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Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815938/optimization-of-recombinant-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-hydrolysis-and-quantification-of-eight-urinary-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Cristina Sempio, Karl B Scheidweiler, Allan J Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis
Prolonged urinary cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis users confounds identification of recent cannabis intake that may be important in treatment, workplace, clinical, and forensic testing programs. In addition, differentiation of synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from cannabis plant products might be an important interpretive issue. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) urine concentrations were evaluated during previous controlled cannabis administration studies following tandem alkaline/E...
June 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810150/occurrence-of-carbazoles-in-dust-and-air-samples-from-different-locations-in-germany
#2
Hermann Fromme, Wenying Mi, Thomas Lahrz, Martin Kraft, Bettina Aschenbrenner, Bianca Bruessow, Ralf Ebinghaus, Zhiyong Xie, Ludwig Fembacher
9H-carbazole is generated from incomplete combustion of diverse fossil fuels and biomass, in tobacco smoke and from industrial processes, while halogenated carbazoles have natural and anthropogenic sources. We analyzed 9H-carbazole and 14 halogenated carbazoles in dust samples from 14 schools, 13 daycare centers, and 13 residences, as well as 5 indoor air samples from residences in Munich, Germany. Overall, we present first data of various carbazoles in different indoor environments without visible combustion sources...
August 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802738/bioaccumulation-and-toxicity-of-cdse-zns-quantum-dots-in-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#3
Liang Hu, Guangming Zeng, Guiqiu Chen, Zhenzhen Huang, Jia Wan, Anwei Chen, Zhigang Yu, Jiangli Yang, Kai He, Lei Qin
The growing potential of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications has raised considerable concerns regarding their toxicological impact. Consequently, there has been a need to understand the underlying toxicity mechanism of QDs. In this work, we comprehensively investigated the bioaccumulation and toxicity of three CdSe/ZnS QDs (COOH CdSe/ZnS 525, NH2 CdSe/ZnS 525, and NH2 CdSe/ZnS 625) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) using confocal laser scanning microscopy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements, and cell viability assays...
August 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781900/blending-of-rodenticide-and-battery-acid-a-rare-and-fatal-suicide-mix
#4
Nisreen Abdul Rahman, Siddhartha Das, Vinod Ashok Chaudhari, Suresh Nandagopal, Bhawana Badhe
BACKGROUND: Self-poisoning usually occurs by the ingestion of a single lethal compound and majority of the poisoning cases in our country are due to the pesticides. Suicide by ingestion of more than one poisonous substance is rare except alcohol and multiple drugs. To the best of our knowledge, suicidal ingestion of a mixture of rodenticide and battery acid has not been reported before in medical literature. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we are discussing a case of simultaneous ingestion of two poisonous substances, i...
2017: Egyptian journal of forensic sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777968/incorporation-of-14-c-cholesterol-in-human-adrenal-corticocarcinoma-h295r-cell-line-and-online-radiodetection-of-produced-14-c-steroid-hormone-metabolites
#5
Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Erland Björklund, Frederik Knud Nielsen, Martin Hansen
This study demonstrates the addition of (14)C-cholesterol to the human cell line H295R will in-situ form radiolabeled steroid hormones allowing for new mechanistic and metabolic insights. The aim of the present study was to in-situ radiolabel steroid hormones from cell line-incorporated (14)C-cholesterol using the OECD guideline 456, H295R steroidogenesis in-vitro assay. Radiodetection of the steroid metabolites of the steroidogenic pathway allows for an improved understanding of the various enzymatic mechanisms involved without necessarily being dependent on quantification...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777878/a-multi-analyte-approach-to-help-in-assessing-the-severity-of-acute-poisonings-development-and-validation-of-a-fast-lc-ms-ms-quantification-approach-for-45-drugs-and-relevant-metabolites-with-one-point-calibration
#6
Julian A Michely, Hans H Maurer
In emergency toxicology, diagnosis, monitoring of the efficiency of detoxification, and estimating the prognosis of acute poisonings are important tasks. Comprehensive screening and quantification of relevant substances by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) help in assessing the severity of most acute poisonings. Turnaround time for such analyses must be short enough for having impact on clinical decisions. Therefore, a multi-analyte LC-MS/MS approach with a 5-min gradient was developed and validated for 45 drugs and active metabolites as complement to an existing GC-MS approach using the same liquid-liquid extraction...
August 4, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775358/integrate-life-cycle-assessment-and-risk-analysis-results-not-methods
#7
Igor Linkov, Benjamin D Trump, Ben A Wender, Thomas P Seager, Alan J Kennedy, Jeffrey M Keisler
Two analytic perspectives on environmental assessment dominate environmental policy and decision-making: risk analysis (RA) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). RA focuses on management of a toxicological hazard in a specific exposure scenario, while LCA seeks a holistic estimation of impacts of thousands of substances across multiple media, including non-toxicological and non-chemically deleterious effects. While recommendations to integrate the two approaches have remained a consistent feature of environmental scholarship for at least 15 years, the current perception is that progress is slow largely because of practical obstacles, such as a lack of data, rather than insurmountable theoretical difficulties...
