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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092852/graphene-oxide-adsorbent-based-dispersive-solid-phase-extraction-coupled-with-multi-pretreatment-clean-up-for-analysis-of-trace-aflatoxins-in-traditional-proprietary-chinese-medicines
#1
Congcong Ran, Dan Chen, Haiyan Ma, Ye Jiang
Graphene oxide (GO)-based dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) method combined with multi-step preparation has been proposed for the evaluation of trace aflatoxins in proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM). After being extracted by methanol, the sample was purified based on multi-step preparation, including dehydration with MgSO4/NaCl and cleanup with neutral alumina. Then GO was used as an adsorbent in D-SPE method for further preconcentration of aflatoxins prior to high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092144/exergaming-boxing-versus-heavy-bag-boxing-are-these-equipotent-for-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Maziah Mat Rosly, Hadi Mat Rosly, Nazirah Hasnan, Glen M Davis, Ruby Husain
BACKGROUND: Current strategies for increased physical activity and exercise in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) face many challenges with regards to maintaining their continuity of participation. Barriers cited often include problems with accessing facilities, mundane, monotonous or boring exercises and expensive equipment that is often not adapted for wheelchair users. AIM: To compare the physiological responses and user preferences between conventional heavy bag boxing against a novel form of video game boxing, known as exergaming boxing...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#3
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086980/inflammation-in-epileptogenesis-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
REVIEW
Kyria M Webster, Mujun Sun, Peter Crack, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz, Bridgette D Semple
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common and debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Seizures contribute to progressive neurodegeneration and poor functional and psychosocial outcomes for TBI survivors, and epilepsy after TBI is often resistant to existing anti-epileptic drugs. The development of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) occurs in a complex neurobiological environment characterized by ongoing TBI-induced secondary injury processes. Neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury process, though how it contributes to epileptogenesis, and the development of chronic, spontaneous seizure activity, remains poorly understood...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081277/comparative-genomic-hybridization-analysis-of-rice-dwarf-mutants-induced-by-gamma-irradiation
#5
J E Hwang, S-H Kim, I J Jung, S M Han, J-W Ahn, S-J Kwon, S H Kim, S-Y Kang, D S Kim, J-B Kim
Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a powerful tool used to analyze changes in copy number, polymorphisms, and structural variations in the genome. Gene copy number variation (CNV) is a common form of natural diversity in the genome, which can create new genes and alter gene structure. Thus, CNVs may influence phenotypic variation and gene expression. In this study, to detect CNVs, we irradiated rice seeds with gamma rays (300 Gy) and selected two dwarf mutagenized plants, GA-III-189 and -1052, in the M3 generation...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079249/fractal-analysis-of-visual-search-activity-for-mass-detection-during-mammographic-screening
#6
Folami Alamudun, Hong-Jun Yoon, Kathleen B Hudson, Garnetta Morin-Ducote, Tracy Hammond, Georgia D Tourassi
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to assess the complexity of human visual search activity during mammographic screening using fractal analysis and to investigate its relationship with case and reader characteristics. METHODS: The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) and 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven radiology residents), formed the corpus data for this study...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076775/nutritional-programming-of-lifespan-by-foxo-inhibition-on-sugar-rich-diets
#7
Adam J Dobson, Marina Ezcurra, Charlotte E Flanagan, Adam C Summerfield, Matthew D W Piper, David Gems, Nazif Alic
Consumption of unhealthy diets is exacerbating the burden of age-related ill health in aging populations. Such diets can program mammalian physiology to cause long-term, detrimental effects. Here, we show that, in Drosophila melanogaster, an unhealthy, high-sugar diet in early adulthood programs lifespan to curtail later-life survival despite subsequent dietary improvement. Excess dietary sugar promotes insulin-like signaling, inhibits dFOXO-the Drosophila homolog of forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors-and represses expression of dFOXO target genes encoding epigenetic regulators...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067797/unconventional-pathways-of-secretion-contribute-to-inflammation
#8
REVIEW
Michael J D Daniels, David Brough
In the conventional pathway of protein secretion, leader sequence-containing proteins leave the cell following processing through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi body. However, leaderless proteins also enter the extracellular space through mechanisms collectively known as unconventional secretion. Unconventionally secreted proteins often have vital roles in cell and organism function such as inflammation. Amongst the best-studied inflammatory unconventionally secreted proteins are interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, IL-33 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064564/aspartate-inhibits-lps-induced-mafbx-and-murf1-expression-in-skeletal-muscle-in-weaned-pigs-by-regulating-akt-ampk%C3%AE-and-foxo1
#9
Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Weibo Leng, Dingan Pi, Zhixiao Tu, Huiling Zhu, Haifeng Shi, Shuang Li, Yongqing Hou, Chien-An Andy Hu
Infection and inflammation can result in the rapid loss of muscle mass and myofibrillar proteins (muscle atrophy). In addition, aspartate (Asp) is necessary for protein synthesis in mammalian cells. We hypothesized that Asp could attenuate LPS-induced muscle atrophy in a piglet model. Twenty-four weaning piglets were allotted to four treatments, including non-challenged control, LPS challenged control, LPS+0.5% Asp and LPS+1.0% Asp. On d 21, the piglets were injected with i.p. injection of LPS (100 ug/kg BM) or saline...
