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Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215500/environmental-epigenomics-current-approaches-to-assess-epigenetic-effects-of-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-edc-s-on-human-health
#1
REVIEW
Natalia Tapia-Orozco, Gerardo Santiago-Toledo, Valeria Barrón, Ana María Espinosa-García, José Antonio García-García, Roeb García-Arrazola
Environmental Epigenomics is a developing field to study the epigenetic effect on human health from exposure to environmental factors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been detected primarily in pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products, food additives, and food containers. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with a high incidence and prevalence of many endocrine-related disorders in humans. Nevertheless, further evidence is needed to establish a correlation between exposure to EDC and human disorders...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212711/advances-in-clinical-mass-spectrometry
#2
D French
Although mass spectrometry has been used clinically for decades, the advent of immunoassay technology moved the clinical laboratory to more labor saving automated platforms requiring little if any sample preparation. It became clear, however, that immunoassays lacked sufficient sensitivity and specificity necessary for measurement of certain analytes or for measurement of analytes in specific patient populations. This limitation prompted clinical laboratories to revisit mass spectrometry which could additionally be used to develop assays for which there was no commercial source...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211993/recent-lab-on-chip-developments-for-novel-drug-discovery
#3
REVIEW
Nauman Khalid, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS) revolutionized the biochemical and electronic industries, and this miniaturization process became a key driver for many markets. Now, it is a driving force for innovations in life sciences, diagnostics, analytical sciences, and chemistry, which are called 'lab-on-a-chip, (LOC)' devices. The use of these devices allows the development of fast, portable, and easy-to-use systems with a high level of functional integration for applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, forensics, the analysis of biomolecules, environmental or food analysis, and drug development...
February 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207195/increasing-the-linear-dynamic-range-in-lc-ms-is-it-valid-to-use-a-less-abundant-isotopologue
#4
Stephen Trobbiani, Peter Stockham, Timothy Scott
Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has quickly become the analytical method of choice in forensic toxicology laboratories due to its ability to detect a very wide range of compounds in a single analysis. One of the major limitations of LC/MS however, is a relatively limited linear dynamic range for quantitation. A new approach to combating this problem is to use the [(+1) M + H](+) isotope mass peak for quantitation, thereby reducing saturation at the detector and extending the linear range...
February 16, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187296/toxicological-investigation-of-forensic-cases-related-to-the-designer-drug-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-detection-quantification-and-studies-on-human-metabolism-by-gc-ms
#5
Marcel Grapp, Christoph Kaufmann, Martin Ebbecke
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic cathinone belonging to the class of α-pyrrolidinophenones that become increasingly popular as a designer psychostimulant. Here, we report a comprehensive collection of MDPV exposure with quantitative serum level confirmation in Germany. During the years 2014-2016, we could proof consumption of MDPV in 23 cases where urine and blood samples were submitted to our laboratory by the police of Lower Saxony. Most of the samples underwent systematic toxicological analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), where MDPV could be detected in urine and/or serum samples...
February 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169493/ultrafast-gas-chromatography-method-with-direct-injection-for-the-quantitative-determination-of-benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-and-xylenes-in-commercial-gasoline
#6
Nahieh Toscano Miranda, Rodrigo Sequinel, Rafael Rodrigues Hatanaka, José Eduardo de Oliveira, Danilo Luiz Flumignan
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes are some of the most hazardous constituents found in commercial gasoline samples; therefore, these components must be monitored to avoid toxicological problems. We propose a new routine method of ultrafast gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection for the direct determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in commercial gasoline. This method is based on external standard calibration to quantify each compound, including the validation step of the study of linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167386/dna-adducts-in-marine-fish-as-biological-marker-of-genotoxicity-in-environmental-monitoring-the-way-forward
#7
REVIEW
Daniela M Pampanin, Steven J Brooks, Bjørn Einar Grøsvik, Jérémie Le Goff, Sonnich Meier, Magne O Sydnes
DNA adducts in fish represent a very important genotoxicity endpoint in environmental monitoring, being a pre-mutagenic lesion that plays an essential role in the initiation of carcinogenesis. The analysis of DNA adducts is a challenging task due to the low concentration of the analyte. Methods are available to determine the presence of DNA adducts, although further knowledge is required to fully understand the nature of the adducts and responsible xenobiotics (i.e. position of adduct in DNA, most active xenobiotic and metabolite forms, structural information)...
