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Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524734/capillary-microsampling-in-nonclinical-safety-assessment-practical-sampling-and-bioanalysis-from-a-cro-perspective
#1
David Coleman, Graeme Smith, Rachel Lawrence, Deborah McManus, Sunetha Diaram, Joanna Edwards
Microsampling has the 3R benefits of refining blood collection techniques while reducing the number of animals required for rodent safety assessment studies. There are significant scientific benefits of correlating study findings with systemic exposure and consequently, there is an industry drive to utilize microsampling in regulatory toxicology studies. This article will focus on capillary microsampling and will discuss the initial considerations before using capillary microsampling, study design and some practicalities of sample collection...
May 19, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516258/-biomarkers-of-internal-exposure-to-toxicologically-relevant-contaminants-in-food
#2
REVIEW
Klaus Abraham, Bernhard Monien, Alfonso Lampen
The assessment of health risks resulting from the intake of genotoxic carcinogens in food depends essentially on a valid exposure assessment. The reliability of the external exposure estimation is restricted by various factors, e. g. inaccurate data from dietary protocols and variations of food contaminant contents. As an alternative, the individual internal exposure to genotoxic substances may be described by specific biomarkers in different matrices. For example, mercapturic acids formed after glutathione conjugation of electrophilic metabolites can be detected in the urine...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493314/use-of-lc-hrms-in-full-scan-xic-mode-for-multi-analyte-urine-drug-testing-a-step-towards-a-black-box-solution
#3
Niclas Nikolai Stephanson, Patrick Signell, Anders Helander, Olof Beck
The influx of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has created a need for improved methods for drug testing in toxicology laboratories. The aim of this work was to design, validate and apply a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method for screening of 148 target analytes belonging to the NPS class, plant alkaloids and new psychoactive therapeutic drugs. The analytical method used a five-fold dilution of urine with 9 deuterated internal standards and injection of 2 μL...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482314/maternal-transfer-of-dioxin-like-compounds-in-artificially-matured-european-eels
#4
Marko Freese, Roxana Sühring, Lasse Marohn, Jan-Dag Pohlmann, Hendrik Wolschke, Jonathan D Byer, Mehran Alaee, Ralf Ebinghaus, Reinhold Hanel
Several eel species of the genus Anguilla are considered endangered due to a severe decline in recruitment. Up to now, the reasons for this threatening development are not fully understood. The eel's highly specialized biology can lead to explicitly high accumulation of globally distributed organic lipophilic contaminants during its continental life. Because of this and due the particular toxicological sensitivity of early life stages of oviparous organisms towards dioxin-like compounds, it is crucial to improve our understanding concerning toxicokinetics and maternal transfer of organic contaminants in eels...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476634/use-of-bioassays-to-assess-hazard-of-food-contact-material-extracts-state-of-the-art
#5
REVIEW
Isabelle Severin, Emilie Souton, Laurence Dahbi, Marie Christine Chagnon
This review focuses on the use of in vitro bioassays for the hazard assessment of food contact materials (FCM) as a relevant strategy, in complement to analytical methods. FCM may transfer constituents to foods, not always detected by analytical chemistry, resulting in low but measurable human exposures. Testing FCM extracts with bioassays represents the biological response of a combination of substances, able to be released from the finished materials. Furthermore, this approach is particularly useful regarding the current risk assessment challenges with unpredicted/unidentified non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) that can be leached from the FCM in the food...
