Read by QxMD icon Read

Stem cell therapy, epigenetics

Fiorella Casamenti, Massimo Stefani
Clinical trials and population studies indicate the healthy virtues of the Mediterranean diet and its main lipid component, extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). Olive leaves and EVOO contain many phenolics effective against several aging and lifestyle-related diseases, including neurodegeneration, both in animal models and in humans. Recent research has shown that such protection stems from several effects, including (i.) the interference with the aggregation of peptides/proteins found in amyloid diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases; (ii...
October 20, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Martino Deidda, Rosalinda Madonna, Ruggiero Mango, Pasquale Pagliaro, Pier P Bassareo, Lucia Cugusi, Silvio Romano, Maria Penco, Francesco Romeo, Giuseppe Mercuro
Despite advances in supportive and protective therapy for myocardial function, heart failure caused by various clinical conditions, including cardiomyopathy due to antineoplastic therapy, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Because of the limitations associated with current therapies, investigators have been searching for alternative treatments that can effectively repair the damaged heart and permanently restore its function. Damage to the heart can result from both traditional chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracyclines, and new targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab...
May 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Katsuto Takenaka
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are chronic hematopoietic stem cell disorders, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, and primary myelofibrosis. The JAK2V617F mutation was identified in 2005, followed by the discovery of the JAK2 exon12, MPNW515 mutation, and CALR mutation. About 90% of patients with BCR/ABL negative MPNs have been shown to have one of these driver mutations. In addition, mutations in epigenetic regulators and RNA splicing genes were found to co-exist with driver mutations and to play critical roles in the disease progression of MPNs...
2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Sonja Levanat, Maja Sabol, Vesna Musani, Petar Ozretić, Diana Trnski
BACKGROUND: Hedgehog signaling pathway is a developmental pathway mostly inactive in adult tissues, with the exception of stem cells. It is often found upregulated in various tumors, and associated with cancer stem cell maintenance. METHOD: This review focuses on different aspects of Hedgehog activation in tumors, with special emphasis on ovarian tumors and their treatment. RESULTS: Mutations in pathway components lead to a series of developmental malformations and syndromes...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Platonova Natalia, Lesma Elena, Basile Andrea, Bignotto Monica, Garavelli Silvia, Palano Maria Teresa, Moschini Adriana, Neri Antonino, Colombo Michela, Chiaramonte Raffaella
BACKGROUND: Notch is a multifaceted protein that plays a fundamental role in fetal development and tissue homeostasis by directing many cellular functions, including cell growth and differentiation, cell fate determination and regulation of stem cells maintenance. The Notch family consists of four receptors (Notch 1-4) and five ligands (Jagged1-2 and Delta-like 1-3-4) widely expressed in human tissues. Given the crucial contribution of Notch signaling in many physiological processes, it is not surprising that a variety of human malignancies is characterized by a dysregulation of one or more components of this pathway Methods: In this review, we are going to provide a broad overview on the role of Notch pathway in solid and hematological malignancies and a survey on possible Notch-directed therapeutic strategies...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Myung-Chul Kim, Na-Yon Kim, Yu-Ri Seo, Yongbaek Kim
Intratumoral heterogeneity is a hallmark of all cancers and functions as the major barrier against effective cancer therapy. In contrast to genetic mutations, the role of epigenetic modifications in the generation and maintenance of heterogeneous cancer cells remains largely undetermined. This study was performed to evaluate the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the tumor cell heterogeneity using side population (SP) and non-SP cells isolated from a human malignant mesothelioma (HMM) cell line. The subpopulations of cancer cells were analyzed by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and RNA-seq methodology...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Karmen Stankov, Sunčica Stankov, Jasmina Katanić
BACKGROUND: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders of hematopoietic system, characterized by genetic, epigenetic or microenvironmental alterations of aging hematopoietic stem cells. Pathophysiology of MDS comprises the suppression of normal hematopoiesis and reduced myeloid progenitor cells differentiation, with the main consequence of peripheral cytopenias and increased risk to evolution in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHOD: This review summarizes the evolving understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations involved in pathogenesis and current and future strategies for therapeutic targeting in myelodysplastic syndromes...
