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Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770369/nanomaterial-microbe-cross-talk-physicochemical-principles-and-patho-biological-consequences
#1
REVIEW
D Westmeier, A Hahlbrock, C Reinhardt, J Fröhlich-Nowoisky, S Wessler, C Vallet, U Pöschl, S K Knauer, R H Stauber
The applications of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasing exponentially in consumer products, biotechnology and biomedicine, and humans, as well as the environment, are increasingly being exposed to NPs. Analogously, various (pathogenic) microorganisms are present at all the major exposure and entry sites for NPs in the human body as well as in environmental habitats. However, the field has just started to explore the complex interplay between NPs and microbes and the (patho)biological consequences. Based on recent insights, herein, we critically reviewed the available knowledge about the interaction of NPs with microbes and the analytical investigations including the latest intravital imaging tools...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757264/characterization-of-a-microbial-consortium-for-the-bioremoval-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-water
#2
Esmeralda G Blanco-Enríquez, Francisco Javier Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, María Del Rosario Peralta-Pérez, Lourdes Ballinas-Casarrubias, Iván Salmerón, Héctor Rubio-Arias, Beatriz A Rocha-Gutiérrez
Pollution of freshwater ecosystems from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a global concern. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has included the PAHs pyrene, phenanthrene, and naphthalene among the 16 priority compounds of special concern for their toxicological effects. The aim of this study was to adapt and characterize a microbial consortium from ore waste with the potential to remove these three PAHs from water. This microbial consortium was exposed to the target PAHs at levels of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg L−1 for 14 days...
May 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754040/synthetic-cannabinoid-bb-22-quchic-human-hepatocytes-metabolism-with-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-detection
#3
Jeremy Carlier, Xingxing Diao, Marilyn A Huestis
Clandestine laboratories continue producing new synthetic cannabinoids that mimic and magnify natural cannabinoids effects to circumvent drug scheduling legislation. New synthetic cannabinoids are highly potent and responsible for many acute intoxications and deaths. Characterization of metabolic pathways is critical to identify metabolite markers whose detection can prove intake. BB-22 is a new potent synthetic cannabinoid whose toxicological and metabolic properties are currently unavailable. Analytical methods require constant updating and are challenging due to extensive synthetic cannabinoid metabolism and low marker concentrations...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753680/a-new-sample-treatment-for-asialo-tf-determination-with-capillary-electrophoresis-an-added-value-to-the-analysis-of-cdt
#4
Nadia Maria Porpiglia, Elio Franco De Palo, Sergey Alexandrovich Savchuk, Svetlana Alexandrovna Appolonova, Federica Bortolotti, Franco Tagliaro
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The non-glycosylated glycoform of transferrin (Tf), known as asialo-Tf, was not selected (in favor of disialo-Tf) as the measurand for the standardization of carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) determination because of a lower diagnostic sensitivity provided with the currently available analytical procedures for sera. However, asialo-Tf could provide an additional value to disialo-Tf in the CDT analysis employed in forensic toxicology contexts. The present work aimed at developing an easy sample preparation based on PEG precipitation in order to improve the detectability of asialo-Tf in capillary electrophoresis (CE)...
May 10, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751048/predicting-emp-hazard-lessons-from-studies-with-inhaled-fibrous-and-non-fibrous-nano-and-micro-particles
#5
Günter Oberdörster, Uschi Graham
Inhalation exposure to elongated cleavage fragments occurring at mineral and rock mining and crushing operations raises important questions regarding potential health effects given their resemblance to fibers with known adverse health effects like amphibole asbestos. Thus, a major goal for establishing a toxicity profile for elongate mineral particles (EMPs) is to identify and characterize a suspected hazard and characterize a risk by examining together results of hazard and exposure assessment. This will require not only knowledge about biokinetics of inhaled EMPs but also about underlying mechanisms of effects induced by retained EMPs...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750249/zolpidem-and-zolpidem-carboxylic-acid-results-from-medication-monitoring
#6
Sheng Feng, Oneka T Cummings, Gregory McIntire
Zolpidem (Ambien®) is one of the "Z" drugs often used to improve sleep in older patients and those suffering from insomnia. Schwope, D.M., DePriest, A., Black, D.L., Caplan, Y.H., Cone, E.J., Heltsley, R. (2014) Determing zolpidem compliance: urinary metabolite detection and prevalence in chronic pain patients . Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 38, 513-518 reported that zolpidem in urine is not very prevalent being present <23% of the time in patient urine while the major metabolite, zolpidem 4-phenyl carboxylic acid (ZCA), is much more prevalent in urine with positive rates as high as 50% of the patient samples reviewed...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745329/building-bridges-between-clinical-and-forensic-toxicology-laboratories
#7
Bernardino Barcelo Martin, Isabel Gomila, Valeria Noce
BACKGROUND: Clinical and forensic toxicology can be defined as the two disciplines involved the detection, identification and measurement of xenobiotics in biological and non-biological specimens to help in the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, prevention of poisonings and to disclose causes and contributory causes of fatal intoxications, respectively. OBJECTIVE: This article explores the close connections between clinical and forensic toxicology in overlapping areas of interest...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744562/mussel-inspired-3d-fiber-scaffolds-for-heart-on-a-chip-toxicity-studies-of-engineered-nanomaterials
#8
Seungkuk Ahn, Herdeline Ann M Ardoña, Johan U Lind, Feyisayo Eweje, Sean L Kim, Grant M Gonzalez, Qihan Liu, John F Zimmerman, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Zhenyuan Zhang, Juan Beltran-Huarac, Paul Carpinone, Brij M Moudgil, Philip Demokritou, Kevin Kit Parker
Due to the unique physicochemical properties exhibited by materials with nanoscale dimensions, there is currently a continuous increase in the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) used in consumer goods. However, several reports associate ENM exposure to negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the pathological consequences of ENM exposure represents an important challenge, requiring model systems that can provide mechanistic insights across different levels of ENM-based toxicity...
