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Rein M G J Houben, Peter J Dodd
BACKGROUND: The existing estimate of the global burden of latent TB infection (LTBI) as "one-third" of the world population is nearly 20 y old. Given the importance of controlling LTBI as part of the End TB Strategy for eliminating TB by 2050, changes in demography and scientific understanding, and progress in TB control, it is important to re-assess the global burden of LTBI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed trends in annual risk in infection (ARI) for countries between 1934 and 2014 using a combination of direct estimates of ARI from LTBI surveys (131 surveys from 1950 to 2011) and indirect estimates of ARI calculated from World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates of smear positive TB prevalence from 1990 to 2014...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Kushagra Verma, Senthil T Nathan, Carly D Comer, Baron Lonner, Suken A Shah
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective Analysis OBJECTIVE.: This study aims to: 1) establish a baseline for the SRS-22 in South East Asia and 2) evaluate the influence of patient demographics on the SRS-22. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have established a baseline for the SRS-22 in the US and described the impact of patient demographics. While the SRS-22 is used internationally, limited normative data is available. METHODS: After approval from the local hospital and school board, 1200 adolescents (age 10-18) were asked to anonymously complete the SRS-22 in English...
October 24, 2016: Spine
Pyeong-Koo Lee, Soonyoung Yu, Hye Jung Chang, Hye Young Cho, Min-Ju Kang, Byung-Gon Chae
Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dong Xiao, Ping Zhao, Yue Wang, Xiuji Zhou
This study investigates the response of large-scale atmospheric circulation over the Asian-Pacific sector and precipitation over eastern China to transient orbital changes during the Holocene summer using an intermediate-complexity climate model. Corresponding to variations in the incoming solar radiation, the eddy sea level pressure (SLP) exhibited an out-of-phase relationship between the North Pacific and the Eurasian landmass that was similar to the present-day Asia-Pacific Oscillation (APO) pattern and was defined as the paleo-APO...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kristin Hui Xian Tan, Elizabeth Barr, Vira Koshkina, Stefan Ma, Sudhir Kowlessur, Dianna J Magliano, Stefan Söderberg, Kee Seng Chia, Paul Zimmet, Wei-Yen Lim
BACKGROUND: Asia is experiencing a type 2 diabetes epidemic but prevalence differs by ethnicity and level of socio-economic development. Singapore and Mauritius have implemented comprehensive campaigns to address this public health problem. We compared diabetes and obesity prevalence trends among Chinese and South Asians living in Singapore and Mauritius to determine the contribution of ethnicity and economic development to diabetes. METHODS: Age-specific data from serial national population-based surveys in Singapore and Mauritius between 1987 and 2010 were used to estimate age-standardised diabetes and obesity prevalence...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Bradley M Haverkos, Zenggang Pan, Alejandro A Gru, Aharon G Freud, Rachel Rabinovitch, Meng Xu-Welliver, Brad Otto, Carlos Barrionuevo, Robert A Baiocchi, Rosemary Rochford, Pierluigi Porcu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT) is an aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma most commonly occurring in East Asia and Latin America but with increasing incidence in the United States. Data on epidemiology, disease presentation, and outcome for European and North American ("Western") cases are very limited. We review published landmark clinical studies on ENKTL-NT in the West and report in detail recent data, including our institutional experience...
October 24, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Chien Chuang, Wen-Chien Fan, Yi-Tsung Lin, Fu-Der Wang
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common pathogen of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess in East Asia. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-established risk factor for K. pneumoniae liver abscess (KPLA). However, reports regarding the emergence of KPLA in non-diabetic patients are limited. RESULTS: A total 230 patients with KPLA from a medical center in Taiwan were identified retrospectively. The rate of DM in patients with KPLA was 44.4 % in 2011, 57...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Mi Hye Kim, Hye Ji Lee, Jung-Chul Park, Jongki Hong, Woong Mo Yang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zanthoxylum piperitum (ZP) has been used to prevent toothache in East Asia. AIM OF STUDY: In this study, we investigated the effects of ZP on periodontitis along with alveolar bone loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 4 groups; non-ligated (NOR), ligated and treated vehicle (CTR), ligated and treated 1mg/mL ZP (ZP1), and ligated and treated 100mg/mL ZP (ZP100)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kei Hayashi, Madoka Ichikawa-Seki, Yuma Ohari, Uday Kumar Mohanta, Junya Aita, Hiroshi Satoh, Shiori Ehara, Minami Tokashiki, Tomoko Shiroma, Ayumi Azuta, Nozomi Oka, Takuya Watanabe, Ryo Harasawa, Satoshi Inohana, Toshihiro Ichijo, Kazuhisa Furuhama
Adult schistosomes were detected in the veins or capillaries of the large intestine, mesentery, liver, and adrenal glands in eight of 13 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) examined in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. However, neither eggs nor severe tissue injuries were observed in any of the swans. The schistosomes were definitively identified as Allobilharzia visceralis based on the nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Allobilharzia visceralis infections have been reported in whooper swan in Iceland and tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) in North America...
October 21, 2016: Parasitology International
Smitha Kakde, Raj S Bhopal, Swati Bhardwaj, Anoop Misra
OBJECTIVE: Known risk factors do not fully explain the comparatively high susceptibility to coronary heart disease (CHD) in South Asians (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Sri Lankan populations in South Asia and overseas). The search for explanatory hypotheses and cofactors that raise susceptibility of South Asians to CHD continues. The aim of this study was to propose "the high-heat food preparation hypothesis," where neo-formed contaminants (NFCs) such as trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are the cofactors...