May 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472358/metabolic-profile-determination-of-nbome-compounds-using-human-liver-microsomes-and-comparison-with-findings-in-authentic-human-blood-and-urine
#6
Keith-Dane H Temporal, Karen S Scott, Amanda L A Mohr, Barry K Logan
The emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) such as hallucinogenic NBOMes (N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of 2C phenethylamines) in the past few years into the recreational drug market has introduced various challenges in forensic analytical toxicology in regard to adequate and timely detection of these compounds. This is especially true in samples from individuals who have experienced severe and fatal intoxications. The aim of this research was to identify the major Phase I metabolites of selected NBOMe compounds to generate a predicted human metabolic pathway of these substances...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459969/reports-of-adverse-events-associated-with-use-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-2013-2016-a-review
#7
Barry K Logan, Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Sherri L Kacinko, Jeri D Ropero-Miller, Marilyn A Huestis
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) represent significant analytical and interpretive challenges to forensic and clinical toxicologists. Timely access to case reports and reports of adverse incidents of impairment or toxicity is imperative to clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as to interpretation of forensic results. Delays in identifying the presence of a novel intoxicating agent have significant consequences for public health and public safety. Adverse effects of intoxications with novel cannabinoids, stimulants, hallucinogens, benzodiazepines and opioids spanning January 2013 through December 2016 as reported in emergency departments, death investigations, impaired driving cases and other forensic contexts are the subject of this review...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452032/mixture-risk-assessment-due-to-ingestion-of-arsenic-copper-and-zinc-from-milkfish-farmed-in-contaminated-coastal-areas
#8
Yi-Jun Lin, Min-Pei Ling, Szu-Chieh Chen, Wei-Yu Chen, Nan-Hung Hsieh, Yi-Hsien Cheng, Shu-Han You, Wei-Chun Chou, Ming-Chao Lin, Chung-Min Liao
Human health risks associated with the consumption of metal-contaminated fish over extended periods have become a concern particularly in Taiwan, where fish is consumed on a large scale. This study applied the interaction-based hazard index (HI) to assess the mixture health risks for fishers and non-fishers who consume the arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) contaminated milkfish from As-contaminated coastal areas in Taiwan, taking into account joint toxic actions and potential toxic interactions. We showed that the interactions of As-Zn and Cu-Zn were antagonistic, whereas As-Cu interaction was additive...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447134/-poisonings-in-germany-poisons-centres-medical-management-and-national-monitoring
#9
REVIEW
Herbert Desel, Helmut Hentschel, Andreas Stürer
BACKGROUND: Illnesses caused by exposure to extracorporeal artificial substances play a major role in emergency medicine, family medicine, and environmental medicine. OBJECTIVE: The current situation of medical poisoning management and national reporting of poisonings in Germany are described. MATERIALS UND METHODS: The information and data presented here are derived from a literature review and from stakeholder interviews. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Eight poison centres (PCs) offer consultation supporting the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning cases in Germany today...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439620/development-of-an-optimal-filter-substrate-for-the-identification-of-small-microplastic-particles-in-food-by-micro-raman-spectroscopy
#10
Barbara E Oßmann, George Sarau, Sebastian W Schmitt, Heinrich Holtmannspötter, Silke H Christiansen, Wilhelm Dicke
When analysing microplastics in food, due to toxicological reasons it is important to achieve clear identification of particles down to a size of at least 1 μm. One reliable, optical analytical technique allowing this is micro-Raman spectroscopy. After isolation of particles via filtration, analysis is typically performed directly on the filter surface. In order to obtain high qualitative Raman spectra, the material of the membrane filters should not show any interference in terms of background and Raman signals during spectrum acquisition...
April 24, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417172/simultaneous-determination-of-multiclass-pesticide-residues-in-human-plasma-using-a-mini-quechers-method
#11
Anshuman Srivastava, Satyajeet Rai, Ashish Kumar Sonker, Kajal Karsauliya, Chandra Prabha Pandey, Sheelendra Pratap Singh
Blood is one of the most assessable matrices for the determination of pesticide residue exposure in humans. Effective sample preparation/cleanup of biological samples is very important in the development of a sensitive, reproducible, and robust method. In the present study, a simple, cost-effective, and rapid gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 31 multiclass (organophosphates, organochlorines, and synthetic pyrethroids) pesticide residues in human plasma by means of a mini QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method...
April 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415884/alcohol-quantification-recent-insights-into-amperometric-enzyme-biosensors
#12
Vinita Hooda, Vikas Kumar, Anjum Gahlaut, Vikas Hooda
Biosensors are the switching channels that make sense. The biosensors have found an empirical role in health applications (e.g. clinical diagnostics) as they represent the technological counterpart of living senses. On a global scale, alcohol analysis is indispensable for criminal justice systems, monitoring medical conditions of HIV patients & pregnant women as well as public safety issues regarding pilots, metro drivers, doctors etc. For addressing the clinical and toxicological problems, much advancement in the improvement of biosensors have been witnessed in recent decades...
April 17, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403803/metabolic-profile-of-flunitrazepam-clinical-and-forensic-toxicological-aspects
#13
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Flunitrazepam is a potent hypnotic, sedative, and amnestic drug used to treat insomnia and as a pre-anesthetic agent. The illicit practice in drug-facilitated sexual assault has been implicating important clinical and forensic issues. OBJECTIVE: In this work the metabolism of flunitrazepam was fully reviewed. METHODS: Flunitrazepam and related known metabolizing enzymes and metabolites were searched in books and in PubMed (U.S...
April 7, 2017: Drug Metabolism Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402627/strategy-for-the-quantitation-of-a-protein-conjugate-via-hybrid-immunocapture-liquid-chromatography-with-sequential-hrms-and-srm-based-lc-ms-ms-analyses
#14
Yue Zhao, Guowen Liu, Xiling Yuan, Jinping Gan, Jon E Peterson, Jim X Shen
With the development of modern instrumentation and technologies, mass spectrometry based assays have played an important role in protein bioanalysis. We have developed a novel strategy by combining the "bottom-up" and "top-down" approaches using both high-resolution (HRMS) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) based mass spectrometric detection to quantify a positron emission tomography (PET) detection tracer for an oncology marker. Monkey plasma samples were processed by immunocapture purification, followed by liquid chromatography (LC) with HRMS full scan analysis...