May 10, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741399/enzalutamide-and-analytical-interferences-in-digoxin-assays
#9
Marie Deguigne, Marion Brunet, Chadi Abbara, Alain Turcant, Gaël Le Roux, Bénédicte Lelièvre
OBJECTIVE: We report two cases of elevated digoxin plasma levels in patients receiving enzalutamide. Cases reported: The first patient, an 84-year-old male treated with enzalutamide, was hospitalized due to deterioration in his general state. Atrial fibrillation was discovered and treatment with digoxin was initiated. Supratherapeutic digoxin concentrations (4 µg/L and 3.5 µg/L 3 days later) led to treatment being stopped despite the lack of clinical or biological signs of overdose...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729334/the-urgency-for-optimization-and-harmonization-of-thyroid-hormone-analyses-and-their-interpretation-in-developmental-and-reproductive-toxicology-studies
#10
REVIEW
Manon Beekhuijzen, Steffen Schneider, Narinder Barraclough, Nina Hallmark, Alan Hoberman, Sheri Lordi, Mary Moxon, Deborah Perks, Aldert H Piersma, Susan L Makris
In recent years several OECD test guidelines have been updated and some will be updated shortly with the requirement to measure thyroid hormone levels in the blood of mammalian laboratory species. There is, however, an imperative need for clarification and guidance regarding the collection, assessment, and interpretation of thyroid hormone data for regulatory toxicology and risk assessment. Clarification and guidance is needed for 1) timing and methods of blood collection, 2) standardization and validation of the analytical methods, 3) triggers for additional measurements, 4) the need for T4 measurements in postnatal day (PND) 4 pups, and 5) the interpretation of changes in thyroid hormone levels regarding adversity...
May 2, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729057/determination-of-tebuconazole-and-penconazole-fungicides-in-rat-and-human-hair-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Elisa Polledri, Rosa Mercadante, Silvia Fustinoni
RATIONALE: Tebuconazole (TEB) and penconazole (PEN) are widely applied fungicides and environmental contaminants; their toxicological properties include possible effects to the unborn child, therefore the evaluation of human exposure is relevant to risk assessment. Hair is a non-invasive specimen that incorporates pollutants allowing an extended exposure window to be surveyed. Aim of this work was to develop and validate an assay for the determination of TEB and PEN in human hair. METHODS: Under optimised conditions, analytes were extracted soaking hair in acetonitrile, in the presence of deuterated analogues, under heating and agitation...
May 4, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705693/thiolated-arsenic-in-natural-systems-what-is-current-what-is-new-and-what-needs-to-be-known
#12
REVIEW
Indika Herath, Meththika Vithanage, Saman Seneweera, Jochen Bundschuh
Thiolated arsenic compounds are the sulfur analogous substructures of oxo-arsenicals as the arsinoyl (As = O) is substituted by an arsinothioyl (As = S) group. Relatively brief history of thioarsenic research, mostly in the current decade has endeavored to understand their consequences in the natural environment. However, thioarsenic related aspects have by far not attached much research concern on global scale compared to other arsenic species. This review attempts to provide a critical overview for the first time on formation mechanisms of thioarsenicals, their chemistry, speciation and analytical methodologies in order to provide a rational assessment of what is new, what is current, what needs to be known or what should be done in future research...
April 26, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701148/quantification-of-methamphetamine-%C3%A2-shabu%C3%A2-in-biological-matrices-to-detect-prenatal-exposure-a-case-report-and-a-literature-review
#13
Pilar Jarque, Antonia Roca, Isabel Gomila, Valeria Noce, B Bernardino Barcelo, Julia Klein
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine misuse represents an increasing global public health problem. Its consumption during pregnancy becomes a relevant issue, since it has clinical consequences for the child's health and the pregnant woman. Despite this, there are only few data in the literature that include analytical results in the matrices used to detect prenatal exposure. OBJECTIVES: 1) Present a case report of prenatal methamphetamine exposure with toxicological analytical confirmation in biological matrices; and 2) Perform a compilation of prenatal methamphetamine exposure studies and case reports which include toxicological analytical results...
