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Analytical Toxicology

Shokoufeh Hassani, Saeideh Momtaz, Faezeh Vakhshiteh, Armin Salek Maghsoudi, Mohammad Reza Ganjali, Parviz Norouzi, Mohammad Abdollahi
This review discusses the past and recent advancements of biosensors focusing on detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) due to their exceptional use during the last decades. Apart from agricultural benefits, OPs also impose adverse toxicological effects on animal and human population. Conventional approaches such as chromatographic techniques used for pesticide detection are associated with several limitations. A biosensor technology is unique due to the detection sensitivity, selectivity, remarkable performance capabilities, simplicity and on-site operation, fabrication and incorporation with nanomaterials...
October 19, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Stefan C Weiss, Nicole Egetenmeyer, Wolfgang Schulz
Modern analytical test methods increasingly detect anthropogenic organic substances and their transformation products in water samples and in the environment. The presence of these compounds might pose a risk to the aquatic environment. To determine a possible (eco)toxicological risk, aquatic samples are tested using various bioassays, including sub-organismic assays such as the luminescent bacteria inhibition test, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition test, and the umu-test. The effect-directed analysis (EDA) combines physicochemical separation methods with biological (in vitro) tests...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Pandeeswar Makam, Satyaprasad P Senanayak, Thimmaiah Govindaraju
Reliable and ultrasensitive detection of mercury ions is of paramount importance for toxicology assessment, environmental protection and human health. Herein, we present a novel optoelectronic approach based on nanoachitectonics of small molecule templated DNA system that consists of an adenine (A) conjugated small organic semiconductor (BNA) and deoxyribo-oligothymidine (dTn). This mutually templated dynamic chiral co-assembly system (BNAn-dTn) with tunable chiroptical, morphological and electrical properties is tapped in to enable ultra-sensitive and selective detection of inorganic and organometallic mercury in water...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrea E Steuer, Elena Williner, Sandra Staeheli, Thomas Kraemer
Increasing numbers of new psychoactive substances (NPS) among them fentanyl derivatives has been reported by the European monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction (EMCDDA). Butyrfentanyl is a new fentanyl derivative whose potency ratio was found to be seven compared to morphine and 0.13 compared to fentanyl. Several case reports on butyrfentanyl intoxications have been described. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties including its metabolism. However, knowledge of metabolism is essential for analytical detection in clinical and forensic toxicology...
October 13, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Brittany Milton, Daniel Krewski, Donald R Mattison, Nicholas Birkett, Patrick J Farrell, Doreen McGough
INTRODUCTION: Manganese is an essential nutrient which can cause adverse effects if ingested to excess or in insufficient amounts, leading to a U-shaped exposure-response relationship. Methods have recently been developed to describe such relationships by simultaneously modeling the exposure-response curves for excess and deficiency. These methods incorporate information from studies with diverse adverse health outcomes within the same analysis by assigning severity scores to achieve a common response metric for exposure-response modeling...
October 5, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Ruchi R Shah, Kimberly J Hassett, Luis A Brito
Adjuvants are included in sub-unit or recombinant vaccines to enhance the potency of poorly immunogenic antigens. Adjuvant discovery is as complex as it is a multidiscplinary intersection of formulation science, immunology, toxicology, and biology. Adjuvants such as alum, which have been in use for the past 90 years, have illustrated that adjuvant research is a methodical process. As science advances, new analytical tools are developed which allows us to delve deeper into the various mechanisms that generates a potent immune response...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marko Rožman, Mira Petrović
Quantitative target analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS) is ubiquitous in environmental, metabolomic and toxicological studies. Targeted LCMS methods are capable of the simultaneous determination of literally hundreds of analytes. Although acquiring of instrumental data is very fast, data post-processing i.e. quantification can be time consuming step (and)or dependent to various commercial software packages. In attempt to facilitate this drawback Wolfram Mathematica script for batch quantification of LCMS data was created...