July 26, 2016: Nutrition
Eric P M Grist, Jennifer A Flegg, Georgina Humphreys, Ignacio Suay Mas, Tim J C Anderson, Elizabeth A Ashley, Nicholas P J Day, Mehul Dhorda, Arjen M Dondorp, M Abul Faiz, Peter W Gething, Tran T Hien, Tin M Hlaing, Mallika Imwong, Jean-Marie Kindermans, Richard J Maude, Mayfong Mayxay, Marina McDew-White, Didier Menard, Shalini Nair, Francois Nosten, Paul N Newton, Ric N Price, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Shannon Takala-Harrison, Frank Smithuis, Nhien T Nguyen, Kyaw M Tun, Nicholas J White, Benoit Witkowski, Charles J Woodrow, Rick M Fairhurst, Carol Hopkins Sibley, Philippe J Guerin
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites are now present across much of mainland Southeast Asia, where ongoing surveys are measuring and mapping their spatial distribution. These efforts require substantial resources. Here we propose a generic 'smart surveillance' methodology to identify optimal candidate sites for future sampling and thus map the distribution of artemisinin resistance most efficiently. METHODS: The approach uses the 'uncertainty' map generated iteratively by a geostatistical model to determine optimal locations for subsequent sampling...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Nidhi Rawat, Michael O Pumphrey, Sixin Liu, Xiaofei Zhang, Vijay K Tiwari, Kaori Ando, Harold N Trick, William W Bockus, Eduard Akhunov, James A Anderson, Bikram S Gill
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that leads to reduced yield and mycotoxin contamination of grain, making it unfit for human consumption. FHB is a global problem, with outbreaks in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and South America. In the United States alone, total direct and secondary economic losses from 1993 to 2001 owing to FHB were estimated at $7.67 billion. Fhb1 is the most consistently reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FHB resistance breeding...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
S Berretta, M Berretta, F Fiorica, R Di Francia, P Magistri, G Bertola, R Fisichella, V Canzonieri, F Di Benedetto, G Tarantino
Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide, with the highest estimated mortality rates in Eastern Asia and the lowest in Northern America. However, the availability of modern treatment has improved the survival and the prognosis is often poor due to biological characteristics of the disease. In oncology, we are living in the "Era" of target treatment and, to know biological aspects, prognostic factors and predictive response informations to therapy in GC is mandatory to apply the best strategy of treatment...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Ha Kyun Chang, Byoung Gie Kim, Ting Yan Shi, Rongyu Zang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Zhiyuan Yao, Tingting Dong, Guo Zheng, Jinzhong Fu, Shuqiang Li
Endemism, which is typically high on islands and in caves, has rarely been studied in the cave entrance ecotone. We investigated the endemism of the spider genus Uthina at cave entrances. Totally 212 spiders were sampled from 46 localities, from Seychelles across Southeast Asia to Fiji. They mostly occur at cave entrances but occasionally appear at various epigean environments. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from COI and 28S genes suggested that Uthina was grouped into 13 well-supported clades. We used three methods, the Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) model, the Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP) method, and the general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) model, to investigate species boundaries...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jin Young Ahn, David Boettiger, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Tuti Parwati Merati, Bui Vu Huy, Wing Wai Wong, Rossana Ditangco, Man Po Lee, Shinichi Oka, Nicolas Durier, Jun Yong Choi
INTRODUCTION: Outbreaks of syphilis have been described among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Western communities, whereas reports in Asian countries are limited. We aimed to characterize the incidence and temporal trends of syphilis among HIV-infected MSM compared with HIV-infected non-MSM in Asian countries. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database cohort and with a negative non-treponemal test since enrolment were analyzed...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Phillip Ertel, Burkay Adalig, Ipek Demircan, Belinda Lartey, Michael J Manyak
AIM: To assess attitudes and beliefs towards benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)/ lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and its treatment among patients and physicians in Latin America, Asia Pacific and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). METHODS: Cross-sectional, quantitative study conducted between December 2014 and September 2015. Separate questionnaires were administered to BPH/LUTS patients receiving drug treatment for their condition and to practising physicians who treat patients with BPH/LUTS...
October 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Rumana Ahmad, Tahmeena Khan, Bilal Ahmad, Aparna Misra, Anil K Balapure
Tapeworms (cestodes) are segmented flatworms responsible for causing diseases that may prove fatal and difficult to treat in the absence of proper treatment and efficient drugs. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common parasitic infection of the central nervous system and a major contributor to epilepsy caused by the metacestode (larva) of the human tapeworm Taenia solium, characterized by a range of pathological symptoms including epileptic seizures, headaches, and hydrocephalus. Cysticercosis is considered as a "biological imprint" of the socioeconomic development of a community in general and a country in particular...
October 24, 2016: Parasitology Research
Md Nazmul Hasan, Nur Kabidul Azam, Md Nasir Ahmed, Akinori Hirashima
Snakebite is the single most important toxin-related injury, causing substantial mortality in many parts of the Africa, Asia and the Americas. Incidence of snakebite is usually recorded in young people engaged in active physical work in rural areas. The various plant parts used to treat snakebite included whole plant, leaves, barks, roots and seeds. Most bites in Bangladesh are recorded between May and October with highest number in June. Lower and upper limbs are most common sites of snakebite, but it may happen in other sites as well...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Truc T Pham, Shengli Meng, Yan Sun, Wenli Lv, Justin Bahl
A comprehensive monitoring strategy is vital for tracking the spread of mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Virus detection consists of passive surveillance of primarily humans and swine, and/or active surveillance in mosquitoes, which may be a valuable proxy in providing insights into ecological processes underlying the spread and persistence of JEV. However, it has not been well characterized whether passive surveillance alone can capture the circulating genetic diversity to make reasonable inferences...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
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