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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346570/tolerance-and-long-term-efficacy-of-polyethylene-glycol-4000-forlax%C3%A2-compared-to-lactulose-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-constipation
#1
P Chassagne, P Ducrotte, P Garnier, H Mathiex-Fortunet
OBJECTIVES: To assess the tolerance and potential nutritional consequences of long-term repeated doses of PEG 4000 (10 to 30 g/day) in elderly patients with chronic constipation as compared to lactulose (10-30 g/day). DESIGN: Single blind, randomised, multicentre, parallel group comparative study. SETTING: Community-dwelling patients and nursing homes residents aged 70 years and older with a history of chronic constipation. Treatment intervention: PEG 4000 (10-30 g/day) or lactulose (10-30 g/day) for six months...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333596/to-create-a-consensus-on-malnutrition-diagnostic-criteria
#2
Tommy Cederholm, Gordon L Jensen
During the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark (September 2016), representatives of the 4 largest global parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN) societies from Europe (ESPEN), the United States (American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [ASPEN]), Asia (Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Society of Asia [PENSA]), and Latin America (Latin American Federation of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [FELANPE]) and from national PEN societies around the world met to continue the conversation on how to diagnose malnutrition that started during the Clinical Nutrition Week, Austin, Texas (February 2016)...
March 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327566/wholegrain-rye-but-not-wholegrain-wheat-lowers-body-weight-and-fat-mass-compared-with-refined-wheat-a-6-week-randomized-study
#3
J Suhr, S Vuholm, K N Iversen, R Landberg, M Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest inverse associations between wholegrain intake and body weight gain. Only few controlled intervention studies have supported this association and few compare effects of different grain varieties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how wholegrain wheat (WGW) and rye compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR)...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327565/impaired-nutritional-status-in-geriatric-trauma-patients
#4
F S Müller, O W Meyer, P Chocano-Bedoya, S Schietzel, M L Gagesch, G Freystaetter, V Neuhaus, H-P Simmen, W Langhans, H A Bischoff-Ferrari
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition is an established risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes. Our aim was to assess nutritional status among geriatric trauma patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We enrolled 169 consecutive patients (⩾70 years) admitted to the Geriatric Traumatology Centre (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland). On admission to acute care, nutritional status was assessed with the mini nutritional assessment (score<17=malnourished (M), ⩽23.5=at risk of malnutrition (ARM), >23...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327564/quantification-of-whole-body-and-segmental-skeletal-muscle-mass-using-phase-sensitive-8-electrode-medical-bioelectrical-impedance-devices
#5
A Bosy-Westphal, B Jensen, W Braun, M Pourhassan, D Gallagher, M J Müller
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) provides noninvasive measures of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). This study (i) analyzes the impact of conventional wrist-ankle vs segmental technology and standing vs supine position on BIA equations and (ii) compares BIA validation against magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred and thirty-six healthy Caucasian adults (70 men, 66 women; age 40±12 years) were measured by a phase-sensitive multifrequency BIA (seca medical body composition analyzers 515 and 525)...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327563/health-benefits-and-consequences-of-the-eastern-orthodox-fasting-in-monks-of-mount-athos-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
S N Karras, A Persynaki, A Petróczi, E Barkans, H Mulrooney, M Kypraiou, T Tzotzas, K Tziomalos, K Kotsa, A A Tsioudas, C Pichard, D P Naughton
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Greek Orthodox fasting (OF), which involves 180-200 days of fasting per year, is dictated by the Christian Orthodox religion. For the first time, this cross-sectional study examines the characteristics and the effects of OF on anthropometry, cardiometabolic markers and calcium homeostasis in Athonian monks (AMs). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Daily intakes of energy, macro- and micronutrients of a day during a weekend of Nativity Fast, defined as non-restrictive day (NRD), and a weekday during Great Lent, labeled as restrictive day (RD) were recorded...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304104/assessment-of-antioxidative-and-selenium-status-by-seleno-dependent-glutathione-peroxidase-activity-in-different-blood-fractions-using-a-pig-model-issues-for-clinical-nutrition-and-research
#7
D B Dalto, J Lapointe, J-J Matte
Blood seleno-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPX) activity is widely used as a metabolic indicator of systemic antioxidative status despite inconsistent responses in the literature. This study aimed to compare SeGPX activity profiles in different blood fractions, expressed with different reference units, and assess their impact on interpretation of results. Two studies on selenium (Se) metabolism in gilts, including long-term and peri-oestrus SeGPX activity profiles, were submitted to analysis of variance with double repeated measures, after data set standardization...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294174/docosahexaenoic-acid-enrichment-in-nafld-is-associated-with-improvements-in-hepatic-metabolism-and-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-a-pilot-study