January 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062307/transcriptional-regulation-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-subunit-in-marmoset-by-an-alternate-distal-promoter
#10
Susha S Kutteyil, Bhakti R Pathak, Smita D Mahale
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is essential for mammalian folliculogenesis and spermatogenesis. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate which exhibits an unusual FSH profile across the ovarian cycle with a mid-follicular FSH peak that is not observed in Catarrhini primates like humans. Since transcription of FSH β-subunit gene (FSHβ) is a rate-limiting step in the production of mature FSH, this study aimed to investigate the regulation of marmoset FSHβ gene expression in comparison to human...
January 3, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060499/correlating-reactivity-and-selectivity-to-cyclopentadienyl-ligand-properties-in-rh-iii-catalyzed-c-h-activation-reactions-an-experimental-and-computational-study
#11
Tiffany Piou, Fedor Romanov-Michailidis, Maria Romanova-Michaelides, Kelvin E Jackson, Natthawat Semakul, Trevor D Taggart, Brian S Newell, Christopher D Rithner, Robert S Paton, Tomislav Rovis
Cp(X)Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H functionalization reactions are a proven method for the efficient assembly of small molecules. However, rationalization of the effects of cyclopentadienyl (Cp(X)) ligand structure on reaction rate and selectivity has been viewed as a black box, and a truly systematic study is lacking. Consequently, predicting the outcomes of these reactions is challenging because subtle variations in ligand structure can cause notable changes in reaction behavior. A predictive tool is, nonetheless, of considerable value to the community as it would greatly accelerate reaction development...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059832/preoperative-disclosure-of-surgical-trainee-involvement-pandora-s-box-or-an-opportunity-for-enlightenment
#12
Brandon M Wojcik, Roy Phitayakorn, Keith D Lillemoe, David C Chang, John T Mullen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057271/t-box-genes-in-human-development-and-disease
#13
T K Ghosh, J D Brook, A Wilsdon
T-box genes are important development regulators in vertebrates with specific patterns of expression and precise roles during embryogenesis. They encode transcription factors that regulate gene transcription, often in the early stages of development. The hallmark of this family of proteins is the presence of a conserved DNA binding motif, the "T-domain." Mutations in T-box genes can cause developmental disorders in humans, mostly due to functional deficiency of the relevant proteins. Recent studies have also highlighted the role of some T-box genes in cancer and in cardiomyopathy, extending their role in human disease...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057264/tbx5-a-key-regulator-of-heart-development
#14
J D Steimle, I P Moskowitz
TBX5 is a member of the T-box transcription factor family and is primarily known for its role in cardiac and forelimb development. Human patients with dominant mutations in TBX5 are characterized by Holt-Oram syndrome, and show defects of the cardiac septa, cardiac conduction system, and the anterior forelimb. The range of cardiac defects associated with TBX5 mutations in humans suggests multiple roles for the transcription factor in cardiac development and function. Animal models demonstrate similar defects and have provided a useful platform for investigating the roles of TBX5 during embryonic development...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057209/mechanisms-of-chromatin-remodeling-and-repurposing-during-extracellular-translocation
#15
D S Pisetsky
Chromatin is a highly conserved molecular structure that provides genetic information to regulate cell function. Comprised of DNA, histones and interacting proteins, chromatin is inherently dynamic and subject to remodeling. While usually conceptualized as an intranuclear event, remodeling can also involve extracellular movement. Indeed, chromatin can translocate entirely from the inside to the outside of the cell during cell death processes that include apoptosis, necrosis, and NETosis. During these processes, DNA and proteins can undergo other changes impacting on their activity...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052511/sound-settlement-noise-surpasses-land-cover-in-explaining-breeding-habitat-selection-of-secondary-cavity-nesting-birds