October 3, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Hugo Sepulveda, Rodrigo Aguilar, Catalina P Prieto, Francisco Bustos, Sócrates Aedo, José Lattus, Brigitte van Zundert, Veronica Palma, Martin Montecino
Wharton's Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are an attractive potential source of multipotent stem cells for bone tissue replacement therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in their osteogenic conversion are poorly understood. Particularly, epigenetic control operating at the promoter regions of the two master regulators of the osteogenic program, RUNX2/P57 and SP7 has not yet been described in WJ-MSCs. Via quantitative PCR profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies here we analyze the ability of WJ-MSCs to engage osteoblast lineage...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Francisco Bautista, Jasper Van der Lugt, Pamela R Kearns, Francis J Mussai, C Michel Zwaan, Lucas Moreno
Survival rates in pediatric leukemia have greatly improved in the last decades but still a substantial number of patients will relapse and die. New agents are necessary to overcome the limitations of conventional chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and to reduce their undesirable long-term toxicities. The identification of driving molecular alterations of leukemogenesis in subsets of patients will allow the incorporation of new-targeted therapies. Areas covered: In this article the authors present a detailed review of the most recent advances in targeted therapies for pediatric leukemias...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Srilatha Jasty, Subramanian Krishnakumar
Millions of people around the world suffer from retinal degenerative diseases at varying degrees of vision loss including, complete blindness that are caused by the damage to cells of the retina. The cell replacement therapy could be a promising tool in treating these conditions, since the stem/progenitor cells could be isolated form adult ciliary pigment epithelial cells and could be differentiated into retinal phenotypes in vitro and could be of great importance. The present study aims to identify the role of epigenetic regulators during cellular differentiation, which involves loss of pluripotency and gain of lineage and cell type-specific characteristics...
September 15, 2016: Brain Research
Katherine Eason, Anguraj Sadanandam
Tumor heterogeneity is reflected and influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and metabolic differences in cancer cells and their interactions with a complex microenvironment. This heterogeneity has resulted in the stratification of tumors into subtypes, mainly based on cancer-specific genomic or transcriptomic profiles. Subtyping can lead to biomarker identification for personalized diagnosis and therapy, but stratification alone does not explain the origins of tumor heterogeneity. Heterogeneity has traditionally been thought to arise from distinct mutations/aberrations in "driver" oncogenes...
September 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Shirong Zhang, Kan Wu, Jianguo Feng, Zhibing Wu, Qinghua Deng, Chao Guo, Bing Xia, Jing Zhang, Haixiu Huang, Lucheng Zhu, Ke Zhang, Binghui Shen, Xufeng Chen, Shenglin Ma
Metastasis is the reason for most cancer death, and a crucial primary step for cancer metastasis is invasion of the surrounding tissue, which may be initiated by some rare tumor cells that escape the heterogeneous primary tumor. In this study, we isolated invasive subpopulations of cancer cells from human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 and H1299 cell lines, and determined the gene expression profiles and the responses of these invasive cancer cells to treatments of ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents...
September 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Mohamed Ashraf Khalil, Jan Hraběta, Tomáš Groh, Pavel Procházka, Helena Doktorová, Tomáš Eckschlager
Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known antiepileptic drug that exhibits antitumor activities through its action as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. CD133 is considered to be a cancer stem cell marker in several tumors including neuroblastoma. CD133 transcription is strictly regulated by epigenetic modifications. We evaluated the epigenetic effects of treatment with 1mM VPA and its influence on the expression of CD133 in four human neuroblastoma cell lines. Chemoresistance and cell cycle of CD133+ and CD133- populations were examined by flow cytometry...
2016: PloS One
Jeremy N Rich
Heterogeneity within and between tumors is a well-known phenomenon that greatly complicates the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. A large body of research indicates that heterogeneity develops through time as tumor-initiating stem cells, also known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), evolve genetic or epigenetic alterations that allow them to differentiate into multiple tumor cell types. Similar to normal stem cells, CSCs can self-renew and possess long-term repopulation potential. However, unlike normal stem cells, CSCs are not subject to the usual controls that limit growth...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Brad Rybinski, Kyuson Yun
In the last several years, our appreciation of intra-tumoral heterogeneity has greatly increased due to accumulating evidence for the co-existence of genetically and epigenetically divergent cancer cells residing in different microenvironments within a tumor. Herein, we review recent literature discussing intra-tumoral heterogeneity in the context of therapy resistance mechanisms at the genetic, epigenetic and microenvironmental levels. We illustrate the influence of tumor microenvironment on therapy resistance and epigenetic states of cancer cells by highlighting the role of cancer stem cells in therapy resistance...
