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Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922649/determination-of-74-new-psychoactive-substances-in-serum-using-automated-in-line-solid-phase-extraction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Sabrina Lehmann, Tobias Kieliba, Justus Beike, Mario Thevis, Katja Mercer-Chalmers-Bender
A detailed description is given of the development and validation of a fully automated in-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method capable of detecting 90 central-stimulating new psychoactive substances (NPS) and 5 conventional amphetamine-type stimulants (amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethyl-amphetamine (MDEA), methamphetamine) in serum. The aim was to apply the validated method to forensic samples...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917212/comparative-analytical-and-toxicological-assessment-of-methylcyclohexanemethanol-mchm-mixtures-associated-with-the-elk-river-chemical-spill
#2
Katharine A Horzmann, Chloe de Perre, Linda S Lee, Andrew J Whelton, Jennifer L Freeman
On January 9, 2014, a chemical mixture containing crude methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) contaminated the water supply of Charleston, West Virginia. Although the mixture was later identified as a mix of crude MCHM and stripped propylene glycol phenyl ethers, initial risk assessment focused on 4-MCHM, the predominant component of crude MCHM. The mixture's exact composition and the toxicity differences between 4-MCHM, crude MCHM, and the tank mixture were unknown. We analyzed the chemical composition of crude MCHM and the tank mixture via GC/MS and, based on identified spectra, found that crude MCHM and the tank mixture differed in chemical composition...
September 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910664/the-analysis-of-132-novel-psychoactive-substances-in-human-hair-using-a-single-step-extraction-by-tandem-lc-ms
#3
Vassiliki A Boumba, Matthew Di Rago, Melissa Peka, Olaf H Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos
A rapid LC-MS/MS method for the targeted screening of 132 NPS in hair is described. Drugs include cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids, as well as amphetamine-type stimulants, piperazines and other hallucinogenic compounds. This method utilizes hair pulverization in acidified methanol followed by analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem MS. The limit of detection varied from 0.001 to 0.1ng/mg hair among the various analytes. The method was validated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability and stability...
September 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903606/metabolic-profile-of-oxazepam-and-related-benzodiazepines-clinical-and-forensic-aspects
#4
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Anxiolytic drugs, namely benzodiazepines, are the most commonly used psychoactive substances since anxiety disorders are prevalent mental disorders particularly in the Western world. Oxazepam is a short-acting benzodiazepine and one of the most frequently prescribed anxiolytic drugs. It is also the active metabolite of a wide range of other benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, ketazolam, temazepam, chlordiazepoxide, demoxazepam, halazepam, medazepam, prazepam, pinazepam, and chlorazepate. Therefore, relevant clinical and forensic outocomes may arise, namely those related to interference in driving performance...
September 14, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877224/transformation-products-elucidation-of-forchlorfenuron-in-postharvest-kiwifruit-by-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#5
Zhiwei Zhang, Zhenhong Gao, Yuan Wang, Yahong Yuan, Jing Dong, Tianli Yue
Forchlorfenuron (1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea, FCF) is a plant growth regulator, being extensively used for increasing kiwifruit size. The toxicological properties of its may persist in their transformation products (TPs) or even higher toxicity than FCF. TPs elucidation of FCF in postharvest kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis, Chinese gooseberry) by the liquid chromatography ionization hybrid ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF/MS) in positive mode was the objective of the present study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863335/an-efficient-analytical-method-for-determination-of-s-phenylmercapturic-acid-in-urine-by-hplc-fluorimetric-detector-to-assessing-benzene-exposure
#6
Michele P Rocha Mendes, Josianne Nicácio Silveira, Leiliane Coelho Andre
Benzene is an important occupational and environmental contaminant, naturally present in petroleum and as by-product in the steel industry. Toxicological studies showed pronounced myelotoxic action, causing leukemic and others blood cells disorders. Assessing of benzene exposure is performed by biomarkers as trans, trans-muconic acid (AttM) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) in urine. Due to specificity of S-PMA, this biomarker has been proposed to asses lower levels of benzene in air. The aim of this study was to validate an analytical method for the quantification of S-PMA by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorometric detector...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852820/assessment-of-simpler-calibration-models-in-the-development-and-validation-of-a-fast-postmortem-multi-analyte-lc-qtof-quantitation-method-in-whole-blood-with-simultaneous-screening-capabilities-using-swath-acquisition
#7
Marco P Elmiger, Michael Poetzsch, Andrea E Steuer, Thomas Kraemer
In postmortem toxicology, fast methods can provide a triage to avoid unnecessary autopsies. Usually, this requires multiple qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. The aim of the present study was to develop a postmortem LC-QTOF method for simultaneous screening and quantitation using easy sample preparation and reduced alternative calibration models. Hence, a method for 24 highly relevant substances in forensic toxicology was fully validated using the following calibration models: one-point external, one-point internal via corresponding deuterated standards, multi-point external daily calibration, and multi-point external weekly calibration...
