobacco-derived flavors and nicotine...
November 17, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155174/ethnopharmacology-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-cornus-officinalis-sieb-et-zucc
#2
REVIEW
Jun Huang, Yiwei Zhang, Lin Dong, Qinghan Gao, Lei Yin, Hongfeng Quan, Rong Chen, Xueyan Fu, Dingbo Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cornus officinalis (Cornaceae), known in Chinese as "Shanzhuyu," is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine. It tastes sour and is astringent and slightly warm in nature. Its fruits have long been used to treat kidney deficiency, high blood pressure, waist and knee pain, dizziness, tinnitus, impotence, spermatorrhea, menorrhagia, and other diseases in China. The main distribution areas are Shanxi and Gansu. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review focused on the ethnopharmacological uses of the herb...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149155/lower-cutoffs-for-lc-ms-ms-urine-drug-testing-indicates-better-patient-compliance
#3
Kevin Krock, Amadeo Pesce, Dennis Ritz, Richard Thomas, Agnes Cua, Ryan Rogers, Phil Lipnick, Kristen Kilbourn
BACKGROUND: Urine drug testing is used by health care providers to determine a patient's compliance to their prescribed regimen and to detect non-prescribed medications and illicit drugs. However, the cutoff levels used by clinical labs are often arbitrarily set and may not reflect the urine drug concentrations of compliant patients. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that commonly used cutoffs for many prescribed and illicit drugs were set too high, and methods using these cutoffs may yield a considerable number of false-negative results...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136879/development-and-evaluation-of-a-new-diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films-technique-for-measuring-organotin-compounds-in-coastal-sediment-pore-water
#4
Russell F Cole, Graham A Mills, Michelle S Hale, Ruth Parker, Thi Bolam, Peter R Teasdale, William W Bennett, Gary R Fones
Organotins present a toxicological risk to biota in the aquatic environment. Understanding the behaviour of these compounds in sediment is challenging, with sophisticated analytical techniques required for their measurement. We investigated the use of silica-bound sorbents for diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) adsorption gels to pre-concentrate five organotins (monobutlytin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), diphenyltin (DPhT), triphenyltin (TPhT)) found frequently in coastal sediment. C8 sorbent showed optimum performance in uptake and recovery of organotins for pH and ionic strength ranges typical of coastal waters...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135039/a-novel-fast-method-for-aqueous-derivatization-of-thc-oh-thc-and-thc-cooh-in-human-whole-blood-and-urine-samples-for-routine-forensic-analyses
#5
Fabio Stefanelli, Federica Giorgia Pesci, Mario Giusiani, Silvio Chericoni
A novel aqueous in situ derivatization procedure with propyl chloroformate (PCF) for the simultaneous, quantitative analysis of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (OH-THC) and 11-nor-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in human blood and urine is proposed. Unlike current methods based on the silylating agent (BSTFA) added in an anhydrous environment, this new proposed method allows to add the derivatizing agent (propyl chloroformate, PCF) directly to the deproteinized blood and recover the derivatives by liquid-liquid extraction...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128652/differences-in-combinations-and-concentrations-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-fatal-intoxication-and-driving-under-the-influence-cases
#6
Hilde Erøy Edvardsen, Torill Tverborgvik, Joachim Frost, Sidsel Rogde, Inge Morild, Helge Waal, Thomas Clausen, Lars Slørdal, Vigdis Vindenes
BACKGROUND: In toxicology, international classification systems focus on single intoxicants as the cause of death. It is, however, well known that very few drug related deaths are caused by a single substance and that information concerning the drug concentrations as well as the combinations of drugs are essential in order to ascertain the cause of death. The aim of the study was to assess whether those prone to fatal intoxications differ significantly from chronic drug users - in terms of demographics and drug exposure patterns...
November 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126988/morinda-officinalis-how-a-comprehensive-review-of-traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology
#7
REVIEW
Jian-Hua Zhang, Hai-Liang Xin, Yue-Ming Xu, Yi Shen, Yu-Qiong He, Hsien-Yeh, Bing Lin, Hong-Tao Song, Juan-Liu, Hai-Yue Yang, Lu-Ping Qin, Qiao-Yan Zhang, Juan Du
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The medicinal plant Morinda officinalisHow. (MO) and its root have long been used in traditional medicines in China and northeast Asia as tonics for nourishing the kidney, strengthening the bone and enhancing immunofunction in the treatment of impotence, osteoporosis, depression and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and dermatitis. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to sum up updated and comprehensive information about traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of MO and provide insights intopotential opportunities for future research and development of this plant...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125650/combination-of-hplc-with-organic-and-inorganic-mass-spectrometry-to-study-the-metabolic-response-of-the-clam-scrobicularia-plana-to-arsenic-exposure
#8
Gema Rodríguez-Moro, Tamara García-Barrera, Chiara Trombini, Julián Blasco, José Luis Gómez-Ariza
Arsenic is a toxic element extensively studied in the marine environment due to differential toxicological effects of inorganic and organic species. In the present work, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana was exposed to As(V) (10 and 100 μg·L(-1) ) for 14 days to evaluate the metabolic perturbations caused by this element. Arsenic speciation and metabolomic analysis were performed in the digestive gland of the bivalve using two complementary analytical platforms based on inorganic and organic mass spectrometry...
