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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920714/conscientious-objection-and-compromising-the-patient-response-to-hughes
#1
Julian Savulescu, Udo Schuklenk
Hughes offers a consequentialist response to our rejection of accommodation of conscientious objection in medicine. We argue here that his compromise proposition has been tried in many jurisdictions and has failed to deliver unimpeded access to care for eligible patients. The compromise position, entailing an accommodation of conscientious objection provided there is unimpeded access, fails to grasp that the objectors are both determined not to provide services they object to as well as to subvert patient access to the objected to services...
June 19, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804370/-review-and-prospect-of-clinical-study-on-liver-transplantation-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
X W Huang, J Zhou
The focus of clinical research on liver transplantation of hepatocellular carcinoma over past decade is as follows: (1) the appropriate indications, so that the limited liver resources can be used more fairly and reasonably. A number of new indications standards have been proposed and validated. Our country scholar puts forward the standard norms, which could benefit more liver cancer patients from liver transplant. (2) To explore the appropriate immunosuppressive regimen in the control of rejection while preventing and reducing tumor recurrence rate after transplantation...
February 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765170/bk-virus-induced-renal-allograft-nephropathy
#3
Karel Krejci, Tomas Tichy, Jana Bednarikova, Kamil Zamboch, Josef Zadrazil
BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is a serious opportunistic infection threatening renal function especially during the first year after transplantation. Its incidence is now on the rise and is closely related to the level of the recipient's immune system inhibition. This is more intensive with current trends in transplantation medicine, where more potent immunosuppressive protocols are used and more aggressive antirejection therapy is applied. In the absence of BK virus (BKV) specific therapy and limited treatment options for advanced BKVN, active screening of BKV replication and subsequent preemptive adjustment of immunosuppression are essential measures to prevent BKVN...
May 16, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528006/effects-of-web-based-educational-intervention-on-self-management-in-kidney-recipients
#4
Çiğdem Çetin, Fatma Cebeci
Information technology and the Internet are rapidly becoming effective tools for teaching. Selfmanagement skills are important for adaptation and long-term survival in kidney recipients. Web-based training may help patients develop self-management skills through information access. This literature review aimed to determine the effects of Web-based educational intervention on self-management in kidney recipients. The Internet supports effective health education intervention strategies by providing a learning environment that is always available...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501679/personalized-immunosuppression-in-elderly-renal-transplant-recipients
#5
REVIEW
L E J Peeters, L M Andrews, D A Hesselink, B C M de Winter, T van Gelder
The number of elderly people has increased considerably over the last decades, due to a rising life expectancy and ageing populations. As a result, an increased number of elderly with end-stage-renal-disease are diagnosed, for which the preferred treatment is renal transplantation. Over the past years the awareness of the elderly as a specific patient population has grown, which increases the importance of research in this group. Elderly patients often receive kidneys from elderly donors while younger donor kidneys are preferentially reserved for younger recipients...
April 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483872/herbal-components-of-a-novel-formula-psori-cm02-interdependently-suppress-allograft-rejection-and-induce-cd8-cd122-pd-1-regulatory-t-cells
#6
Chuanjian Lu, Huazhen Liu, Xiaowei Jin, Yuchao Chen, Chun-Ling Liang, Feifei Qiu, Zhenhua Dai
A recipient usually rejects a transplanted organ and thus needs immunosuppressive treatments to prevent rejection. Achieving long-term allograft survival without continuous global immunosuppression is highly desirable in transplantation as long-term immunosuppression causes various side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to search for medicine with potentially less side effects. Traditional Chinese medicine PSORI-CM01 (Yin Xie Ling), a formula with seven natural herbs, has been used to treat patients with psoriasis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374886/-some-reflections-on-evidenced-based-medicine-precision-medicine-and-big-data-based-research
#7
J L Tang, L M Li
Evidence-based medicine remains the best paradigm for medical practice. However, evidence alone is not decisions; decisions must also consider resources available and the values of people. Evidence shows that most of those treated with blood pressure-lowering, cholesterol-lowering, glucose-lowering and anti-cancer drugs do not benefit from preventing severe complications such as cardiovascular events and deaths. This implies that diagnosis and treatment in modern medicine in many circumstances is imprecise...