August 29, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842770/dopamine-mediated-immunoassay-for-bacteria-detection
#8
Yi Wan, Guiyou Zhu
Traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with sufficient sensing specificity is a useful analytical approach for the detection of toxicologically important substances in in vivo systems or complicated biological systems. Increasing worldwide demand for analyses of bacteria by signal amplification and increasing concern regarding their safe development and use require a simple, stable, and sensitive detection assay for target evaluation and clinical diagnosis. A sensitive and selective immunoassay for detection of bacteria is constructed that combines horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed signal amplification with the strong linker of the polydopamine-biotin complex on the surface of solid substances or biomolecules...
August 25, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840991/evaluation-of-the-triage-tox-drug-screen-assay-for-detection-of-11-drugs-of-abuse-and-therapeutic-drugs
#9
Hae In Bang, Mi Ae Jang, Yong Wha Lee
The demand for rapid and broad clinical toxicology screens is on the rise. Recently, a new rapid toxicology screening test, the Triage TOX Drug Screen (Alere Inc., USA), which can simultaneously detect 11 drugs of abuse and therapeutic drugs with an instrument-read cartridge, was developed. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of this new on-site immunoassay using 105 urine specimens; the results were compared with those obtained by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TMS)...
November 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830120/detection-of-carfentanil-by-lc-ms-ms-and-reports-of-associated-fatalities-in-the-usa
#10
Kevin G Shanks, George S Behonick
Carfentanil is a mu (μ) opioid receptor agonist and is estimated to be ~10,000 times more potent than morphine in animal (non-human) models. It is not approved for human use and is only used to immobilize large exotic animals in veterinary medicine. In mid-2016, carfentanil emerged as a contaminant in street heroin in the USA and was central to a large number of emergency department visits and deaths. We describe an analytical method for the detection and quantification of carfentanil in whole blood specimens via a protein precipitation extraction with acetonitrile and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815938/optimization-of-recombinant-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-hydrolysis-and-quantification-of-eight-urinary-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Cristina Sempio, Karl B Scheidweiler, Allan J Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis
Prolonged urinary cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis users confounds identification of recent cannabis intake that may be important in treatment, workplace, clinical, and forensic testing programs. In addition, differentiation of synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from cannabis plant products might be an important interpretive issue. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) urine concentrations were evaluated during previous controlled cannabis administration studies following tandem alkaline/E...
June 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810150/occurrence-of-carbazoles-in-dust-and-air-samples-from-different-locations-in-germany
#12
Hermann Fromme, Wenying Mi, Thomas Lahrz, Martin Kraft, Bettina Aschenbrenner, Bianca Bruessow, Ralf Ebinghaus, Zhiyong Xie, Ludwig Fembacher
9H-carbazole is generated from incomplete combustion of diverse fossil fuels and biomass, in tobacco smoke and from industrial processes, while halogenated carbazoles have natural and anthropogenic sources. We analyzed 9H-carbazole and 14 halogenated carbazoles in dust samples from 14 schools, 13 daycare centers, and 13 residences, as well as 5 indoor air samples from residences in Munich, Germany. Overall, we present first data of various carbazoles in different indoor environments without visible combustion sources...
August 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802738/bioaccumulation-and-toxicity-of-cdse-zns-quantum-dots-in-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#13
Liang Hu, Guangming Zeng, Guiqiu Chen, Zhenzhen Huang, Jia Wan, Anwei Chen, Zhigang Yu, Jiangli Yang, Kai He, Lei Qin
The growing potential of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications has raised considerable concerns regarding their toxicological impact. Consequently, there has been a need to understand the underlying toxicity mechanism of QDs. In this work, we comprehensively investigated the bioaccumulation and toxicity of three CdSe/ZnS QDs (COOH CdSe/ZnS 525, NH2 CdSe/ZnS 525, and NH2 CdSe/ZnS 625) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) using confocal laser scanning microscopy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements, and cell viability assays...