January 21, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162967/development-and-validation-of-a-lc-ms-ms-assay-for-quantification-of-cisplatin-in-rat-plasma-and-urine
#8
Abdul Naveed Shaik, Deborah A Altomare, Lawrence J Lesko, Mirjam N Trame
Till date, no analytical method published to detect Cisplatin has been validated according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We report, a validated LC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of cisplatin in rat plasma and urine according to FDA guidlines. Cisplatin is a platinum containing compound used for the treatment of different types of cancers. Quantitative determination of cisplatin has been carried out using atomic absorption spectroscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography with phosphorescence, ultra-violet detection, or with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157787/nonclinical-evaluation-of-the-new-topical-hemostatic-agent-tt-173-for-skin-grafting-procedures
#9
Santiago Rojas Codina, José Raúl Herance, Alberto Centeno, Javier Valero, Belén Arias, Ignasi Miquel, Pilar Sánchez, Esther Rincón, Ramón López, Jesús Murat
Blood loss during grafting surgery represents a major concern of this procedure and the development of hemostatic agents for this indication is highly desirable. TT-173 is the first biologically active treatment based on tissue factor instead of thrombin. This study sought to investigate the efficacy, systemic absorption, and toxicology of TT-173 in animal models to support clinical evaluation of the product in donor sites of patients subjected to skin grafting. Procoagulant efficacy of 148 μg of TT-173 was evaluated in pigs in presence and absence of anticoagulant treatment with unfractioned heparin...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149263/advantages-and-challenges-of-dried-blood-spot-analysis-by-mass-spectrometry-across-the-total-testing-process
#10
Rosita Zakaria, Katrina J Allen, Jennifer J Koplin, Peter Roche, Ronda F Greaves
INTRODUCTION: Through the introduction of advanced analytical techniques and improved throughput, the scope of dried blood spot testing utilising mass spectrometric methods, has broadly expanded. Clinicians and researchers have become very enthusiastic about the potential applications of dried blood spot based mass spectrometric applications. Analysts on the other hand face challenges of sensitivity, reproducibility and overall accuracy of dried blood spot quantification. In this review, we aim to bring together these two facets to discuss the advantages and current challenges of non-newborn screening applications of dried blood spot quantification by mass spectrometry...
December 2016: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149262/mass-spectrometry-applications-for-toxicology
#11
Michael M Mbughuni, Paul J Jannetto, Loralie J Langman
Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both...
December 2016: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107947/surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-sers-as-a-method-for-the-toxicological-analysis-of-synthetic-cannabinoids
#12
Thaddeus Mostowtt, Bruce McCord
Synthetic cannabinoids (K2, spice) present problems in forensic investigations because standard presumptive methods, such as immunoassays, are insufficiently specific for the wide range of potential target compounds. This issue can lead to problems with low sensitivity and yield false negative results. A potential solution to this problem is surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In this study we demonstrate the analysis of a set of structurally similar synthetic cannabinoids using SERS. The procedure involves mixing the analyte with gold nanoparticles prepared in a solution containing alkali or alkaline earth salt solutions...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104346/the-effect-of-lead-exposure-on-fatty-acid-composition-in-mouse-brain-analyzed-using-pseudo-catalytic-derivatization
#13
Jong-Min Jung, Jechan Lee, Ki-Hyun Kim, In Geon Jang, Jae Gwang Song, Kyeongjin Kang, Filip M G Tack, Jeong-Ik Oh, Eilhann E Kwon, Hyung-Wook Kim
We performed toxicological study of mice exposed to lead by quantifying fatty acids in brain of the mice. This study suggests that the introduced analytical method had an extremely high tolerance against impurities such as water and extractives; thus, it led to the enhanced resolution in visualizing the spectrum of fatty acid profiles in animal brain. Furthermore, one of the biggest technical advantages achieved in this study was the quantitation of fatty acid methyl ester profiles of mouse brain using a trace amount of sample (e...
