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Analytical Toxicology

Martin Eckardt, Annemarie Greb, Thomas J Simat
Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) is a new material for the production of baby bottles. PPSU is a polyether plastic formally composed of bisphenol S (BPS) and 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl (DHBP), which both have slight endocrine activities in in-vitro-tests. So far, little is known about the presence and the release of potentially hazardous substances from PPSU baby bottles. In our present study, we present a three step approach for the analysis of PPSU starting with polymer characterization in terms of chemical structure, total oligomer content and hydrolytic stability...
March 14, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Loretta Theresa Ford, Jonathan David Berg
Novel psychotropic substances (NPS) also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for adverse effects. We provide a clinical toxicology service including routine screening for NPS. In 2015 we were approached by Her Majesty Prison Service (HMPS) search dog training team to advise on which NPS to target, and again in 2016 to further provide analytical support to test five letters which the dogs positively identified for NPS during routine searches of prison mail rooms...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Simon Brand, Michael P Schlüsener, Dinah Albrecht, Uwe Kunkel, Claudia Strobel, Tamara Grummt, Thomas A Ternes
An analytical method based on high resolution mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography (LC-HRMS) for 25 quaternary phosphonium compounds (QPCs) and derived phosphine oxides (POs) was developed and validated. To investigate the occurrence and fate of QPCs in the aquatic environment, water, suspended solids and sediments from the rivers Rhine and Elbe (upper and middle Elbe as well as tidal Elbe) were analyzed, as well as samples from tributaries bearing significant loads of QPCs. For the first time, the quaternary phosphonium compound tetrabutylphosphonium (Bu4 P+ ) was detected...
March 2, 2018: Water Research
Oliver Kappenstein, Ingo Ebner, Carina Förster, Stephan Richter, Jürgen Weyer, Karla Pfaff, Andreas Luch
Polyamides (PA) are used in the production of various food contact materials (FCMs) and articles such as kitchen utensils and packaging material. Cyclic oligomers have been identified as potential migrants from PA. This study describes the development, validation and application of a multi-oligomer analytical method based on liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the identification and quantification of eight cyclic oligomers of PA 6 and four PA 66 migrating from FCMs into food simulant B (3% acetic acid) and beverages...
March 6, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Herbert Michlmayr, Elisabeth Varga, Alexandra Malachová, Philipp Fruhmann, Marta Piątkowska, Christian Hametner, Jana Šofrová, Günther Jaunecker, Georg Häubl, Marc Lemmens, Franz Berthiller, Gerhard Adam
Trichothecene toxins are confirmed or suspected virulence factors of various plant-pathogenic Fusarium species. Plants can detoxify these to a variable extent by glucosylation, a reaction catalyzed by UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs). Due to the unavailability of analytical standards for many trichothecene-glucoconjugates, information on such compounds is limited. Here, the previously identified deoxynivalenol-conjugating UGTs HvUGT13248 (barley), OsUGT79 (rice) and Bradi5g03300 ( Brachypodium ), were expressed in E...
March 6, 2018: Toxins
Skylar W Marvel, Kimberly To, Fabian A Grimm, Fred A Wright, Ivan Rusyn, David M Reif
BACKGROUND: Drawing integrated conclusions from diverse source data requires synthesis across multiple types of information. The ToxPi (Toxicological Prioritization Index) is an analytical framework that was developed to enable integration of multiple sources of evidence by transforming data into integrated, visual profiles. Methodological improvements have advanced ToxPi and expanded its applicability, necessitating a new, consolidated software platform to provide functionality, while preserving flexibility for future updates...
March 5, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Louise Camenzuli, Ruud Van Dam, Theo de Rijk, Rob Andriessen, Jeroen Van Schelt, H J Ine Van der Fels-Klerx
This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm ( Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly ( Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B₁, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B₁, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0...
February 24, 2018: Toxins
Rikke Poulsen, Nina Cedergreen, Tyrone B Hayes, Martin Hansen
Nitrate is heavily used as an agricultural fertilizer and is today a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Environmental endocrine effects caused by nitrate have received increasing attention over the last 15 years. Nitrate is hypothesized to interfere with thyroid and steroid hormone homeostasis and developmental and reproductive endpoints. The current review focuses on aquatic ecotoxicology with emphasis on field and laboratory controlled in vitro and in vivo studies. Furthermore, nitrate is just one of several forms of nitrogen that is present in the environment and many of these are quickly interconvertable...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Daniel L Villeneuve, Michelle M Angrish, Marie C Fortin, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Marc Leonard, Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci, Sharon Munn, Jason M O'Brien, Nathan L Pollesch, L Cody Smith, Xiaowei Zhang, Dries Knapen
Toxicological responses to stressors are more complex than the simple one biological perturbation to one adverse outcome model portrayed by individual adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). Consequently, the AOP framework was designed to facilitate de facto development of AOP networks that can aid understanding and prediction of pleiotropic and interactive effects more common to environmentally realistic, complex exposure scenarios. The present paper introduces nascent concepts related to the qualitative analysis of AOP networks...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Stephanie Basiliere, Kelsie Bryand, Sarah Kerrigan
Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a psychoactive plant that has recently emerged as a recreational drug. Mitragyna alkaloids are not within the scope of traditional forensic toxicology screening methods, which may contribute to under-reporting. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS) were used to identify five alkaloids in urine. Target analytes included the two known psychoactive compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in addition to speciociliatine, speciogynine, and paynantheine...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Nadine Schaefer, Ann-Katrin Kroll, Matthias W Laschke, Michael D Menger, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer, Peter H Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Since their appearance on the drugs of abuse market, synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are gaining increasing toxicological relevance. They are consumed without knowledge of their toxicokinetic (TK) and toxicodynamic properties and human studies are not allowed due to ethical reasons. A controlled animal TK study following nebulization of 4-ethylnaphthalene-1-yl-(1-pentylindole-3-yl)methanone (JWH-210), 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-indole-3-yl)methanone (RCS-4) as well as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to pigs should be helpful for better interpretation of analytical results in cases of misuse or poisoning...