August 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781900/blending-of-rodenticide-and-battery-acid-a-rare-and-fatal-suicide-mix
#14
Nisreen Abdul Rahman, Siddhartha Das, Vinod Ashok Chaudhari, Suresh Nandagopal, Bhawana Badhe
BACKGROUND: Self-poisoning usually occurs by the ingestion of a single lethal compound and majority of the poisoning cases in our country are due to the pesticides. Suicide by ingestion of more than one poisonous substance is rare except alcohol and multiple drugs. To the best of our knowledge, suicidal ingestion of a mixture of rodenticide and battery acid has not been reported before in medical literature. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we are discussing a case of simultaneous ingestion of two poisonous substances, i...
2017: Egyptian journal of forensic sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777968/incorporation-of-14-c-cholesterol-in-human-adrenal-corticocarcinoma-h295r-cell-line-and-online-radiodetection-of-produced-14-c-steroid-hormone-metabolites
#15
Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Erland Björklund, Frederik Knud Nielsen, Martin Hansen
This study demonstrates the addition of (14)C-cholesterol to the human cell line H295R will in-situ form radiolabeled steroid hormones allowing for new mechanistic and metabolic insights. The aim of the present study was to in-situ radiolabel steroid hormones from cell line-incorporated (14)C-cholesterol using the OECD guideline 456, H295R steroidogenesis in-vitro assay. Radiodetection of the steroid metabolites of the steroidogenic pathway allows for an improved understanding of the various enzymatic mechanisms involved without necessarily being dependent on quantification...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777878/a-multi-analyte-approach-to-help-in-assessing-the-severity-of-acute-poisonings-development-and-validation-of-a-fast-lc-ms-ms-quantification-approach-for-45-drugs-and-relevant-metabolites-with-one-point-calibration
#16
Julian A Michely, Hans H Maurer
In emergency toxicology, diagnosis, monitoring of the efficiency of detoxification, and estimating the prognosis of acute poisonings are important tasks. Comprehensive screening and quantification of relevant substances by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) help in assessing the severity of most acute poisonings. Turnaround time for such analyses must be short enough for having impact on clinical decisions. Therefore, a multi-analyte LC-MS/MS approach with a 5-min gradient was developed and validated for 45 drugs and active metabolites as complement to an existing GC-MS approach using the same liquid-liquid extraction...
August 4, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775358/integrate-life-cycle-assessment-and-risk-analysis-results-not-methods
#17
Igor Linkov, Benjamin D Trump, Ben A Wender, Thomas P Seager, Alan J Kennedy, Jeffrey M Keisler
Two analytic perspectives on environmental assessment dominate environmental policy and decision-making: risk analysis (RA) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). RA focuses on management of a toxicological hazard in a specific exposure scenario, while LCA seeks a holistic estimation of impacts of thousands of substances across multiple media, including non-toxicological and non-chemically deleterious effects. While recommendations to integrate the two approaches have remained a consistent feature of environmental scholarship for at least 15 years, the current perception is that progress is slow largely because of practical obstacles, such as a lack of data, rather than insurmountable theoretical difficulties...
August 4, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774712/an-isotope-dilution-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-sugars-and-humectants-in-tobacco-products
#18
Liqun Wang, Roberto Bravo Cardenas, Clifford Watson
CDC's Division of Laboratory Sciences developed and validated a new method for the simultaneous detection and measurement of 11 sugars, alditols and humectants in tobacco products. The method uses isotope dilution ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and has demonstrated high sensitivity, selectivity, throughput and accuracy, with recoveries ranging from 90% to 113%, limits of detection ranging from 0.0002 to 0.0045μg/mL and coefficients of variation (CV%) ranging from 1...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774627/cho-cell-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-analyses-of-disinfection-by-products-an-updated-review
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth D Wagner, Michael J Plewa
The disinfection of drinking water is an important public health service that generates high quality, safe and palatable tap water. The disinfection of drinking water to reduce waterborne disease was an outstanding public health achievement of the 20th century. An unintended consequence is the reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants and bromide/iodide to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). A large number of DBPs are cytotoxic, neurotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766527/-the-determination-of-2-4-di-tret-butyl-hydroxybenzene-for-the-purpose-of-the-chemical-toxicological-study-of-the-biological-materials
#20
V K Shormanov, E P Tsatsua, A P Astashkina
The objective of this work was to study peculiarities of identification of 2,4-di-tert-butyl hydroxybenzene (2,4-DTBHOB) in blood and the tissues of various organs with the use TLC, UR- and UV-spectrophotometry. The results of the study suggest the expediency of the application of ethylacetate as the extractive agent for the isolation of 2,4-DTBHOB from the biological materials. The optimal conditions for 2,4-DTBHOB extraction by this method were developed based on the decontamination of the analyte by means of removal of the organic substances of biological matrices using the L 40/100 mcm sorbent columns with the hexan/dioxane mixture (8...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
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