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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211310/morphologic-and-doppler-findings-from-hepatic-ultrasonography-of-normal-cynomolgus-monkeys-macaca-fascicularis
#1
Kyo Won Lee Chan Woo Cho Ji Eun Lee Hyojun Park Gyu-Seong Choi Woo Kyoung Jeong Jae Berm Park And Sungjoo Kim
The present study evaluated the anatomic and ultrasonographic features of the liver in normal cynomolgus monkeys (Macacafascicularis). Healthy, male, cynomolgus monkeys from Cambodia (n = 25; mean age, 58.1 mo) were sedated with ketamine (7mg/kg) and examined by using 2D and Doppler ultrasonography. We measured the diameters of the vascular structures and bile duct, determined the velocities of the hepatic artery and portal vein, and calculated the resistance index of the hepatic artery. Vessel diameters were: proper hepatic artery, 1...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211248/anesthetic-considerations-for-pediatric-electroconvulsive-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Andrew D Franklin, Jenna H Sobey, Eric T Stickles
Electroconvulsive therapy is being used more frequently in the treatment of many chronic and acute psychiatric illnesses in children. The most common psychiatric indications for pediatric electroconvulsive therapy are refractory depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, catatonia, and autism. In addition, a relatively new indication is the treatment of pediatric refractory status epilepticus. The anesthesiologist may be called upon to assist in the care of this challenging and vulnerable patient population...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211173/methyl-jasmonate-ameliorates-testosterone-propionate-induced-prostatic-hyperplasia-in-castrated-wistar-rats
#3
Olubukola Oyebimpe Akanni, Olusoji John Abiola, Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye
Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive disease that is related to age. Known therapeutic agents used in the treatment of BPH are associated with toxicity. Therefore, chemoprevention could be an effective approach. We investigated the ameliorative effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH in castrated rats. Castration was performed by removing both testes through the scrotum sack under ketamine anesthesia. Rats were assigned into seven groups of seven animals each: non-castrated control, castrated control, castrated rats that received TP, castrated rats that received TP and MeJA, castrated rats that received TP and finasteride, castrated rats that received MeJA, and castrated rats that received finasteride...
February 16, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210917/adjuvant-agents-in-regional-anesthesia-in-the-ambulatory-setting
#4
REVIEW
Veerandra Koyyalamudi, Sudipta Sen, Shilpadevi Patil, Justin B Creel, Elyse M Cornett, Charles J Fox, Alan D Kaye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A majority of surgical practice has involved ambulatory centers with the number of outpatient operations in the USA doubling to 26.8 million per year. Local anesthesia delivery provides numerous benefits, including increased satisfaction, earlier discharge, and reduction in unplanned hospital admission. Further, with the epidemic of opioid mediated overdoses, local anesthesia can be a key tool in providing an opportunity to reduce the need for other analgesics postoperatively...
January 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207600/advancements-in-the-critical-care-management-of-status-epilepticus
#5
Andrew Bauerschmidt, Andrew Martin, Jan Claassen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Status epilepticus has a high morbidity and mortality. There are little definitive data to guide management; however, new recent data continue to improve understanding of management options of status epilepticus. This review examines recent advancements regarding the critical care management of status epilepticus. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies support the initial treatment of status epilepticus with early and aggressive benzodiazepine dosing...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206766/copper-assisted-direct-nitration-of-cyclic-ketones-with-ceric-ammonium-nitrate-for-the-synthesis-of-tertiary-%C3%AE-nitro-%C3%AE-substituted-scaffolds
#6
Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Tao Chen, Fu-Min Zhang
An efficient and direct Cu-assisted nitrating approach to create synthetically valuable and challenging tertiary α-nitro-α-substituted moieties has been developed using ceric ammonium nitrate as a nitrating reagent, oxidant, and Lewis acid. Notably, the commonly used clinical drug ketamine was smoothly synthesized in four steps.
