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Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332786/recent-advances-and-developments-on-integrating-nanotechnology-with-chemiluminescence-assays
#1
REVIEW
Ashish Tiwari, S J Dhoble
Chemiluminescence (CL) techniques are extensively utilized for detection of analytes due to their high sensitivity, rapidity and selectivity. With the advent of nanotechnology and incorporation of the nanoparticles in the CL system has revolutionized the assays due to their unique optical and mechanical properties. Several CL-based reactions have been developed where these nanoparticle based CL sensors have evolved as excellent prospects for sensing in various analytical applications. This review article addresses the nanoparticles based CL detection system that are recently developed, the mechanisms has been summarized and the role of luminophors have been discussed...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331315/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-arctotis-arctotoides-l-f-o-hoffm-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Md Moshfekus Saleh-E-In, Johannes Van Staden
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) is part of the genus Arctotis. Arctotis is an African genus of approximately 70 species that occur widely in the African continent with diverse medicinal values. This plant is used for the treatment of indigestion and catarrh of the stomach, epilepsy, topical wounds and skin disorders among the ethnic groups in South Africa and reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to appraise the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological potential, analytical methods and safety issues of A...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301115/considerations-regarding-the-validation-of-chromatographic-mass-spectrometric-methods-for-the-quantification-of-endogenous-substances-in-forensics
#3
Cornelius Hess, Konrad Sydow, Theresa Kueting, Michael Kraemer, Alexandra Maas
The requirement for correct evaluation of forensic toxicological results in daily routine work and scientific studies is reliable analytical data based on validated methods. Validation of a method gives the analyst tools to estimate the efficacy and reliability of the analytical method. Without validation, data might be contested in court and lead to unjustified legal consequences for a defendant. Therefore, new analytical methods to be used in forensic toxicology require careful method development and validation of the final method...
December 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301012/diagnosis-of-heroin-overdose-in-an-8-year-old-boy-reliable-contribution-of-toxicological-investigations
#4
M Soichot, S Julliand, J Filatriau, A Hurbain, E Bourgogne, A Mihoubi, H Gourlain, B Delhotal-Landes
Toxicological investigations are often required by clinicians in comatose patients with suspected poisoning. However, the usefulness of toxicological analyses to support a diagnosis of acute poisoning is debated among clinicians and the interpretation of laboratory tests is challenging given the wide diversity of analytical techniques available. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was admitted to an intensive care unit with severe respiratory depression and neurological impairment. In order to formulate appropriate hypothesizes about the diagnosis and circumstances of intoxication, clinicians consulted toxicologists for a comprehensive toxicological screening...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300918/detection-of-cocaine-and-metabolites-in-bone-following-decomposition-using-2d-lc-ms-ms
#5
Malorie Mella, Brendan Schweitzer, Claude R Mallet, Tara Moore, Sabra Botch-Jones
Introduction: In forensic toxicology, challenges exist with quantification analysis of cocaine and metabolites in postmortem samples following extensive decomposition. Alternative matrices, such as bone could prove useful when other specimens are not available. Detection and quantification of drugs in complex matrices require time-consuming extraction processes. The objective of this study was to develop a robust extraction and clean-up methodology to efficiently extract cocaine, and its metabolites, in bone and reach target limits of detection using multidimensional chromatography...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278994/regulatory-forum-opinion-piece-effective-brain-trimming-for-regulatory-type-nonclinical-toxicity-studies
#6
Brad Bolon
Regulatory guidances for nonclinical toxicity testing require brain evaluation but do not require a specific analytical strategy. The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) has produced "best practice" recommendations for brain sampling and processing in general toxicity (GT) studies in adult rodents and nonrodents as well as developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies in rodents. This article explains acceptable brain trimming strategies as described in these 2 STP documents. Figures in the DNT and GT "best practices" illustrate coronal brain trimming at specific levels as defined by discrete external and internal anatomic landmarks...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278819/quantitative-determination-of-carcinogenic-mycotoxins-in-human-and-animal-biological-matrices-and-animal-derived-foods-using-multi-mycotoxin-and-analyte-specific-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometric-methods
#7
Xiaoqin Cao, Xiaofei Li, Jian Li, Yunhui Niu, Lu Shi, Zhenfeng Fang, Tao Zhang, Hong Ding
A sensitive and reliable multi-mycotoxin-based method was developed to identify and quantify several carcinogenic mycotoxins in human blood and urine, as well as edible animal tissues, including muscle and liver tissue from swine and chickens, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For the toxicokinetic studies with individual mycotoxins, highly sensitive analyte-specific LC-MS/MS methods were developed for rat plasma and urine. Sample purification consisted of a rapid 'dilute and shoot' approach in urine samples, a simple 'dilute, evaporate and shoot' approach in plasma samples and a 'QuEChERS' procedure in edible animal tissues...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273819/nanomaterials-certain-aspects-of-application-risk-assessment-and-risk-communication
#8
REVIEW
Peter Laux, Jutta Tentschert, Christian Riebeling, Albert Braeuning, Otto Creutzenberg, Astrid Epp, Valérie Fessard, Karl-Heinz Haas, Andrea Haase, Kerstin Hund-Rinke, Norbert Jakubowski, Peter Kearns, Alfonso Lampen, Hubert Rauscher, Reinhilde Schoonjans, Angela Störmer, Axel Thielmann, Uwe Mühle, Andreas Luch
Development and market introduction of new nanomaterials trigger the need for an adequate risk assessment of such products alongside suitable risk communication measures. Current application of classical and new nanomaterials is analyzed in context of regulatory requirements and standardization for chemicals, food and consumer products. The challenges of nanomaterial characterization as the main bottleneck of risk assessment and regulation are presented. In some areas, e.g., quantification of nanomaterials within complex matrices, the establishment and adaptation of analytical techniques such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and others are potentially suited to meet the requirements...
