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Junting Yang, Shunwen Zhang, Jiangdong Wu, Jie Zhang, Jiangtao Dong, Peng Guo, Suyu Tang, Wanjiang Zhang, Fang Wu
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused the dysregulation of host inflammatory response and immunosuppression to infection Early recognition and intervention are hence of paramount importance. In this respect the "sepsis bundle" was proposed in 2004 to be instituted in cases of suspected sepsis. OBJECTIVE AND HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesised that a combination treatment of the sepsis bundle with cyclophosphamide would improve the function of the intestinal mucosa and enhance survival in rats with induced sepsis...
June 12, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Rindert Missiaen, Massimiliano Mazzone, Gabriele Bergers
Tumor angiogenesis and escape of immunosurveillance are two cancer hallmarks that are tightly linked and reciprocally regulated by paracrine signaling cues of cell constituents from both compartments. Formation and remodeling of new blood vessels in tumors is abnormal and facilitates immune evasion. In turn, immune cells in the tumor, specifically in context with an acidic and hypoxic environment, can promote neovascularization. Immunotherapy has emerged as a major therapeutic modality in cancer but is often hampered by the low influx of activated cytotoxic T-cells...
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Susan Combs Scott, Nathan A Pennell
BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitors augment the immune system's natural surveillance mechanisms and have increasing applications in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunosuppressive corticosteroids are also frequently used in this population to treat unwanted inflammation. Based on this mechanistic opposition, we investigated the interaction between nivolumab and corticosteroids in patients with advanced NSCLC. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 210 NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab at the Cleveland Clinic was performed...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Kareem Jamani, Lynn E Onstad, Merav Bar, Paul A Carpenter, Elizabeth F Krakow, Rachel B Salit, Mary E D Flowers, Stephanie J Lee
Caregivers are critical to recipient recovery after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), however, little is known about their long-term health and quality of life (QoL). In this study, we surveyed 4446 caregiver/recipient pairs in the post-HCT period to describe their QoL and its determinants. In total, 849 caregiver/recipient pairs at a median of 6 years post autologous or allogeneic HCT responded. Among 849 responding caregivers at a median of 6 years post-HCT, 67% of caregivers were female and 68% indicated that they were still providing care to the recipient...
June 20, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Florian Brinkert, Ieva Pukite, Dorothee Krebs-Schmitt, Andrea Briem-Richter, Jan Stindt, Dieter Häussinger, Verena Keitel, Ingo Müller, Enke Grabhorn
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) 2 is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ABCB11 gene, which encodes the bile salt export pump (BSEP). Recurrence of BSEP deficiency after liver transplantation (LT) is caused by the development of anti-BSEP antibodies. Antibody-induced BSEP deficiency (AIBD) is typically treated by increasing immunosuppressive therapy. We report the first case of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for AIBD in a child refractory to intensive pharmacological immunosuppression and immunoadsorption...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Guoping Liu, Wei Zhang, Jie Guo, Fanqiang Kong, Shumin Zhou, Song Chen, Zhiyun Wang, Dawei Zang
The four kinds of adenosine receptor subtypes (ARs), named as ARA1, ARA2A, ARA2B and ARA3, have multiple biological functions. ARs are differently distributed across the body and have distinguished ability of binding adenosine. We try to figure out how these ARs were expressed in astrocytes and which one has the first priority of utilizing adenosine. Firstly, mRNA expressions and membrane localization of all ARs were evaluated by qPCR and western blot. After the membrane localization of all ARs in astrocytes was being confirmed their individual adenosine binding ability was determined by radio-active ligand binding assay respectively...
June 20, 2018: Brain Research
J Marcoval, M Bonfill-Ortí, L Martínez-Molina, F Valentí-Medina, R M Penín, O Servitje
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has reduced as a result of the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. It is currently considered a rare disease in developed countries, and there has been a paucity of clinical papers on the subject in recent years in Europe. AIM: To analyse the clinical features and evolution of the different clinical forms of KS in the past 30 years. METHODS: Patients with cutaneous lesions of KS diagnosed during the period 1987-2016 at Bellvitge Hospital (an 800-bed university referral centre in Barcelona, Spain) were enrolled...