2016: MethodsX
Monica Mattarozzi, Michele Suman, Claudia Cascio, Davide Calestani, Stefan Weigel, Anna Undas, Ruud Peters
Estimating consumer exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) in food products and predicting their toxicological properties are necessary steps in the assessment of the risks of this technology. To this end, analytical methods have to be available to detect, characterize and quantify NMs in food and materials related to food, e.g. food packaging and biological samples following metabolization of food. The challenge for the analytical sciences is that the characterization of NMs requires chemical as well as physical information...
October 3, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Abraham Nyska, Shim-Mo Hayashi, Mihoko Koyanagi, Jeffrey P Davis, Micheal P Jokinen, Yuval Ramot, Robert R Maronpot
alpha-Glycosyl isoquercitrin (AGIQ) is highly absorbable and has been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Based on a favorable safety profile, it has been confirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compound by the FDA. Nevertheless, safety and toxicity information for AGIQ is still sparse. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the safety and toxicokinetics of AGIQ in a 90-day study in 60 male and 60 female Sprague-Dawley rats at dietary doses up to 5%. All animals survived until scheduled euthanasia with no clinical signs of toxicity in any animal...
September 28, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Louise Skov, Karen Marie Dollerup Holm, Kristian Linnet
Reference concentrations are needed to evaluate postmortem toxicology results and usually femoral blood is the specimen of choice. However, brain tissue has been suggested as a viable alternative specimen, since postmortem blood concentrations can be difficult to interpret due to postmortem redistribution, among other factors. Here we present reference concentrations of postmortem brain and femoral blood of the nitrobenzodiazepines clonazepam, flunitrazepam, and nitrazepam that are of particular interest since they commonly are converted to their corresponding 7-aminometabolites in the postmortem situation...
September 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
Adrian P L Smith, Michael Marino, Jeanette Roberts, Janell M Crowder, Jason Castle, Lisa Lowery, Christine Morton, Mark G Hibberd, Paul M Evans
Purpose To measure the levels of gadolinium present in the rat brain 1 and 20 weeks after dosing with contrast agent and to determine if there are any histopathologic sequelae. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the GE Global Research Center Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Absolute gadolinium levels were quantified in the blood and brains of rats 1 week after dosing and 20 weeks after dosing with up to 20 repeat doses of gadodiamide (cumulative dose, 12 mmol per kilogram of body weight) by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry...
September 27, 2016: Radiology
Andrew P Worth, Grace Patlewicz
In this chapter, we explain how Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) offer a means of integrating and translating the data generated by toxicity testing methods, thereby serving as flexible and suitable tools for toxicological decision making in the twenty-first century. In addition to traditional in vitro and in vivo testing methods, IATA are increasingly incorporating newly developed in vitro systems and measurement technologies such as high throughput screening and high content imaging...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Achim Aigner, Roland Buesen, Tim Gant, Nigel Gooderham, Helmut Greim, Jörg Hackermüller, Bruno Hubesch, Madeleine Laffont, Emma Marczylo, Gunter Meister, Jay S Petrick, Reza J Rasoulpour, Ursula G Sauer, Kerstin Schmidt, Hervé Seitz, Frank Slack, Tokuo Sukata, Saskia M van der Vies, Jan Verhaert, Kenneth W Witwer, Alan Poole
The European Centre for the Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) organised a workshop to discuss the state-of-the-art research on noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) as biomarkers in regulatory toxicology and as analytical and therapeutic agents. There was agreement that ncRNA expression profiling data requires careful evaluation to determine the utility of specific ncRNAs as biomarkers. To advance the use of ncRNA in regulatory toxicology, the following research priorities were identified: (1) Conduct comprehensive literature reviews to identify possibly suitable ncRNAs and areas of toxicology where ncRNA expression profiling could address prevailing scientific deficiencies...
September 20, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
José Luis Ordóñez, Ana Maria Troncoso, Maria Del Carmen García-Parrilla, Raquel Maria Callejón
Biogenic amines (BA) are generally considered as a food hazard, even though there is not a threshold for these biomolecules in the European legislation, except for histamine in fishery products. These compounds are formed during the storage and processing of certain foods through microbiological activity, and when present in high concentrations, could have toxicological effects, causing health problems in consumers, especially to sensitive persons. This fact, in addition to the economical concern involved, makes it necessary to control the amounts of biogenic amines in foods...