February 16, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204809/ketamine-suppresses-the-substance-p-induced-production-of-il-6-and-il-8-by-human-u373mg-glioblastoma-astrocytoma-cells
#7
Keisuke Yamaguchi, Seiichiro Kumakura, Taisuke Murakami, Akimasa Someya, Eiichi Inada, Isao Nagaoka
The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is an important mediator of neurogenic inflammation within the central and peripheral nervous systems. SP has been shown to induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders of the human brain via the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, functions as a competitive antagonist of the excitatory neurotransmission N-methyl-D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and also antagonizes the NK-1R by interfering with the binding of SP...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202503/vitamin-d-and-depression-cellular-and-regulatory-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Michael J Berridge
Depression is caused by a change in neural activity resulting from an increase in glutamate that drives excitatory neurons and may be responsible for the decline in the activity and number of the GABAergic inhibitory neurons. This imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurons may contribute to the onset of depression. At the cellular level there is an increase in the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) within the inhibitory neurons that is driven by an increase in entry through the NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and through activation of the phosphoinositide signaling pathway that generates inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) that releases Ca(2+) from the internal stores...
April 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196426/development-of-a-functional-observational-battery-in-the-minipig-for-regulatory-neurotoxicity-assessments
#9
Miao Zhong, Catherine Shoemake, Amber Fuller, David White, Chris Hanks, Derek Brocksmith, Jason Liu, Shayne Gad, Guy Bouchard, Alain Stricker-Krongrad
A functional observational battery (FOB) is recommended as the first-tier neurotoxicity screening in the preclinical safety pharmacology testing guidelines. Minipigs have increasingly been used in regulatory toxicology studies; however, no current FOB protocol is available for neurotoxicity testing in these species. Hence, a minipig FOB instrument was developed. A complete crossover study with Sinclair minipigs was performed to evaluate physiologic, neurologic, and behavioral effects of amphetamine, ketamine, and diazepam...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194724/ketamine-and-beyond-investigations-into-the-potential-of-glutamatergic-agents-to-treat-depression
#10
REVIEW
Marc S Lener, Bashkim Kadriu, Carlos A Zarate
Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that dysfunction of the glutamatergic system is implicated in mood disorders such as major depressive disorder and bipolar depression. In clinical studies of individuals with major depressive disorder and bipolar depression, rapid reductions in depressive symptoms have been observed in response to subanesthetic-dose ketamine, an agent whose mechanism of action involves the modulation of glutamatergic signaling. The findings from these studies have prompted the repurposing and/or development of other glutamatergic modulators for antidepressant efficacy, both as monotherapy or as an adjunct to conventional monoaminergic antidepressants...
February 14, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194341/variables-influencing-the-depth-of-conscious-sedation-in-plastic-surgery-a-prospective-study
#11
Hyeonjung Yeo, Wonwoo Kim, Hyochun Park, Hoonnam Kim
BACKGROUND: Conscious sedation has been widely utilized in plastic surgery. However, inadequate research has been published evaluating adequate drug dosage and depth of sedation. In clinical practice, sedation is often inadequate or accompanied by complications when sedatives are administered according to body weight alone. The purpose of this study was to identify variables influencing the depth of sedation during conscious sedation for plastic surgery. METHODS: This prospective study evaluated 97 patients who underwent plastic surgical procedures under conscious sedation...
January 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194274/moderate-to-deep-sedation-technique-using-propofol-and-ketamine-allowing-synchronised-breathing-for-magnetic-resonance-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-mr-hifu-treatment-for-uterine-fibroids-a-pilot-study
#12
Hermanus H B Vaessen, F M Knuttel, J M M van Breugel, M E Ikink, J M Dieleman, M A A J van den Bosch, J T A Knape
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) treatment for uterine fibroids is rapidly gaining popularity as a treatment modality. This procedure is generally uncomfortable, painful, and requires minimal or absence of movement and an MR-HIFU synchronised breathing pattern of the patient. Procedural sedation and analgesia protocols have become the standard practice in interventional radiology departments worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore if a sedation regimen with low-dose propofol and ketamine performed by trained non-medical sedation practitioners could result in relief of discomfort for the patient and in adequate working conditions for MR-HIFU treatment for uterine fibroids...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190661/the-novel-antipsychotic-drug-brexpiprazole-alone-and-in-combination-with-escitalopram-facilitates-prefrontal-glutamatergic-transmission-via-a-dopamine-d1-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#13
Carl Björkholm, Monica M Marcus, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Kent Jardemark, Torgny H Svensson