September 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Arash Salmaninejad, Mohammad Reza Zamani, Mehrnaz Pourvahedi, Zahra Golchehre, Ali Hosseini Bereshneh, Nima Rezaei
UNLABELLED: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are named based on their expression pattern that is restricted in a number of normal and abnormal tissues. Tumor cells frequently express antigens whose expression is typically restricted to germ cells. Their unique expression pattern is guaranteed by precise epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Because of their tumor-limited, high immunogenicity, and biased expression, discovery of these molecules provides unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development in the field of cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy...
October 2016: Immunological Investigations
Györgyi Műzes, Ferenc Sipos
Cancer patients, though frequently entering complete remission after successful surgery, and/or irradiation, and chemotherapy years or even decades later may exhibit overt metastases and aggressive, mostly fatal recurrence on the basis of clinically silent persistence of disseminated tumor cells. Cellular dormancy is a mode of hibernation/inactivity caused by a temporary mitotic arrest. It represents the critical phenomenon of latency making metastatic cancer cells highly refractory to conventional therapies...
September 1, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Wallax Augusto Silva Ferreira, Danilo do Rosário Pinheiro, Carlos Antonio da Costa Junior, Symara Rodrigues-Antunes, Mariana Diniz Araújo, Mariceli Baia Leão Barros, Adriana Corrêa de Souza Teixeira, Thamirys Aline Silva Faro, Rommel Rodriguez Burbano, Edivaldo Herculano Correa de Oliveira, Maria Lúcia Harada, Bárbara do Nascimento Borges
Glioblastomas, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are the most aggressive and malignant type of primary brain tumor in adults, exhibiting notable variability at the histopathological, genetic and epigenetic levels. Recently, epigenetic alterations have emerged as a common hallmark of many tumors, including GBM. Considering that a deeper understanding of the epigenetic modifications that occur in GBM may increase the knowledge regarding the tumorigenesis, progression and recurrence of this disease, in this review we discuss the recent major advances in GBM epigenetics research involving histone modification, glioblastoma stem cells, DNA methylation, noncoding RNAs expression, including their main alterations and the use of epigenetic therapy as a valid option for GBM treatment...
September 2016: Epigenomics
Pia Riemke, Melinda Czeh, Josephine Fischer, Carolin Walter, Saeed Ghani, Matthias Zepper, Konstantin Agelopoulos, Stephanie Lettermann, Marie L Gebhardt, Nancy Mah, Andre Weilemann, Michael Grau, Verena Gröning, Torsten Haferlach, Dido Lenze, Ruud Delwel, Marco Prinz, Miguel A Andrade-Navarro, Georg Lenz, Martin Dugas, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Frank Rosenbauer
Unfavorable patient survival coincides with lineage plasticity observed in human acute leukemias. These cases are assumed to arise from hematopoietic stem cells, which have stable multipotent differentiation potential. However, here we report that plasticity in leukemia can result from instable lineage identity states inherited from differentiating progenitor cells. Using mice with enhanced c-Myc expression, we show, at the single-cell level, that T-lymphoid progenitors retain broad malignant lineage potential with a high capacity to differentiate into myeloid leukemia...
August 29, 2016: EMBO Journal
Mikko Oittinen, Alina Popp, Kalle Kurppa, Katri Lindfors, Markku Mäki, Minna U Kaikkonen, Keijo Viiri
Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium by controlling the balance between intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation but epigenetic mechanisms enacting the process are not known. We hypothesized that epigenetic regulator, Polycomb Repressive Complex-2 (PRC2), is involved in Wnt-mediated epithelial homeostasis on the crypt-villus axis and aberrancies therein are implicated both in celiac disease and in intestinal malignancies. We found that PRC2 establishes repressive crypt and villus specific H3K27me3 signature on genes responsible for e...
August 29, 2016: Stem Cells
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"