October 5, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Matilda Bäckberg, Luiza Tworek, Olof Beck, Anders Helander
INTRODUCTION: About a decade ago, synthetic cannabinoids (SC) started to appear as recreational drugs on the new psychoactive substance (NPS) market. This report from the STRIDA project describes analytically confirmed intoxications involving MDMB-CHMICA (methyl-2-(1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indol-3-ylcarbonylamino)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate), a SC that was first detected in 2014. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational case series of patients from Sweden with suspected NPS exposure presenting in emergency departments and intensive care units...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Karan Uppal, Douglas I Walker, Ken Liu, Shuzhao Li, Young-Mi Go, Dean P Jones
"Sola dosis facit venenum." These words of Paracelsus, "the dose makes the poison", can lead to a cavalier attitude concerning potential toxicities of the vast array of low abundance environmental chemicals to which humans are exposed. Exposome research teaches that 80-85% of human disease is linked to environmental exposures. The human exposome is estimated to include >400,000 environmental chemicals, most of which are uncharacterized with regard to human health. In fact, mass spectrometry measures >200,000 m/z features (ions) in microliter volumes derived from human samples; most are unidentified...
October 12, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Alixandra Wagner, Reem Eldawud, Andrew White, Sushant Agarwal, Todd A Stueckle, Konstantinos Sierros, Yon Rojanasakul, Rakesh K Gupta, Cerasela Zoica Dinu
BACKGROUND: Montmorillonite is a type of nanoclay that originates from the clay fraction of the soil and is incorporated into polymers to form nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical strength, barrier and flammability properties used for food packaging, automotive, and medical devices. However, with implementation in such consumer applications, the interaction of montmorillonite-based composites or derived byproducts with biological systems needs to be investigated. METHODS: Herein we examined the potential of Cloisite Na(+) (pristine) and Cloisite 30B (organically modified montmorillonite nanoclay) and their thermally degraded byproducts' to induce toxicity in model human lung epithelial cells...
September 6, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Christiane Gruber-Dorninger, Barbara Novak, Veronika Nagl, Franz Berthiller
Modern analytical techniques can determine a multitude of fungal metabolites contaminating food and feed. In addition to known mycotoxins, for which maximum levels in food are enforced, also currently unregulated, so-called "emerging mycotoxins" were shown to occur frequently in agricultural products. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the relevance of selected emerging mycotoxins to food and feed safety. Acute and chronic toxicity as well as occurrence data are presented for enniatins, beauvericin, moniliformin, fusaproliferin, fusaric acid, culmorin, butenolide, sterigmatocystin, emodin, mycophenolic acid, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tenuazonic acid...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bárbara Silva, Carla Fernandes, Maria Elizabeth Tiritan, Madalena M M Pinto, Maria João Valente, Márcia Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Fernando Remião
Recently, great interest has been focused on synthetic cathinones since their consumption has increased exponentially. All synthetic cathinones exist as chiral molecules; the biological and/or toxicological properties of cathinones generally differ according to the enantiomers in human body. In this study, a chiral liquid chromatography method was developed to separate and determine the enantiomeric ratio of synthetic cathinones present in "legal highs" acquired in old smart shops or over the Internet. All the synthetic cathinones were efficiently enantio-separated with α and Rs ranging from 1...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
P A Schulte, G Roth, L L Hodson, V Murashov, M D Hoover, R Zumwalde, E D Kuempel, C L Geraci, A B Stefaniak, V Castranova, J Howard
Engineered nanomaterials significantly entered commerce at the beginning of the 21st century. Concerns about serious potential health effects of nanomaterials were widespread. Now, approximately 15 years later, it is worthwhile to take stock of research and efforts to protect nanomaterial workers from potential risks of adverse health effects. This article provides and examines timelines for major functional areas (toxicology, metrology, exposure assessment, engineering controls and personal protective equipment, risk assessment, risk management, medical surveillance, and epidemiology) to identify significant contributions to worker safety and health...
June 2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
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