April 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683043/toxicological-hair-analysis-pre-analytical-analytical-and-interpretive-aspects
#14
Himanshu Khajuria, Biswa Prakash Nayak, Ashish Badiye
Background and aims Hair analysis for drug detection is one of the widely accepted imperative techniques in the field of forensic toxicology. The current study was designed to investigate the efficacy of chromatography for detection of drugs of abuse in hair. Method A comprehensive review of articles from last two decades on hair analyses via PubMed and similar resources was performed. Issues concerning collection, decontamination and analytical techniques are summarised. Physiochemical nature of hair, mechanism of drug incorporation and its stability in hair are briefly discussed...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674064/determination-of-eight-carbonyl-compounds-in-aerosols-trapped-in-phosphate-buffer-saline-solutions-to-support-in-vitro-assessment-studies
#15
Roberto Buratto, Daniela Correia, Monique Parel, Maude Crenna, Mickaël Bilger, Audrey Debrick
When investigating the toxicological impact of aerosols using in vitro systems like cell cultures, it is essential to have a quantitative measurement of the chemicals that the cells are exposed to. Carbonyl compounds represent an important class of marker compounds for in vitro and in vivo exposure to different toxicological agents, including cigarette smoke (CS). A new LC-MS/MS method that quantifies eight of these analytes in aerosols trapped in phosphate-buffered saline solutions has been developed to measure exposure...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673128/synthesis-analytical-characterization-and-monoamine-transporter-activity-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-4-methylphenmetrazine-4-mpm-with-differentiation-from-its-ortho-and-meta-positional-isomers
#16
Gavin McLaughlin, Michael H Baumann, Pierce V Kavanagh, Noreen Morris, John D Power, Geraldine Dowling, Brendan Twamley, John O'Brien, Gary Hessman, Folker Westphal, Donna Walther, Simon D Brandt
The availability of new psychoactive substances on the recreational drug market continues to create challenges for scientists in the forensic, clinical and toxicology fields. Phenmetrazine (3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholine) and an array of its analogs form a class of psychostimulants that are well documented in the patent and scientific literature. The present study reports on two phenmetrazine analogs that have been encountered on the NPS drug market following the introduction of 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), namely 4-methylphenmetrazine (4-MPM) and 3-methylphenmetrazine (3-MPM)...
April 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660673/inspective-and-toxicological-survey-of-the-poisoned-baits-and-bites
#17
Antonella De Roma, Gianluca Miletti, Nicola D'Alessio, Laura Marigliano, Teresa Bruno, Pasquale Gallo, Giovanni Binato, Mauro Esposito
Cases of intentional animal poisonings are still widespread in Italy, even if the improper or malicious use of poisoned baits is banned. This represents a serious threat to pets as well as wildlife species, but also an environmental and human health concern. A retrospective study was performed based on baits sent for toxicological analysis to the laboratories of Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno (IZSM) in Southern Italy over a five year period. Analyses were carried out by using different analytical techniques in relation to the toxicants...
March 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659273/non-target-mass-spectrometry-reveals-new-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-fish-from-the-yangtze-river-and-tangxun-lake-china
#18
Yanna Liu, Manli Qian, Xinxin Ma, Lingyan Zhu, Jonathan W Martin
Non-target high resolution mass spectrometry (Nt-HRMS) has proven useful for identification of unknown poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in commercial products and water, but applications to biological samples are limited. China is the major PFAS manufacturing nation, thus here we adapted our Nt-HRMS methods to fish collected from Yangtze River and Tangxun Lake to discover potentially bioaccumulative PFASs in aquatic organisms destined for human consumption. In addition to traditional PFASs, over 330 other fluorinated analytes belonging to 10 classes of PFASs were detected among the pooled fish livers, including 6 sulfonate classes, 2 amine classes, 1 carboxylate class, and 1 N-heterocycle class...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628221/validation-of-quantitative-measurements-and-semi-quantitative-estimates-of-emerging-perfluoroethercarboxylic-acids-pfecas-and-hexfluoroprolyene-oxide-acids-hfpoas
#19
James McCord, Seth Newton, Mark Strynar
Legacy perfluorinated compounds exhibit significant environmental persistence and bioaccumulation potential, which has spawned an ongoing effort to introduce replacement compounds with reduced toxicological risk profiles. Many of these emerging chemical species lack validated quantitative methods, and, frequently, appropriate analytical standards for accurate monitoring and identification. To fill this knowledge gap, a general method for the quantitative determination of perfluoroether carboxylic acids (PFECAs) by LC-MS/MS was single-lab validated on spike-recovery samples in surface, drinking, and wastewater for a variety of perfluorinated ether standards...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622214/nutritional-analysis-of-spirulina-dietary-supplements-optimization-procedure-of-ultrasound-assisted-digestion-for-multielemental-determination
#20
Bárbara D Neher, Silvana M Azcarate, José M Camiña, Marianela Savio
Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima are a type of blue-green microalga used as a dietary supplement (Spirulina). A low time-consuming ultrasound-assisted digestion (UAD) of Spirulina supplements for multielemental determination by microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MPAES) was performed. Several parameters such as acid concentration (AC), thermostated water bath (TWB), digestion time (DT) and UAD - probe or bath - affecting the digestion process were evaluated through a full factorial design...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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