December 22, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261747/sex-specific-reference-intervals-of-hematologic-and-biochemical-analytes-in-sprague-dawley-rats-using-the-nonparametric-rank-percentile-method
#9
Qili He, Guoming Su, Keliang Liu, Fangcheng Zhang, Yong Jiang, Jun Gao, Lida Liu, Zhongren Jiang, Minwu Jin, Huiping Xie
BACKGROUND: Hematologic and biochemical analytes of Sprague-Dawley rats are commonly used to determine effects that were induced by treatment and to evaluate organ dysfunction in toxicological safety assessments, but reference intervals have not been well established for these analytes. Reference intervals as presently defined for these analytes in Sprague-Dawley rats have not used internationally recommended statistical method nor stratified by sex. Thus, we aimed to establish sex-specific reference intervals for hematologic and biochemical parameters in Sprague-Dawley rats according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute C28-A3 and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology guideline...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242156/an-avian-reproduction-study-historical-control-database-a-tool-for-data-interpretation
#10
Pablo Valverde-Garcia, Tim Springer, Vince Kramer, Manousos Foudoulakis, James R Wheeler
Avian reproduction studies are a regulatory requirement for pesticides in many regions. The data often require careful interpretation due to the nature of the study design. Here we present the historical control dataset for bobwhite quail and mallard duck reproduction studies performed at the Evans Analytical Group LLC avian toxicology laboratory over the period 1985-2016. The analysis demonstrates the stability of reproductive parameters over time and good agreement to normal control ranges as required by the regulatory test guidelines...
December 11, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231028/-confirming-indicators-of-qualitative-results-by-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-in-biological-samples
#11
REVIEW
S D Liu, D M Zhang, W Zhang, W F Zhang
Because of the exist of complex matrix, the confirming indicators of qualitative results for toxic substances in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry are different from that in non-biological samples. Even in biological samples, the confirming indicators are different in various application areas. This paper reviews the similarities and differences of confirming indicators for the analyte in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry in the field of forensic toxicological analysis and other application areas...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231019/-simultaneous-quantitative-analysis-of-koumine-gelsemine-and-gelsenicine-in-biological-samples-by-lc-ms-ms
#12
S J Ji, W Liu
OBJECTIVES: To establish a LC-MS/MS method which is accurate and sensitive for determination of koumine, gelsemine, and gelsenicine in biological samples and to verify the method. METHODS: Strychnine was used as internal standard. Analytes in blood, urine and liver with 1% sodium hydroxide solution were extracted by ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a ZORBAX SB-C₁₈ column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 5 μm), and gradient elution was performed with the buffer solution of methanol-20 mmol/L ammonium acetate (including 0...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217265/metabolism-and-disposition-of-arsenic-species-from-controlled-oral-dosing-with-sodium-arsenite-in-adult-female-cd-1-mice-i-pilot-study-to-determine-dosing-analytical-measurements-and-sampling-strategies
#13
Nathan C Twaddle, Michelle Vanlandingham, Mona I Churchwell, Daniel R Doerge
Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, with typical dietary intake in developed countries <1 μg/kg bw/d, and atypical groundwater exposures in developing countries approaching 50 μg/kg bw/d. Arsenic exposures are linked with human diseases and doses of toxicological concern are similar to typical dietary intake estimates. The methylation of arsenite by arsenite-3-methyltransferase (As3MT) promotes the clearance of arsenic as pentavalent species, but also generates reactive trivalent intermediates...
December 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216524/multiple-fatalities-in-the-north-of-england-associated-with-synthetic-fentanyl-analogue-exposure-detection-and-quantitation-a-case-series-from-early-2017
#14
Laura Hikin, Paul R Smith, Eleanor Ringland, Simon Hudson, Stephen R Morley
BACKGROUND: Synthetic fentanyl analogues are highly potent opioid drugs which have no pharmaceutical use in humans. We detected the synthetic fentanyl analogues; carfentanil, butyryl fentanyl, fluorobutyrylfentanyl, furanylfentanyl, and alfentanil as well as fentanyl itself in 25 cases in early 2017. There have been no previous reports of synthetic fentanyl deaths in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Cases in which the history clearly stated drug use but where a post mortem blood morphine concentration was lower than would be expected to explain the sudden death, were referred for further analysis by high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) mass spectrometry...