February 14, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Lars Radünz, Hannah Reuter, Hilke Andresen-Streichert
Modafinil is used because of its wakefulness-promoting properties for treatment of diseases associated with extreme sleepiness (i.e., narcolepsy). Additionally, it is misused as a "cognitive enhancer" to increase alertness and to improve concentration. We present modafinil concentrations in serum samples in five cases of our routine work measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photo diode array detector after solid-phase extraction. One sample was analyzed for clinical toxicology purposes...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Gagandeep Singh, Ramarao Gollapalli, Alejandro Blinder, Milan Patel
Pharmaceutical packaging employs a wide variety of polymers owing to their desirable features, but the compounds that could leach from the polymers into the drug products can pose serious health risks. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify such compounds so that they can be adequately quantified and evaluated for toxicological impact/safety assessments. Not only the polymer components and the additives should be considered as sources for leachable impurities, their reaction/degradation products should also be evaluated...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
James Menoutis, Angela Parisi, Natasha Verma
In efforts to control the potential presence of heavy metals in pharmaceuticals, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) have put forth new requirements and guidelines for their control. The new requirements and guidelines establish specific daily exposures (PDE) for 24 heavy metals/elemental impurities (EI) based upon their toxicological properties. USP General Chapter 〈233〉 provides a general reference procedure for preparing pharmaceutical samples for analysis employing microwave assisted digestion (MWAD)...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
C N Chatterton, M Scott-Ham
This article compares 249 post mortem case reports that were positive for fentanyl/norfentanyl. All the cases were submitted to, and analyzed by, the toxicology department of the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. This study highlights the varied distribution of fentanyl in the body after death as a result of misadventure, i.e., these are accidental drug overdose cases as opposed to a study of analytical data resulting from fentanyl use/administration in a clinical environment and/or death as a result of suicide...
December 28, 2017: Forensic Science International
Alireza Khataee, Rana Honarnezhad, Mehrangiz Fathinia
In the present work, the sonocatalytic degradation of sodium isopropyl xanthate (SIPX) was investigated in the presence of Cu2S nanoparticles. Cu2S nanoparticles were produced by means of a high-energy planetary mechanical ball milling method within the processing times of 0.5, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 h. The physical and chemical characteristics of Cu2S particles were studied before and after ball milling process using various analytical techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and nanoparticles size distribution (NSD)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Barbara Feist, Rafal Sitko
Among cereals, rice is the second most cultivated staple crop in the world. It may be contaminated by toxic heavy metals present in water or soil. Therefore, monitoring the presence of heavy metals in rice and its products is a matter of a great importance from the nutritional and toxicological view. In this paper, a simple and effective analytical procedure based on dispersive micro solid-phase extraction with the use of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and batophenanthroline was developed for the determination of lead, cadmium, zinc, manganese and iron in white and wild rice samples...
May 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Robert Hofstetter, Georg M Fassauer, Andreas Link
On-line solid-phase supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and chromatography (SFC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) has been evaluated for its usefulness with respect to metabolic profiling and pharmacological investigations of ketamine in humans. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid, highly selective and sensitive SFE-SFC-MS method for the quantification of ketamine and its metabolites in miniature amounts in human urine excluding liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Several conditions were optimized systematically following the requirements of the European Medicines Agency: selectivity, carry-over, calibration curve parameters (LLOQ, range and linearity), within- and between-run accuracy and precision, dilution integrity, matrix effect, and stability...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Yufei He, Yazhuo Li, Zihong Wei, Xingyan Zhang, Jing Gao, Xiaojie Wang, Xiaokun Li, Weidang Wu, Wei Li, Xiulin Yi, Yong Zeng, Changxiao Liu
As one of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily, FGF-21 has been extensivelyinvestigated for its functions and roles since its discovery. It has been demonstrated to be one of key regulators for glucose, and lipid metabolism, and exhibit beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. However, studies focusing on its pharmacokinetic behavior in vivo as a novel therapeutic agent has not been reported. In the present study, rapid and sensitive analytical approaches including radioactivity assay and assay after precipitation/separation by HPLC were established to determine the content of FGF-21 tagged with 125 I in plasma, tissue and excrement...
February 4, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marisa L Trego, Eunha Hoh, Nicholas M Kellar, Sara Meszaros, Michelle N Robbins, Nathan Gray Dodder, Andrew Whitehead, Rebecca L Lewison
While environmental pollutants have been associated with changes in endocrine health in cetaceans, efforts to link contaminant exposure with hormones have largely been limited to a list of known, targeted contaminants, overlooking minimally characterized or unknown compounds of emerging concern. To address this gap, we analyzed a suite of potential endocrine disrupting halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) in blubber from 16 male short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) with known maturity status collected from fishery bycatch in the Southern California Bight...
February 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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