August 4, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774712/an-isotope-dilution-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-sugars-and-humectants-in-tobacco-products
#8
Liqun Wang, Roberto Bravo Cardenas, Clifford Watson
CDC's Division of Laboratory Sciences developed and validated a new method for the simultaneous detection and measurement of 11 sugars, alditols and humectants in tobacco products. The method uses isotope dilution ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and has demonstrated high sensitivity, selectivity, throughput and accuracy, with recoveries ranging from 90% to 113%, limits of detection ranging from 0.0002 to 0.0045μg/mL and coefficients of variation (CV%) ranging from 1...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774627/cho-cell-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-analyses-of-disinfection-by-products-an-updated-review
#9
REVIEW
Elizabeth D Wagner, Michael J Plewa
The disinfection of drinking water is an important public health service that generates high quality, safe and palatable tap water. The disinfection of drinking water to reduce waterborne disease was an outstanding public health achievement of the 20th century. An unintended consequence is the reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants and bromide/iodide to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). A large number of DBPs are cytotoxic, neurotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766527/-the-determination-of-2-4-di-tret-butyl-hydroxybenzene-for-the-purpose-of-the-chemical-toxicological-study-of-the-biological-materials
#10
V K Shormanov, E P Tsatsua, A P Astashkina
The objective of this work was to study peculiarities of identification of 2,4-di-tert-butyl hydroxybenzene (2,4-DTBHOB) in blood and the tissues of various organs with the use TLC, UR- and UV-spectrophotometry. The results of the study suggest the expediency of the application of ethylacetate as the extractive agent for the isolation of 2,4-DTBHOB from the biological materials. The optimal conditions for 2,4-DTBHOB extraction by this method were developed based on the decontamination of the analyte by means of removal of the organic substances of biological matrices using the L 40/100 mcm sorbent columns with the hexan/dioxane mixture (8...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763760/mineralogy-and-textures-of-riebeckitic-asbestos-crocidolite-the-role-of-single-versus-agglomerated-fibres-in-toxicological-experiments
#11
Seydou Yao, Gianluca Iezzi, Giancarlo Della Ventura, Fabio Bellatreccia, Cyril Petibois, Augusto Marcelli, Manuela Nazzari, Francesco Lazzarin, Mario Di Gioacchino, Claudia Petrarca
Asbestos may cause adverse effects, but relationship between mineralogy and texture of fibres versus toxicity is still lacking. Toxicological studies can be interpreted and compared only if quantitative features of fibres are determined. Here, riebeckitic ("crocidolite") amphibole fibres were analysed by XRPD, FTIR, SEM-EDS and EMP-WDS; only crystals with stochiometry (A□B)Na2(C)(Fe(2+)2.5Mg0.5)(C)Fe(3+)2(T)Si8O22(W)(OH)2 are present in the starting material used for the experiments. Fibres deposited from solutions of 0...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763096/tillg%C3%A3-ng-till-snabb-laboratorieanalys-vid-akut-f%C3%A3-rgiftning-ger-b%C3%A3-ttre-och-s%C3%A3-krare-v%C3%A3-rd-men-m%C3%A3-jligheten-till-akuta-prov%C3%A2-%C3%A2-svar-varierar-%C3%A3-ver-landet
#12
Eva Olsson, Olof Beck, Anders Elmgren, Therese Hansson, Anders Helander
Access to rapid laboratory analytical services in cases of acute poisoning provides better and safer patient care The Swedish Poisons Information Centre, a nationwide 24/7 service to healthcare providers and the public, answers many questions about serious cases of acute poisoning. In some of these, prompt and proper treatment recommendations can be crucial for the clinical outcome. In cases where self-reported information is missing or considered unreliable, more emphasis is placed on the clinical symptoms and results of toxicological analyses...