November 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203651/development-and-validation-of-a-high-throughput-transcriptomic-biomarker-to-address-21st-century-genetic-toxicology-needs
#15
Heng-Hong Li, Renxiang Chen, Daniel R Hyduke, Andrew Williams, Roland Frötschl, Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Raegan O'Lone, Carole L Yauk, Jiri Aubrecht, Albert J Fornace
Interpretation of positive genotoxicity findings using the current in vitro testing battery is a major challenge to industry and regulatory agencies. These tests, especially mammalian cell assays, have high sensitivity but suffer from low specificity, leading to high rates of irrelevant positive findings (i.e., positive results in vitro that are not relevant to human cancer hazard). We developed an in vitro transcriptomic biomarker-based approach that provides biological relevance to positive genotoxicity assay data, particularly for in vitro chromosome damage assays, and propose its application for assessing the relevance of the in vitro positive results to carcinogenic hazard...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202272/fish-as-a-model-to-assess-chemical-toxicity-in-bone
#16
REVIEW
Ignacio Fernández, Paulo J Gavaia, Vincent Laizé, M Leonor Cancela
Environmental toxicology has been expanding as growing concerns on the impact of produced and released chemical compounds over the environment and human health are being demonstrated. Among the toxic effects observed in organisms exposed to pollutants, those affecting skeletal tissues (osteotoxicity) have been somehow overlooked in comparison to hepato-, immune-, neuro- and/or reproductive toxicities. Nevertheless, sub-lethal effects of toxicants on skeletal development and/or bone maintenance may result in impaired growth, reduced survival rate, increased disease susceptibility and diminished welfare...
January 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194660/dietary-exposure-assessment-of-cyadox-based-on-tissue-depletion-of-cyadox-and-its-major-metabolites-in-pigs-chickens-and-carp
#17
L L Huang, Y M Qiu, L L Sun, J Li, Y H Pan, Y L Wang, Z H Yuan
The tissue kinetics of cyadox, an antibacterial agent used in food animals, and its major metabolites in pigs, chickens, and carp were investigated followed by a complete dietary exposure assessment to evaluate the food safety of cyadox. Cyadox and its major metabolites, bisdeoxycyadox (Cy1), 4-desoxycyadox (Cy2), N-(quinoxaline-2-methyl)-cyanide acetyl hydrazine (Cy4), quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (Cy6), and 2-hydromethyl-3-hydroxy-quinoxaline (Cy12), were simultaneously quantitated with a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194549/stability-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-urine
#18
Lindsay Glicksberg, Sarah Kerrigan
In this report, we evaluate the concentration, pH, temperature and analyte-dependent effects on cathinone stability in preserved human urine. A total of 22 synthetic cathinones were evaluated at 100 ng/mL and 1,000 ng/mL in pH 4 and pH 8 urine over 6 months. Specimens were stored at -20°C, 4°C, 20°C and 32°C. The stability of synthetic cathinones was highly dependent on urine pH and storage temperature. Cathinones were considerably more stable in acidic urine (pH 4) at low temperature. In alkaline urine (pH 8) at 32°C, significant losses (>20%) were observed within hours for the majority of drugs...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194519/development-of-an-analytical-procedure-for-the-determination-of-multiclass-compounds-for-forensic-veterinary-toxicology
#19
Bartosz Sell, Tomasz Sniegocki, Jan Zmudzki, Andrzej Posyniak
Reported here is a new analytical multiclass method based on QuEChERS technique, which has proven to be effective in diagnosing fatal poisoning cases in animals. This method has been developed for the determination of analytes in liver samples comprising rodenticides, carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides, coccidiostats and mycotoxins. The procedure entails addition of acetonitrile and sodium acetate to 2 g of homogenized liver sample. The mixture was shaken intensively and centrifuged for phase separation, which was followed by an organic phase transfer into a tube containing sorbents (PSA and C18) and magnesium sulfate, then it was centrifuged, the supernatant was filtered and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186446/validation-of-the-i-stat%C3%A2-1-analyzer-for-postmortem-vitreous-humor-electrolytes-and-glucose-analysis
#20
Laura R Monzon, Sue Pearring, Caitlin Miller, Jay R Vargas
The analytical value of vitreous humor as a specimen in postmortem forensic toxicology has been known for some time. Numerous medical examiner laboratories outsource the analysis of this important specimen for electrolyte and glucose measurements. This can be both time-consuming and costly. The utility of the i-STAT®1 medical device to measure electrolytes and glucose in whole blood samples has been demonstrated for over two decades in a clinical setting through single-use disposable cartridges that introduce samples to the i-STAT®1...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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