March 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095954/predicting-air-quality-at-first-ingress-into-vehicles-visiting-the-international-space-station
#14
Amelia A Romoser, Robert R Scully, Thomas F Limero, Vanessa De Vera, Patti F Cheng, Jennifer J Hand, John T James, Valerie E Ryder
INTRODUCTION: NASA regularly performs ground-based offgas tests (OGTs), which allow prediction of accumulated volatile pollutant concentrations at first entry on orbit, on whole modules and vehicles scheduled to connect to the International Space Station (ISS). These data guide crew safety operations and allow for estimation of ISS air revitalization systems impact from additional pollutant load. Since volatiles released from vehicle, module, and payload materials can affect crew health and performance, prediction of first ingress air quality is important...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088044/dried-haematic-microsamples-and-lc-ms-ms-for-the-analysis-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids
#15
Michele Protti, James Rudge, Angelo Eliseo Sberna, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini
Synthetic cannabinoids are new psychoactive substances (NPS) with similar effects when compared to natural ones found in Cannabis derivatives. They have rapidly integrated into the illicit market, often sold as alternatives under international control. The need to identify and quantify an unprecedented and growing number of new compounds represents a unique challenge for toxicological, forensic and anti-doping analysis. Dried blood spots have been used within the bioanalytical framework in place of plasma or serum, in order to reduce invasiveness, lower sample size, simplify handling, storage and shipping of samples and to facilitate home-based and on-field applications...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088042/strategies-for-metabolite-profiling-based-on-liquid-chromatography
#16
REVIEW
Javier Saurina, Sonia Sentellas
This paper aims at covering the principal strategies based on liquid chromatography (LC) for metabolite profiling in the field of drug discovery and development. The identification of metabolites generated in the organism is an important task during the early stages of preclinical research to define the most proper strategy for optimizing, adjusting metabolic clearance and minimizing bioactivation. An early assessment of the metabolite profile may be critical since metabolites can contribute to pharmacological and/or toxicological effects...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080221/molecular-mechanisms-of-antisense-oligonucleotides
#17
Stanley T Crooke
In 1987, when I became interested in the notion of antisense technology, I returned to my roots in RNA biochemistry and began work to understand how oligonucleotides behave in biological systems. Since 1989, my research has focused primarily on this topic, although I have been involved in most areas of research in antisense technology. I believe that the art of excellent science is to frame large important questions that are perhaps not immediately answerable with existing knowledge and methods, and then conceive a long-term (multiyear) research strategy that begins by answering the most pressing answerable questions on the path to the long-term goals...
January 12, 2017: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075189/11-analytically-confirmed-cases-of-mexedrone-use-among-polydrug-users
#18
Liam Roberts, Loretta Ford, Neel Patel, J Allister Vale, Sally M Bradberry
INTRODUCTION: Mexedrone, 3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one, is the alpha-methoxy-derivative of mephedrone (4-methyl-N-methyl cathinone). Mexedrone inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin and dopamine in a dose-dependent manner and has affinity for serotonin and dopamine membrane transporters and receptors (5-HT2 and D2 receptors), producing sympathomimetic effects similar to amfetamines. To date there are no published clinical reports on mexedrone use that are analytically confirmed...
March 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063588/the-united-kingdom-and-ireland-association-of-forensic-toxicologists-establishing-best-practice-for-professional-training-development-in-forensic-toxicology
#19
Simon Cosbey, Simon Elliott, Sue Paterson
The current status of forensic toxicology in the United Kingdom is discussed with an emphasis on professional training and development. Best practice is proposed using a blend of modular foundation knowledge training, continuing professional development, academic study, research & development and ongoing analytical practice. The need for establishing a professional career structure is also discussed along with a suggested example of a suitable model. The issues discussed in this paper are intended to provoke discussion within the forensic toxicology community, industry regulators and other government bodies responsible for the administration of justice...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063329/determination-of-ethyl-glucuronide-in-human-hair-samples-a-multivariate-analysis-of-the-impact-of-extraction-conditions-on-quantitative-results
#20
Alexander Mueller, Hilke Jungen, Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann, Lars Raduenz, Susanne Lezius, Hilke Andresen-Streichert
BACKGROUND: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol, is used as a direct alcohol biomarker for the prolonged detection of ethanol consumption. Hair testing for EtG offers retrospective, long-term detection of ethanol exposition for several months and has gained practical importance in forensic and clinical toxicology. Since quantitative results of EtG hair testings are included in interpretations, a rugged quantitation of EtG in hair matrix is important. As generally known, sample preparation is critical in hair testing, and the scope of this study was on extraction of EtG from hair matrix...
December 19, 2016: Forensic Science International
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