June 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Lorenzo Fagotti, Jakub Tatka, Mauro Jose Costa Salles, Marcelo C Queiroz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although a two-stage exchange revision is reported to have a high success rate, this strategy may fail as a treatment for prosthetic joint infection (PJI). When it does, resection arthroplasty, arthrodesis, amputation, and chronic antibiotic suppression may play a role. The purpose of this review is to determine which are the main risk factors for a two-stage exchange failure and to analyze the indications and results of resection arthroplasty, arthrodesis, amputation, and antibiotic chronic suppression for PJI...
June 22, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Ahmad Alkhasawneh, Aysha Mubeen, Arun Gopinath
Lymphoproliferative disorders cause significant morbidity and mortality, either related to the disease itself or therapy complications. Some cases of lymphoma may have vague clinical presentation, especially in the absence of lymphadenopathy, and a clinical work up may not be conclusive. Our study focuses on autopsy cases of lymphoma patients, emphasizing clinically unsuspected cases. Autopsy records from the last 20 years at our institution were searched, and the clinical parameters were recorded. Fifteen cases of lymphoma were identified, and 5 cases were diagnosed at the time of autopsy...
June 23, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
P Gascon, P-A Jarrot, F Matonti, G Kaplanski
Retinal vasculitis (RV) is an inflammation of retinal blood vessels that can be associated with uveitis or be isolated, and can induce vascular occlusion and retinal ischemia. Visual acuity can be severely affected in case of macular involvement or neovessel formation. The diagnosis relies on fundoscopy and fluorescein angiography. Systemic diseases may be associated with RV, the most frequently encountered are Behçet's disease, sarcoidosis or multiple sclerosis, all predominantly associated with venous involvement, whereas systemic lupus erythematosus and necrotizing vasculitis are less frequently observed and predominantly associated with arterial or mixed vasculitis...
June 19, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Kelly R Silva, Blanca E R G Bica, Eduardo S Pimenta, Rodrigo B Serafim, Mirhelen M Abreu, Jorge L S Gonçalves, Larissa de S Santana, Mauro J Cabral-Castro, José M Peralta, Marta G Cavalcanti
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection usually presents as a mild and self-limited illness, but it may be associated with severe outcomes. We describe a case of a 30-year-old man with systemic erythematous lupus and common variable immunodeficiency who became infected with both Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) virus during the 2016 outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient presented with intense wrist and right ankle arthritis, and ZIKV RNA and virus particles were detected in synovial tissue, blood and urine, and CHIKV RNA in serum sample, at the time of the diagnosis...
June 21, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Kim Marienhagen, Frank Lehner, Jürgen Klempnauer, Hartmut Hecker, Jürgen Borlak
Post-transplant hypertension (PTH) is a common complication in cyclosporine immunosuppressed patients; however choosing the right antihypertensive medication is challenging. In a long-term observational study (≤13y) we examined different antihypertensive medications on graft/patient survival of kidney recipients with pre-existing and PTH. Altogether thirty-three co-variables were analyzed including dose and type of immunosuppressive and antihypertensive medication, co-medications, serum biochemistries and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
June 19, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Fanwen Wang, Bin Li, Pengcheng Fu, Qingqing Li, Heng Zheng, Xingzhen Lao
Tumor-targeted therapy is an attractive strategy for cancer treatment. Peptide hormone thymosin α1 (Tα1) has been used against several diseases, including cancer, but its activity is pleiotropic. Herein, we designed a fusion protein Tα1-iRGD by introducing the tumor homing peptide iRGD to Tα1. Results show that Tα1-iRGD can promote T-cell activation and CD86 expression, thereby exerting better effect and stronger inhibitory against melanoma and lung cancer, respectively, than Tα1 in vivo. These effects are indicated by the reduced densities of tumor vessels and Tα1-iRGD accumulation in tumors...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Alana A S Gonçalves, Camila A de Lopes, Henrique T Gonzaga, Ana Lúcia R Gonçalves, Marcelo A Levenhagen, Luiz Carlos M de Oliveira, Julia M Costa-Cruz
Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitosis that is considered a public health problem. Early diagnosis of this infection is extremely important in immunocompromised patients (i.e. subjects with alcoholism). This study aimed to evaluate anti-Strongyloides immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA), assess levels of circulating immune complexes (IC) and determine IgG avidity in serum samples from alcoholic and nonalcoholic individuals. A total of 140 blood samples were collected from male individuals (70 alcoholic and 70 nonalcoholic subjects)...