January 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214408/anticipated-hiv-stigma-and-delays-in-regular-hiv-testing-behaviors-among-sexually-active-young-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women
#8
Kristi E Gamarel, Kimberly M Nelson, Rob Stephenson, Olga J Santiago Rivera, Danielle Chiaramonte, Robin Lin Miller
Young gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (YGBMSM) and young transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. The success of biomedical prevention strategies is predicated on regular HIV testing; however, there has been limited uptake of testing among YGBMSM and young transgender women. Anticipated HIV stigma-expecting rejection as a result of seroconversion- may serve as a significant barrier to testing. A cross-sectional sample of YGBMSM (n = 719, 95.5%) and young transgender women (n = 33, 4...
February 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075819/augmentation-mastopexy-with-a-dermal-encapsulated-round-or-anatomic-autoprosthesis
#9
Safvet Ors
INTRODUCTION: Several factors, such as aging, pregnancy, and weight loss, reduce the elasticity of the breast tissue, and ptosis occurs. Due to aging and gravity, it is not possible to completely prevent breast ptosis. The goal is to delay the recurrence of ptosis as much as possible. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 20 female patients aged 25-55 years. The patients who underwent surgery had different levels of ptosis. Although the patients wanted their breasts to be lifted and an increase in projection, they did not want implants to be used...
February 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023306/medical-error-avoidance-in-intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-the-communication-imperative
#10
Stan Skinner, Robert Holdefer, John J McAuliffe, Francesco Sala
Error avoidance in medicine follows similar rules that apply within the design and operation of other complex systems. The error-reduction concepts that best fit the conduct of testing during intraoperative neuromonitoring are forgiving design (reversibility of signal loss to avoid/prevent injury) and system redundancy (reduction of false reports by the multiplication of the error rate of tests independently assessing the same structure). However, error reduction in intraoperative neuromonitoring is complicated by the dichotomous roles (and biases) of the neurophysiologist (test recording and interpretation) and surgeon (intervention)...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941322/stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-mediates-cardiac-allograft-tolerance-induced-by-human-endometrial-regenerative-cell-based-therapy
#11
Xu Lan, Grace Wang, Xiaoxi Xu, Shanzheng Lu, Xiang Li, Baoren Zhang, Ganggang Shi, Yiming Zhao, Caigan Du, Hao Wang
Endometrial regenerative cells (ERCs) are mesenchymal-like stromal cells, and their therapeutic potential has been tested in the prevention of renal ischemic reperfusion injury, acute liver injury, ulcerative colitis, and immunosuppression. However, their potential in the induction of transplant tolerance has not been investigated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of ERCs in inducing cardiac allograft tolerance and the function of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the ERC-mediated immunoregulation...
November 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911305/alginate-based-cell-microencapsulation-for-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#12
Vittoria Pandolfi, Ulysse Pereira, Murielle Dufresne, Cécile Legallais
Increasing numbers of requests for transplantable organs and their scarcity has led to a pressing need to find alternative solutions to standard transplantation. An appealing but challenging proposal came from the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, the purpose of which is to build tissues/organs from scratch in the laboratory and use them as either permanent substitutes for direct implantation into the patient's body, or as temporary substitutes to bridge patients until organ regeneration or transplantation...
June 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702031/alloantigen-induced-regulatory-t-cells-generated-in-presence-of-vitamin-c-display-enhanced-stability-of-foxp3-expression-and-promote-skin-allograft-acceptance
#13
Eirini Nikolouli, Matthias Hardtke-Wolenski, Martin Hapke, Michael Beckstette, Robert Geffers, Stefan Floess, Elmar Jaeckel, Jochen Huehn
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance and can be therapeutically used for prevention of unwanted immune responses such as allotransplant rejection. Tregs are characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, and recent work suggests that epigenetic imprinting of Foxp3 and other Treg-specific epigenetic signatures genes is crucial for the stabilization of both Foxp3 expression and immunosuppressive properties within Tregs. Lately, vitamin C was reported to enhance the activity of enzymes of the ten-eleven translocation family, thereby fostering the demethylation of Foxp3 and other Treg-specific epigenetic signatures genes in developing Tregs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554583/autologous-and-allogeneic-cardiac-stem-cell-therapy-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Ricardo Sanz-Ruiz, Francisco Fernández-Avilés
Stem cell therapy is one of the most promising therapeutic innovations to help restore cardiac structure and function after ischemic insults to the heart. However, phase I and II clinical trials with autologous "first-generation stem cells" have yielded inconsistent results in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients and have not produced the definitive evidence for their broad clinical application. Recently, new cell types such as cardiac stem cells (CSC) and new allogeneic sources have attracted the attention of researchers given their inherent biological, clinical and logistic advantages...