#8
L Hodson, L Bhatia, E Scorletti, D E Smith, N C Jackson, F Shojaee-Moradie, M Umpleby, P C Calder, C D Byrne
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Treatment of subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) suggests high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) tissue enrichment decrease liver fat content. We assessed whether changes in erythrocyte DHA enrichment (as a surrogate marker of changes in tissue enrichment) were associated with alterations in hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), postprandial FA partitioning and hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in a sub-study of the WELCOME trial (Wessex Evaluation of fatty Liver and Cardiovascular markers in NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) with OMacor thErapy)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294173/the-effect-of-uht-processed-dairy-milk-on-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors
#9
C K Hansen, L Klingenberg, L B Larsen, J K Lorenzen, K V Sørensen, A Astrup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of death worldwide. Whereas dairy generally is associated with a neutral or a beneficial CVD effect, the consumption of ultra-high temperature (UHT)-treated milk has been reported to increase levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in an uncontrolled study. Our aim was to examine whether semi-skimmed UHT dairy milk increases the risk of CVD development compared with pasteurized (PAST) dairy milk in overweight healthy adults...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294172/effects-of-vitamin-c-supplementation-on-glycaemic-control-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#10
REVIEW
A W Ashor, A D Werner, J Lara, N D Willis, J C Mathers, M Siervo
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have observed contrasting results on the effects of vitamin C on circulating biomarkers of glycaemic and insulin regulation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs testing the effect of vitamin C administration on glucose, HbA1c and insulin concentrations. Four databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane Library) were used to retrieve RCTs published from inception until April 2016 and testing the effects of vitamin C in adult participants. The screening of 2008 articles yielded 22 eligible studies (937 participants)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294170/exploring-inter-organ-crosstalk-to-uncover-mechanisms-that-regulate-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-mass
#11
REVIEW
J Shirakawa, D F De Jesus, R N Kulkarni
Impaired β-cell function and insufficient β-cell mass compensation are twin pathogenic features that underlie type 2 diabetes (T2D). Current therapeutic strategies continue to evolve to improve treatment outcomes in different ethnic populations and include approaches to counter insulin resistance and improve β-cell function. Although the effects of insulin secretion on metabolic organs such as liver, skeletal muscle and adipose is directly relevant for improving glucose uptake and reduce hyperglycemia, the ability of pancreatic β-cells to crosstalk with multiple non-metabolic tissues is providing novel insights into potential opportunities for improving β-cell function and/or mass that could have beneficial effects in patients with diabetes...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294169/comparison-of-body-adiposity-index-bai-and-air-displacement-plethysmograph-with-estimations-of-body-fat-in-adults-with-down-s-syndrome
#12
M Rossato, R A Dellagrana, E de Souza Bezerra, R M da Costa, J O L Dos Santos, D A S Silva, F Diefenthaeler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to verify the agreement between body fat percentage (%BF) values evaluated by air displacement plethysmograph (ADP) and body adiposity index (BAI) in adults with Down's syndrome (DS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Forty-five adults with DS volunteered to participate in this study (19 women; age 28.7±8.5 years and 26 men; age 29.1±8.8 years). The %BF was measured by ADP (%BFADP) and estimated by anthropometric measures [%BF=(hip circumference/height)(1...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294168/assessment-of-the-construct-validity-of-the-australian-health-star-rating-a-nutrient-profiling-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#13
S L Cooper, F E Pelly, J B Lowe
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nutrient profiling models classify the healthiness of foods based on their nutritional composition and provide the science that underlies nutrition signposting schemes. The two objectives were to examine the construct validity of the Health Star Rating (HSR) system by determining its diagnostic accuracy and to detect the optimal HSR cutoff points to define healthiness in packaged dairy foods. We hypothesised that ultra-processed dairy, defined by NOVA, would have less stars (less healthy) and non-ultra-processed dairy would have more stars (more healthy)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293969/teduglutide-for-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#14
Lore Billiauws, Julie Bataille, Vanessa Boehm, Olivier Corcos, Francisca Joly
The European Society for Clinical Nutrition has published recommendations on the "definition and classification of intestinal failure (IF)". Two criteria must be present: a "decreased absorption of macronutrients and/or water and electrolytes due to a loss of gut function" and the "need for parenteral support". Home parenteral support (HPS) is the primary treatment for chronic IF but is associated with complications. Areas covered: The principal cause of chronic IF is short bowel syndrome (SBS). The aim of treatment is to maximize intestinal absorption and reduce or eliminate the need for HPS to achieve the best possible quality of life...