June 19, 2018: Parasitology International
Lara Vecchi, Mariana Alves Pereira Zoia, Tiago Goss Santos, Adriano de Oliveira Beserra, Cristiano Manuel Colaço Ramos, Bruna França Matias Colombo, Yara Cristina Paiva Maia, Victor Piana de Andrade, Sara Teixeira Soares Mota, Thaise Gonçalves de Araújo, Fernanda Van Petten de Vasconcelos Azevedo, Fernando Augusto Soares, Sonia Maria Oliani, Luiz Ricardo Goulart
Breast Cancer (BC) is a highly heterogeneous disease whose most aggressive behavior is displayed by triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which lacks an efficient targeted therapy. Despite its controversial role, one of the proteins that having been linked with BC is Annexin A1 (AnxA1), which is a Ca+2 binding protein that acts modulating the immune system, cell membrane organization and vesicular trafficking. In this work we analyzed tissue microarrays of BC samples and observed a higher expression of AnxA1 in TNBCs and in lymph node metastasis...
June 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Vinitha V Nair, Murali Appukuttan, Kiran Vishnu Narayan, Jayakumar Thanathu Krishnan Nair
Brucellosis is being increasingly recognized after solid organ transplantation but has not been reported after orthotopic heart transplantation. We present the case of a 51-year-old farmer who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation and was readmitted after 3 months in a severely immunosuppressed state with significant nonspecific complaints. He posed a diagnostic and management dilemma to all disciplines, but finally turned out to be harbouring Brucella infection. He responded well to medical management and was discharged in a stable clinical status...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
David Massicotte-Azarniouch, Sean Barbour, Paula Blanco, Edward G Clark
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome. Rarely, it can present with rapidly-progressive renal failure and hematuria. While this may be due to lupus nephritis, superimposed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease, or antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, there have been rare reports of anti-GBM - and ANCA-negative crescentic glomerulonephritis presenting in primary membranous nephropathy (pMN). We present the case of a patient with long-standing pMN who developed acute deterioration of renal function and was found to have a flare of MN along with crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) despite a negative serum ANCA, anti-GBM, and antinuclear antibody (ANA) work-up...
June 22, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Wenliang Geng, Susan Kearney, Stephen Nelson
Aplastic anemia (AA) is characterized by multilineage cytopenias and bone marrow hypocellularity. Severe AA can be treated with immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and/or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The thrombopoietin agonist eltrombopag has been shown to induce hematopoietic recovery and transfusion independence in adults with refractory and relapsed AA. Recently, upfront eltrombopag therapy in patients with AA in combination with IST has shown efficacy. Data for its use without concurrent IST in pediatric patients with AA remain sparse...
June 22, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Javier Villadiego, Sonia Romo-Madero, Roberto García-Swinburn, Nela Suárez-Luna, Alfonso Bermejo-Navas, Miriam Echevarría, Juan J Toledo-Aral
BACKGROUND: The use of long-term immunosuppressive treatments on neural transplantation has been controversial during the last decades. Although nowadays there is a consensus about the necessity of maintaining a permanent state of immunosuppression to preserve the survival of cerebral grafts, little is known about the effects that chronic immunosuppression produces both on the neurodegenerative process and on transplants function. METHODS: Here, we establish a new immunosuppressive protocol, based on the discontinuous administration of CsA (15 mg/kg; s...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Marcin Marzejon, Monika Kosowska, Daria Majchrowicz, Barbara Bułło-Piontecka, Michał Wąsowicz, Małgorzata Jędrzejewska-Szczerska
In this paper, an investigation into detecting immunosuppressive medicine in aqueous solutions using a spectrometry-based technique is described. Using optical transmissive spectrometry, absorbance measurements in the spectra range from 250 nm to 1000 nm were carried out for different cyclosporine A (CsA) concentrations in aqueous solutions. The experiment was conducted for samples both with and without interferent substances—glucose and sodium chloride. Using a dedicated algorithm, the measured data was analyzed and a high correlation coefficient R² = 0...
June 22, 2018: Sensors
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