January 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473697/highly-sensitive-and-specific-protein-detection-via-combined-capillary-isoelectric-focusing-and-proximity-ligation
#15
Narendra Padhan, Junhong Yan, Annegret Boge, Elaine Scrivener, Helgi Birgisson, Agata Zieba, Mats Gullberg, Masood Kamali-Moghaddam, Lena Claesson-Welsh, Ulf Landegren
Detection and quantification of proteins and their post-translational modifications are crucial to decipher functions of complex protein networks in cell biology and medicine. Capillary isoelectric focusing together with antibody-based detection can resolve and identify proteins and their isoforms with modest sample input. However, insufficient sensitivity prevents detection of proteins present at low concentrations and antibody cross-reactivity results in unspecific detection that cannot be distinguished from bona fide protein isoforms...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467694/durable-control-of-autoimmune-diabetes-in-mice-achieved-by-intraperitoneal-transplantation-of-neo-islets-three-dimensional-aggregates-of-allogeneic-islet-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Christof Westenfelder, Anna Gooch, Zhuma Hu, Jon Ahlstrom, Ping Zhang
Novel interventions that reestablish endogenous insulin secretion and thereby halt progressive end-organ damage and prolong survival of patients with autoimmune Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are urgently needed. While this is currently accomplished with allogeneic pancreas or islet transplants, their utility is significantly limited by both the scarcity of organ donors and life-long need for often-toxic antirejection drugs. Coadministering islets with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that exert robust immune-modulating, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and angiogenic actions, improves intrahepatic islet survival and function...
July 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457422/co-transplantation-of-xenogeneic-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviates-rejection-of-pancreatic-islets-in-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#17
C Corradi-Perini, T M Santos, N O S Camara, M C Riella, C A M Aita
Bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have generated a great perspective in the field of regenerative medicine, and also in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in the past decade due to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we investigated the effect of xenogeneic BM-MSCs and pancreatic islets co-transplantation obtained from Wistar rats in preventing rejection or inducing tolerance to islet transplantation in non-obese diabetic mice. Non-obese diabetic mice were treated with co-transplantation of pancreatic islets and BM-MSCs (islet + MSCs group) or pancreatic islets only (islet group)...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270929/changing-paradigms-in-the-management-of-rejection-in-kidney-transplantation-evolving-from-protocol-based-care-to-the-era-of-p4-medicine
#18
Mirela Maier, Tomoko Takano, Ruth Sapir-Pichhadze
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: P4 medicine denotes an evolving field of medicine encompassing predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine. Using the example of kidney allograft rejection because of donor-recipient incompatibility in human leukocyte antigens, this review outlines P4 medicine's relevance to the various stages of the kidney transplant cycle. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A search for English articles was conducted in Medline via OvidSP (up to August 18, 2016) using a combination of subject headings (MeSH) and free text in titles, abstracts, and author keywords for the concepts kidney transplantation and P4 medicine...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266942/personalized-treatment-in-heart-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Kiran K Khush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We are entering the era of personalized medicine, in which pharmacogenomics and biomarker-based assays can be used to tailor diagnostic tests and drug therapies to individual patients. This new approach to patient-specific care offers the potential to maximize the efficacy of available medical treatments while reducing the incidence of adverse side effects. Here, we present approaches to personalize the care of heart transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Four strategies for personalized posttransplant care are described, including use of pharmacogenomic data to individualize the use of immunosuppressive drugs, immune monitoring to prevent acute rejection while reducing the long-term consequences of over immunosuppression, noninvasive surveillance for acute rejection, and targeted prophylaxis against opportunistic infections...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163015/a-pragmatic-approach-to-sample-acceptance-and-rejection
#20
Janne Cadamuro, Ana-Maria Simundic, Eva Ajzner, Sverre Sandberg
Sample rejection due to preanalytical errors is very common in many medical laboratories worldwide, though the decision when and how to refrain from analyzing such samples is handled very heterogeneously. As a rational, it is mostly stated that it is done to prevent the patient from being harmed by wrong medical decisions based on such values. But when thinking of the consequences of laboratory results instead of their quality being important per se, the rejection of preanalytically altered samples might be harming the patient by the need of re-collection and timely delay...
July 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
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