July 26, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749665/summary-of-the-acs-symposium-public-health-perspectives-of-mycotoxins-in-food
#13
Lauren S Jackson, Dojin Ryu
A symposium entitled "Public Health Perspectives of Mycotoxins in Food" was held at the 251st American Chemical Society Meeting in March 2016 in San Diego, CA and was sponsored by the ACS Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. The purpose of the symposium was to convene the leading mycotoxin researchers throughout the world to discuss the current state of knowledge as well as research needs with respect to evaluating the toxicological properties of mycotoxins, and ways to detect, control and reduce human and animal exposure to these natural toxins...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742478/toxicological-and-analytical-assessment-of-e-cigarette-refill-components-on-airway-epithelia
#14
Jasjot Singh, Emilie Luquet, David P T Smith, Herman J Potgieter, Patricia Ragazzon
There are over 2.6 million users of e-cigarettes in the United Kingdom alone as they have been promoted as a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes. The addition of flavours and aromas has also proven to be popular with younger generations. In this review, we survey the range of studies in the short timeframe since e-cigarettes reached the market to draw attention to the health associated risks and benefits of their introduction. We complement this review with a case study reporting on the composition of selected e-cigarette refills with particular emphasis on the toxicological activity of its components on lung cells...
December 1, 2016: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733784/environmental-impact-of-coal-mining-and-coal-seam-gas-production-on-surface-water-quality-in-the-sydney-basin-australia
#15
A Ali, V Strezov, P Davies, I Wright
The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731222/bio-nano-interface-and-environment-a-critical-review
#16
Gerardo Pulido-Reyes, Francisco Leganes, Francisca Fernández-Piñas, Roberto Rosal
The Bio-Nano interface is the boundary where the Engineered NanoMaterials (ENM) meet the biological system, exerting the biological function for what they have been designed or inducing adverse effects to other cells or organisms when they reach non-target scenarios, i.e: the natural environment. Research has been performed to determine the fate, transport, and toxic properties of ENM, but much of it focused on pristine or "as manufactured" ENM or where modifications of the materials were not assessed. This article reviews the most recent progresses regarding the Bio-Nano interface and the transformations that ENM suffer in the environment, paying special attention to the adsorption of environmental biomolecules on the surface of ENM...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730944/integrating-bioassays-and-analytical-chemistry-as-an-improved-approach-to-support-safety-assessment-of-food-contact-materials
#17
Julien Veyrand, Maricel Marin-Kuan, Claudine Bezencon, Nancy Frank, Violaine Guérin, Sander Koster, Hélia Latado, Julie Mollergues, Amaury Patin, Dominique Piguet, Patrick Serrant, Jesus Varela, Benoît Schilter
Food contact materials (FCM) contain chemicals which can migrate into food and result in human exposure. Although it is mandatory to ensure that migration does not endanger human health, there is still no consensus on how to pragmatically assess the safety of FCM since traditional approaches would require extensive toxicological and analytical testing which are expensive and time consuming. Recently, the combination of bioassays, analytical chemistry and risk assessment has been promoted as a new paradigm to identify toxicologically relevant molecules and address safety issues...
July 21, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719868/quantitative-meta-analytic-approaches-for-the-systematic-synthesis-of-data-and-hazard-identification-a-case-study-of-decreased-pain-sensitivity-due-to-trimethylbenzene-exposure
#18
J Allen Davis, Andrew Kraft
Traditionally, human health risk assessments have relied on qualitative approaches for hazard identification, which involves weight of evidence determinations that integrate evidence across multiple studies. Recently, the National Research Council has recommended the development of quantitative approaches for evidence integration, including the application of meta-analyses, to help summarize and evaluate the results of a systematic review. In the meta-analytic approach, a pooled effect size is calculated after consideration of multiple potential confounding factors in order to determine whether the entire database under consideration indicates a chemical is a hazard...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719747/detection-of-fumonisins-in-fresh-and-dehydrated-commercial-garlic
#19
Stefano Tonti, Mara Mandrioli, Paola Nipoti, Annamaria Pisi, Tullia Gallina Toschi, Antonio Prodi
An epidemic fungal disease caused by Fusarium proliferatum, responsible for fumonisin production (FB1, FB2, and FB3), has been reported in the main garlic-producing countries in recent years. Fumonisins are a group of structurally related toxic metabolites produced by this pathogen. The aim of this work was to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure, mostly applied to cereals, that is suitable for fumonisin detection in garlic and compare these results to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and screening of fresh and dehydrated garlic for toxicological risk...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714573/assessment-of-the-dna-damaging-potential-of-environmental-chemicals-using-a-quantitative-high-throughput-screening-approach-to-measure-p53-activation
#20
Kristine L Witt, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Menghang Xia, Ruili Huang, Jinghua Zhao, Scott S Auerbach, Junguk Hur, Raymond R Tice
Genotoxicity potential is a critical component of any comprehensive toxicological profile. Compounds that induce DNA or chromosomal damage often activate p53, a transcription factor essential to cell cycle regulation. Thus, within the US Tox21 Program, we screened a library of ∼10,000 (∼8,300 unique) environmental compounds and drugs for activation of the p53-signaling pathway using a quantitative high-throughput screening assay employing HCT-116 cells (p53(+/+) ) containing a stably integrated β-lactamase reporter gene under control of the p53 response element (p53RE)...
August 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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