November 10, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108484/the-validation-of-quantitative-mass-spectrometry-assays-for-clinical-chemistry-assessments-in-animal-models
#9
Jennifer L Colangelo
Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a key platform in the clinical pathology laboratory and is being used more frequently for clinical pathology assessments in preclinical species for drug development studies. MS assays are being utilized for some traditional clinical pathology end points as well as novel biomarker analyses. For effective deployment in drug development toxicology studies, assays must be validated for use, and these validations are not very different from other bioanalytical platforms commonly found in the clinical pathology laboratory...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107731/liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometric-assay-for-determination-of-unstable-arecoline-in-rat-plasma-and-its-application
#10
Hong Pan, Linyan Huang, Yi Li, Xumei Zhou, Yuanfu Lu, Fuguo Shi
Arecoline, a predominant alkaloid in areca nut, shows several pharmacological and toxicological effects. In present study, a sensitive and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and fully validated for quantification of arecoline in rat plasma. Importantly, our group found that arecoline was highly unstable in rat plasma samples, which brought challenges to accurately quantify in vivo. The hydrolysis of ester moiety of arecoline by carboxylesterases was responsible for its instability, and arecoline was hydrolyzed to arecaidine...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107605/human-health-risks-related-to-the-consumption-of-foodstuffs-of-animal-origin-contaminated-by-bisphenol-a
#11
Sébastien Gorecki, Nawel Bemrah, Alain-Claude Roudot, Eric Marchioni, Bruno Le Bizec, Franck Faivre, Manik Kadawathagedara, Jérémie Botton, Gilles Rivière
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in a wide variety of products and objects for consumers use (digital media such as CD's and DVD's, sport equipment, food and beverage containers, medical equipment). For humans, the main route of exposure to BPA is food. Based on previous estimates, almost 20% of the dietary exposure to BPA in the French population would be from food of animal origin. However, due to the use of composite samples, the source of the contamination had not been identified. Therefore, 322 individual samples of non-canned foods of animal origin were collected with the objectives of first updating the estimation of the exposure of the French population and second identifying the source of contamination of these foodstuffs using a specific analytical method...
October 28, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107001/application-of-gene-specific-mrna-level-determinations-in-individual-cells-using-flow-cytometry-based-primeflow%C3%A2-in-immunotoxicology
#12
Joseph Henriquez, Jiajun Zhou, Jinpeng Li, Robert Crawford, Norbert Kaminski
Determining changes in gene expression by measuring mRNA levels is an important capability in biological research. Real-Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is the most ubiquitous technique for measuring changes in mRNA transcript levels, but heterogeneity of cell populations and low cell number are serious technical limitations. Recent advances in flow cytometric analytical techniques have enabled the quantification of mRNA levels in individual cells. Here, we present examples demonstrating the strength and challenges of concurrently measuring mRNA using PrimeFlow™ with other endpoints in immunotoxicological studies...
December 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106658/investigating-the-generalizability-of-the-multiflow%C3%A2-dna-damage-assay-and-several-companion-machine-learning-models-with-a-set-of-103-diverse-test-chemicals
#13
Steven M Bryce, Derek T Bernacki, Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Kristine L Witt, Jeffrey C Bemis, Stephen D Dertinger
The in vitro MultiFlow® DNA Damage assay multiplexes p53, γH2AX, phospho-histone H3, and polyploidization biomarkers into one flow cytometric analysis (Bryce et al., 2016). The work reported herein evaluated the generalizability of the method, as well as several data analytics strategies, to a range of chemical classes not studied previously. TK6 cells were exposed to each of 103 diverse chemicals, 86 of which were supplied by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and selected based upon responses in genetic damage assays conducted under the Tox21 program...
November 2, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103948/metabolic-stress-and-inflammatory-biomarker-responses-to-glucose-administration-in-fischer-344-rats-intraperitoneal-vs-oral-delivery
#14
Shinjini Pilon, Alison C Holloway, Errol M Thomson
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic effects of anthropogenic chemicals are a focus of environmental health research due to the significant public health implications. Conventional glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) do not generally examine multiple metabolic, inflammatory, and endocrine factors; however, responses to exogenous glucose can provide insight into mode-of-action and disease processes, and warrant consideration in developing models for toxicological assessment. METHODS: GTTs were conducted on male Fischer-344 rats to 1) assess the feasibility of measuring multiple analytes in small sample volumes; 2) monitor analyte response; and 3) determine whether route of glucose delivery (oral, OGTT vs...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078252/analysis-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-oral-fluids-by-means-of-microextraction-by-packed-sorbent-followed-by-uhplc-ms-ms
#15
Rachele Rocchi, Maria Chiara Simeoni, Camilla Montesano, Gabriele Vannutelli, Roberta Curini, Manuel Sergi, Dario Compagnone
In recent years, new drugs, commonly known as "new psychoactive substances" (NPS), appeared on the market, which include, among others, synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones and tryptamine analogs of psilocin. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a new method for simultaneous screening and quantification of 31 NPS in oral fluid by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The chosen target analytes represented different chemical and toxicological NPS classes, such as synthetic cathinones, piperazines, phenethylamines, synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites...