March 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275609/the-domains-of-human-nutrition-the-importance-of-nutrition-education-in-academia-and-medical-schools
#15
Lorenzo M Donini, Francesco Leonardi, Mariangela Rondanelli, Giuseppe Banderali, Maurizio Battino, Enrico Bertoli, Alessandra Bordoni, Furio Brighenti, Riccardo Caccialanza, Giulia Cairella, Antonio Caretto, Hellas Cena, Manuela Gambarara, Maria Gabriella Gentile, Marcello Giovannini, Lucio Lucchin, Pietro Migliaccio, Francesco Nicastro, Fabrizio Pasanisi, Luca Piretta, Danilo Radrizzani, Carla Roggi, Giuseppe Rotilio, Luca Scalfi, Roberto Vettor, Federico Vignati, Nino C Battistini, Maurizio Muscaritoli
Human nutrition encompasses an extremely broad range of medical, social, commercial, and ethical domains and thus represents a wide, interdisciplinary scientific and cultural discipline. The high prevalence of both disease-related malnutrition and overweight/obesity represents an important risk factor for disease burden and mortality worldwide. It is the opinion of Federation of the Italian Nutrition Societies (FeSIN) that these two sides of the same coin, with their sociocultural background, are related to a low "nutritional culture" secondary, at least in part, to an insufficient academic training for health-care professionals (HCPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272402/influence-of-enteral-glutamine-on-inflammatory-and-hormonal-response-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-during-preoperative-radiochemotherapy
#16
N Rotovnik Kozjek, L Kompan, T Žagar, Ž Mrevlje
We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluating the influence of 5 weeks' duration of 30 g enteral glutamine supplementation on inflammatory and hormonal responses in 73 patients with rectal cancer undergoing preoperative radiochemotherapy. Plasma levels of inflammatory and hormonal parameters were controlled at the beginning and at the end of supplementation. Enteral glutamine resulted in modulation of inflammatory and hormonal responses as shown by a decreased plasma interleukin 6 and cortisol levels in glutamine compared with placebo group: 5...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272400/vegetarian-diet-as-a-risk-factor-for-symptomatic-gallstone-disease
#17
T J McConnell, P N Appleby, T J Key
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous small studies have shown either no difference or a lower risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians. This study examined the incidence of symptomatic gallstone disease in a cohort of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians, and investigated the associations between nutrient intake and risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The data were analysed from 49 652 adults enroled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study, one-third of whom were vegetarian...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247860/relationship-between-prenatal-growth-postnatal-growth-and-childhood-obesity-a-review
#18
REVIEW
E K Matthews, J Wei, S A Cunningham
Evidence is accumulating that obesity risks become established early in life. The goal of this systematic review is to assess whether there is evidence that rapid postnatal growth holds different implications for childhood obesity risks for children who experienced different patterns of prenatal growth. We conducted systematic database searches in PubMed and Embase in October 2014 for studies assessing the implications of prenatal and postnatal growth for childhood obesity. The 18 studies meeting inclusion criteria indicated that risks of obesity increased with birthweight; risks of obesity also increased with rapid postnatal growth for children across the birthweight distribution...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247859/identification-of-major-dietary-patterns-in-korean-adults-and-their-association-with-cancer-risk-in-the-cancer-screening-examination-cohort
#19
G-A Wie, Y-A Cho, H-H Kang, K A Ryu, M-K Yoo, J Kim, S Shin, O K Chun, H Joung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cancer is the primary cause of disease-related death in Korea. The purposes of this study were to confirm the major dietary patterns and to evaluate whether there were associations between these identified dietary patterns and the risk of cancer based on data from the Cancer Screening Examination Cohort (CSEC) 2004-2008 of the National Cancer Center (NCC) of Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study included 8 024 subjects who completed a written survey on demographics and lifestyles, as well as a 3-day dietary record...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247857/adherence-to-a-healthy-nordic-food-index-and-risk-of-myocardial-infarction-in-middle-aged-danes-the-diet-cancer-and-health-cohort-study
#20
V B Gunge, I Andersen, C Kyrø, C P Hansen, C C Dahm, J Christensen, A Tjønneland, A Olsen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: For decades, the Mediterranean diet has been in focus regarding healthy eating as it has been associated with reduced risk of non-communicable diseases. Less interest has been given to health benefits of other regional diets. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction (MI) among middle-aged Danes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data were obtained from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study of 57 053 men and women aged 50-64 years recruited between 1993 and 1997...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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