Brexpiprazole (Rexulti(®)), a novel D2/3 receptor (R) partial agonist, was recently approved as monotherapy for schizophrenia, demonstrating effectiveness against both positive and negative symptoms, and also approved as add-on treatment to antidepressant drugs, inducing a potent antidepressant effect with a faster onset compared to an antidepressant given alone. Moreover, brexpiprazole has demonstrated pro-cognitive effects in preclinical studies. To explore whether the observed effects may be mediated via modulation of prefrontal glutamatergic transmission, we investigated the effect of brexpiprazole, alone and in combination with the SSRI escitalopram, on prefrontal glutamatergic transmission using in vitro electrophysiological intracellular recordings of deep layer pyramidal cells of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
February 9, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190425/i-predict-therefore-i-am-perturbed-predictive-coding-under-ketamine-and-in-schizophrenia
#14
Philip R Corlett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189103/ultrasound-assisted-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-the-determination-of-seven-recreational-drugs-in-human-whole-blood-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#15
Zebin Lin, Jiaolun Li, Xinyu Zhang, Meihong Qiu, Zhibin Huang, Yulan Rao
Recreational drugs have large impact on public health and security, and to monitor them is of urgent demand. In the present study, ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with the detection of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to the determination of seven common recreational drugs, including amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, meperidine, methadone and ketamine in 200μL of human whole blood. A series of factors which would affect the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated, including the nature and the volume of extraction and dispersing solvents, ultrasonication time, salting-out effect and pH value...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188706/comparison-of-atipamezole-with-yohimbine-for-antagonism-of-xylazine-in-mice-anesthetized-with-ketamine-and-xylazine
#16
Christopher F Janssen Pauline Maiello M Jerry Wright Jr Kara B Kracinovsky And Joseph T Newsome
The α2 adrenergic agonist xylazine produces a sedative effect and is typically combined with ketamine and used for anesthesia or chemical restraint of laboratory mice. Xylazine's sedative effect-and its undesirable side effects of bradycardia, hypotension, and poor tissue perfusion-can be reversed by administration of α2 antagonists, such as atipamezole or yohimbine. Although atipamezole and yohimbine dosing guidelines are available for mice, no controlled comparison has been performed to guide the lab animal community in the selection of one over the other...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188055/the-emergency-medicine-management-of-severe-alcohol-withdrawal
#17
Drew Long, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use is widespread, and withdrawal symptoms are common after decreased alcohol intake. Severe alcohol withdrawal may manifest with delirium tremens, and new therapies may assist in management of this life-threatening condition. OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based review of the emergency medicine management of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. DISCUSSION: The underlying pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is central nervous system hyperexcitation...
February 4, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184070/the-legal-and-moral-perceptions-of-clinical-and-non-clinical-undergraduates-regarding-substance-use-a-pilot-project
#18
J Puryer, A Rowley, J Saimbi, A Waylen
Introduction Heavy alcohol and illicit drug use has been documented amongst medical and dental professionals and educational programs have been developed to attempt to reduce such behaviour in clinical undergraduates. This pilot study aims to investigate the legal and moral perceptions of substance use in clinical and non-clinical undergraduates.Method A cross-sectional self-report questionnaire was administered to 107 clinical and non-clinical undergraduates to investigate their moral and legal perceptions of alcohol and illicit substance use...
February 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183578/a-case-of-central-diabetes-insipidus-after-ketamine-infusion-during-an-external-to-internal-carotid-artery-bypass
#19
Sharib Gaffar, Jonathan P Eskander, Burton D Beakley, Brian P McClure, Peter Amenta, Nakeisha Pierre
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We report the first teenage case of ketamine-induced transient central diabetes insipidus. CASE SUMMARY: The patient was an 18-year-old woman with moyamoya disease undergoing an external carotid to internal carotid bypass and given a low-dose ketamine infusion. After approximately 2 hours in the supine position, with 0.5 Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane, a propofol infusion at 50 μg/kg/min, a remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min, and a ketamine infusion at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min, this patient had an excessive urine output...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183297/the-relationship-between-pain-with-walking-and-self-rated-health-12%C3%A2-months-following-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-longitudinal-study
#20
Maren Falch Lindberg, Tone Rustøen, Christine Miaskowski, Leiv Arne Rosseland, Anners Lerdal
BACKGROUND: A subgroup of patients continue to report pain with walking 12 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The association between walking pain and self-rated health (SRH) after TKA is not known. This prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the association between a comprehensive list of preoperative factors, postoperative pain with walking, and SRH 12 months after TKA. METHODS: Patients (N = 156) scheduled for TKA completed questionnaires that evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics, symptoms, psychological factors, and SRH...
February 10, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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