October 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078043/doping-control-analysis-at-the-rio-2016-olympic-and-paralympic-games
#16
Henrique Marcelo Gualberto Pereira, Vinicius Figueiredo Sardela, Monica Costa Padilha, Luciana Mirotti, Alessandro Casilli, Fabio Azamor de Oliveira, Gustavo de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Lucas Martins Lisandro Rodrigues, Amanda Lessa Dutra de Araujo, Rachel Santos Levy, Pedro Antonio Castelo Teixeira, Felipe Alves Gomes de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Giordani Duarte, Ana Carolina Dudenhoeffer Carneiro, Joseph Albert Medeiros Evaristo, Gustavo Ramalho Cardoso Dos Santos, Giovanni Carlo Verissimo da Costa, Fernando de Lima Castro, Fabio Cesar Sousa Nogueira, Fernanda Bertão Scalco, Luciana Pizzatti, Francisco Radler de Aquino Neto
This paper summarizes the results obtained from the doping control analyses performed during the Summer XXXI Olympic Games (from 03 to 21 August 2016) and XV Paralympic Games (from 07 to 18 September 2016). The analyses of all doping control samples were performed at the Brazilian Doping Control Laboratory (LBCD), a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited laboratory located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A new facility at Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ) was built and fully operated by over seven hundred professionals, including Brazilian and international scientists, administrative staff and volunteers...
October 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076992/in-silico-uhplc-method-optimization-for-aglycones-in-the-herbal-laxatives-aloe-barbadensis-mill-cassia-angustifolia-vahl-pods-rhamnus-frangula-l-bark-rhamnus-purshianus-dc-bark-and-rheum-palmatum-l-roots
#17
Nadja Meier, Beat Meier, Samuel Peter, Evelyn Wolfram
For the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) herbal monograph draft of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. and Cassia senna L. leaves and pods, a safety limitation of aloe-emodin and rhein was proposed, due to toxicological concerns. A quantitative, analytical method of the anthraquinone aglycones in all Ph. Eur. monographed herbal laxatives is of interest. A rational method development for the aglycones aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion in five herbal drugs was realized by using 3D chromatographic modelling (temperature, solvent, and gradient time) and design of experiment (DOE) software (DryLab(®) 4)...
October 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054142/elemental-hair-analysis-a-review-of-procedures-and-applications
#18
REVIEW
D Pozebon, G L Scheffler, V L Dressler
Although exogenous contamination and unreliable reference values have limited the utility of scalp hair as a biomarker of chemical elements exposure, its use in toxicological, clinical, environmental and forensic investigations is growing and becoming more extensive. Therefore, hair elemental analysis is reviewed in the current manuscript which spans articles published in the last 10 years. It starts with a general discussion of history, morphology and possible techniques for elemental analysis, where inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is clearly highlighted since this technique is leading quantitative ultra-trace elemental analysis...
November 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045066/fatality-involving-ocfentanil-documented-by-identification-of-metabolites
#19
Nathalie Allibe, Camille Richeval, Mélodie Phanithavong, Amandine Faure, Delphine Allorge, François Paysant, Françoise Stanke-Labesque, Hélène Eysseric-Guerin, Jean-Michel Gaulier
New psychoactive substances (NPS) use has rapidly increased over the last decade, and in the last 4 years producers increasingly appear to be targeting non-controlled synthetic opioids, involving fentanyl derivatives such as ocfentanil (OcF). Identification of metabolites is of major importance in the context of NPS use as it could improve detection window in biological matrices in clinical and forensic intoxication cases. Hence, this work aims to report a fatality involving OcF documented by the identification of metabolites...
October 16, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027369/range-of-therapeutic-prothipendyl-and-prothipendyl-sulfoxide-concentrations-in-clinical-blood-samples
#20
Michael Krämer, Peter Heese, Markus Banger, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Due to a lack of reference blood concentrations in the literature, the forensic evaluation of prothipendyl findings in blood samples is difficult. Interpretations with regard to the assessment of blood concentrations as well as an estimation of the ingested prothipendyl amounts were often vague. To describe a concentration range in clinical samples, prothipendyl and prothipendyl sulfoxide concentrations were determined in serum samples of 50 psychiatric patients receiving 40 mg, 80 mg or 160 mg doses of prothipendyl...
October 12, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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