April 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393558/supraventricular-tachycardia-and-acute-confusion-following-ingestion-of-e-cigarette-fluid-containing-ab-fubinaca-and-adb-fubinaca-a-case-report-with-quantitative-analysis-of-serum-drug-concentrations
#15
Rex Pui Kin Lam, Magdalene Huen Yin Tang, Siu Chung Leung, Yeow Kuan Chong, Matthew Sik Hon Tsui, Tony Wing Lai Mak
BACKGROUND: AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA are structurally similar synthetic cannabinoids with potent CB1 receptor agonistic effects. Very little is known about their pharmacology and toxicology. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of supraventricular tachycardia and acute confusion after ingestion of e-cigarette fluid containing AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA, with quantitative analysis of the serum drug concentrations. CASE REPORT: A healthy 24-year-old man ingested two drops of e-cigarette fluid which were later found to contain AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA...
April 10, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393481/comparative-study-of-therapeutic-antibody-candidates-derived-from-mini-pool-and-clonal-cell-lines
#16
Lianchun Fan, Giovanni Rizzi, Kathleen Bierilo, Jun Tian, Joon Chong Yee, Reb Russell, Tapan K Das
The long journey of developing a drug from initial discovery target identification to regulatory approval often leaves many patients with missed window of opportunities. Both regulatory agencies and biopharmaceutical industry continue to develop creative approaches to shorten the time of new drug development in order to deliver life-saving medicine to patients. Generally, drug substance materials to support the toxicology and early phase clinical study can only be manufactured after creating the final Master Cell Bank (MCB) of the clonally derived cell line, which normally takes 1-2 years...
April 10, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389456/analytic-characterization-of-biosimilars
#17
Peter M Sullivan, Lisa M DiGrazia
PURPOSE: The biosimilar development process, comparability for biological agents, and analytic characterization of biosimilars are described. SUMMARY: Healthcare providers must understand the requirements for biosimilar approval, including the science behind biosimilar development and testing that contributes to the totality of evidence. The foundation of development is to demonstrate that a biosimilar is highly similar to the reference product through analytic characterization...
April 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381719/practice-of-regulatory-science-drug-development
#18
REVIEW
Toru Kawanishi
 The practice of regulatory science (RS) for drug development is described. In the course material for education in pharmaceutical sciences drafted by the RS Division of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, RS for pharmaceuticals is defined as the science of predicting, assessing, and judging the quality, efficacy, and safety of pharmaceutical products throughout their lifespan. RS is also described as an integrated science based on basic and applied biomedical sciences, including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, genetics, biostatistics, epidemiology, and clinical trial methodology, and social sciences such as decision science, risk assessment, and communication science...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381359/chemical-characterisation-of-aerosols-emitted-by-electronic-cigarettes-using-thermal-desorption-gas-chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#19
Christopher Rawlinson, Stuart Martin, Justin Frosina, Chris Wright
A non-targeted analytical method, using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry, to detect, identify and semi-quantify volatile and semi-volatile organic constituents of e-cigarette aerosols is presented. A heart-cutting process with a Deans Switch has been applied to avoid saturation of the mass analyser by high-abundance bulk components. Between 30 and 90 compounds were detected in four aerosol samples generated by e-cigarettes, depending on the added flavourings. The method analyses in a single 80mL, 3-second puff, GC-amenable compounds with volatilities ranging between those of propane (C3) and octacosane (C28) and abundance greater than approximately 5ng...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379393/profiting-from-probability-combining-low-and-high-probability-isotopes-as-a-tool-extending-the-dynamic-range-of-an-assay-measuring-amphetamine-and-methamphetamine-in-urine
#20
Anna M Miller, Melissa M Goggin, An Nguyen, Stephanie D Gozum, Gregory C Janis
A wide range of concentrations are frequently observed when measuring drugs of abuse in urine toxicology samples; this is especially true for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Routine liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmatory methods commonly anchored at a 50 ng/mL lower limit of quantitation can span approximately a 100-fold concentration range before regions of non-linearity are reached deteriorating accurate quantitation and qualitative assessments. In our experience, approximately a quarter of amphetamine and methamphetamine positive samples are above a 5,000 ng/mL upper limit of quantitation and thus require reanalysis with dilution for accurate quantitative and acceptable qualitative results...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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