#16
Nathan J Kleist, Robert P Guralnick, Alexander Cruz, Clinton D Francis
Birds breeding in heterogeneous landscapes select nest sites by cueing in on a variety of factors from landscape features and social information to the presence of natural enemies. We focus on determining the relative impact of anthropogenic noise on nest site occupancy, compared to amount of forest cover, which is known to strongly influence the selection process. We examine chronic, industrial noise from natural gas wells directly measured at the nest box as well as site-averaged noise, using a well-established field experimental system in northwestern New Mexico...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049065/nucleic-acid-scavenging-microfiber-mesh-inhibits-trauma-induced-inflammation-and-thrombosis
#17
Jaewoo Lee, Jennifer G Jackman, Jean Kwun, Miriam Manook, Angelo Moreno, Eric A Elster, Allan D Kirk, Kam W Leong, Bruce A Sullenger
Trauma patients produce a host of danger signals and high levels of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) after cellular injury and tissue damage. These DAMPs are directly and indirectly involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and thrombotic complications in patients with severe injuries. No effective therapeutic agents for the removal of DAMPs from blood or tissue fluid have been developed. Herein, we demonstrated that nucleic acid binding polymers, e.g., polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyamidoamine dendrimers, immobilized onto electrospun microfiber mesh can effectively capture various DAMPs, such as extracellular DNAs and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047841/tu-h-207a-04-how-patient-positioning-in-ct-affects-more-than-the-aec-image-noise-uniformity-and-ct-number-changes-as-a-function-of-positioning
#18
T Szczykutowicz, A Duplissis, D Miller
PURPOSE: Studies dealing with patient positioning in CT have mainly dealt with dose and image noise changes. For diagnosis, only dose decreases can negatively affect the diagnostic utility of the exam via an increase in image noise. However, a little studied consequence of poor positioning is CT number and noise uniformity changes. METHODS: An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged in 2 cm vertical steps between the highest and lowest couch positions. CT number and noise were measured using regions of interest (ROI) in the upper-thorax, mid-thorax, and abdomen...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047834/su-c-bra-04-automated-segmentation-of-head-and-neck-ct-images-for-radiotherapy-treatment-planning-via-multi-atlas-machine-learning-maml
#19
X Ren, G Sharp, H Gao
PURPOSE: Accurate image segmentation is a crucial step during image guided radiation therapy. This work proposes multi-atlas machine learning (MAML) algorithm for automated segmentation of head-and-neck CT images. METHODS: As the first step, the algorithm utilizes normalized mutual information as similarity metric, affine registration combined with multiresolution B-Spline registration, and then fuses together using the label fusion strategy via Plastimatch. As the second step, the following feature selection strategy is proposed to extract five feature components from reference or atlas images: intensity (I), distance map (D), box (B), center of gravity (C) and stable point (S)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047784/th-cd-201-05-characterization-of-a-novel-light-collimating-tank-optical-ct-system-for-3d-dosimetry
#20
D Miles, S Yoon, J Adamovics, M Oldham
PURPOSE: Comprehensive 3D dosimetry is highly desirable for advanced clinical QA, but costly optical readout techniques have hindered widespread implementation. Here, we present the first results from a cost-effective Integrated-lens Dry-tank Optical Scanner (IDOS), designed for convenient 3D dosimetry readout of radiochromic plastic dosimeters (e.g. PRESAGE). METHODS: The scanner incorporates a novel transparent light-collimating tank, which collimates a point light source into parallel-ray CT geometry...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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