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Epigenetic marker

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242641/ubiquitin-ligases-in-oncogenic-transformation-and-cancer-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Daniela Senft, Jianfei Qi, Ze'ev A Ronai
The cellular response to external stress signals and DNA damage depends on the activity of ubiquitin ligases (E3s), which regulate numerous cellular processes, including homeostasis, metabolism and cell cycle progression. E3s recognize, interact with and ubiquitylate protein substrates in a temporally and spatially regulated manner. The topology of the ubiquitin chains dictates the fate of the substrates, marking them for recognition and degradation by the proteasome or altering their subcellular localization or assembly into functional complexes...
December 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242529/decitabine-a-dna-demethylating-agent-promotes-differentiation-via-notch1-signaling-and-alters-immune-related-pathways-in-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#2
Swathi Ramakrishnan, Qiang Hu, Nithya Krishnan, Dan Wang, Evelyn Smit, Victoria Granger, Monika Rak, Kristopher Attwood, Candace Johnson, Carl Morrison, Roberto Pili, Gurkamal Chatta, Khurshid Guru, Geraldine Gueron, Lacey McNally, Jianmin Wang, Anna Woloszynska-Read
Aberrant DNA methylation observed in cancer can provide survival benefits to cells by silencing genes essential for anti-tumor activity. DNA-demethylating agents such as Decitabine (DAC)/Azacitidine (AZA) activate otherwise silenced tumor suppressor genes, alter immune response and epigenetically reprogram tumor cells. In this study, we show that non-cytotoxic nanomolar DAC concentrations modify the bladder cancer transcriptome to activate NOTCH1 at the mRNA and protein level, increase double-stranded RNA sensors and CK5-dependent differentiation...
December 14, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237021/human-specific-subcellular-compartmentalization-of-p-element-induced-wimpy-testis-like-piwil-granules-during-germ-cell-development-and-spermatogenesis
#3
Maria Gomes Fernandes, Nannan He, Fang Wang, Liesbeth Van Iperen, Cristina Eguizabal, Roberto Matorras, Bernard A J Roelen, Susana M Chuva De Sousa Lopes
STUDY QUESTION: What is the dynamics of expression of P-element induced wimpy testis-like (PIWIL) proteins in the germline during human fetal development and spermatogenesis? SUMMARY ANSWER: PIWIL1, PIWIL2, PIWIL3 and PIWIL4 were expressed in a sex-specific fashion in human germ cells (GC) during development and adulthood. PIWILs showed a mutually exclusive pattern of subcellular localization. PIWILs were present in the intermitochondrial cement and a single large granule in meiotic GC and their expression was different from that observed in mice, highlighting species-differences...
December 11, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236331/reduction-of-histone-marks-h3k9me3-and-h3k27me3-by-epidrug-induces-neuroendocrine-differentiation-in-prostate-cancer
#4
Eunsohl Lee, Jingcheng Wang, Younghun Jung, Frank C Cackowski, Russell S Taichman
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NE PCa) is an aggressive malignancy, often presenting with advanced metastasis. We previously reported that reduction of histone marks regulated by DNMT1 following epidrug (5-Azacitidine, 5-Aza) treatment controls induction of epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) and a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype, which facilitates tumorigenesis in PCa cells. Here, we use the epidrug 5-Aza as a model for how histone marks may regulate the reprogramming of prostate adenocarcinoma into NE phenotypic cells...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234279/long-term-effects-of-intermittent-adolescent-alcohol-exposure-in-male-and-female-rats
#5
Eva M Marco, Sara Peñasco, María-Donina Hernández, Anabel Gil, Erika Borcel, Marta Moya, Elena Giné, José Antonio López-Moreno, Consuelo Guerri, Meritxell López-Gallardo, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking-known as binge-drinking-has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd) 28-52...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234154/lncrna-snhg16-predicts-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-tumor-proliferation-through-epigenetically-silencing-p21-in-bladder-cancer
#6
Xianxiang Cao, Jing Xu, Dong Yue
More and more evidences have ensured the crucial functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in multiple tumors. It has been discovered that lncRNA-SNHG16 is involved in many tumors. Even so, it is still necessary to study SNHG16 comprehensively in bladder cancer. In terms of our study, the level of SNHG16 both in the tumor tissues and cell lines was measured and the relationship among SNHG16, clinicopathological traits and prognosis was explored. Interference assays were applied to determine the biological functions of SNHG16...
December 12, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233839/genetics-of-tumors-of-the-adrenal-cortex
#7
Fidéline Bonnet-Serrano, Jerome Bertherat
This review describes the molecular alterations observed in the various types of tumors of the adrenal cortex, excluding Conn adenomas, especially the alterations identified by genomic approaches these last five years. Two main forms of bilateral adrenocortical tumors can be distinguished according to size and aspect of the nodules: primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease (PPNAD) which can be sporadic or part of Carney complex, and primary bilateral macro nodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH). The bilateral nature of tumors suggests the existence of an underlying genetic predisposition...
December 12, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232016/characterization-of-h3-3-and-hira-expression-and-function-in-bovine-early-embryos
#8
Kun Zhang, Han Wang, Sandeep K Rajput, Joseph K Folger, George W Smith
Histone variant H3.3 is encoded by two distinct genes, H3F3A and H3F3B, that are closely associated with actively transcribed genes. H3.3 replacement is continuous and essential for maintaining correct chromatin structure during mouse oogenesis. Upon fertilization, H3.3 is incorporated to parental chromatin, and is required for blastocyst formation in mice. The H3.3 exchange process is facilitated by the chaperone HIRA, particularly during zygote development. We previously demonstrated that H3.3 is required for bovine early embryonic development; here, we explored the mechanisms of its functional requirement...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230998/-research-progress-on-the-detection-method-of-dna-methylation-and-its-application-in-forensic-science
#9
REVIEW
Y C Nie, L J Yu, H Guan, Y Zhao, H B Rong, B W Jiang, T Zhang
As an important part of epigenetic marker, DNA methylation involves in the gene regulation and attracts a wide spread attention in biological auxology, geratology and oncology fields. In forensic science, because of the relative stable, heritable, abundant, and age-related characteristics, DNA methylation is considered to be a useful complement to the classic genetic markers for age-prediction, tissue-identification, and monozygotic twins' discrimination. Various methods for DNA methylation detection have been validated based on methylation sensitive restriction endonuclease, bisulfite modification and methylation-CpG binding protein...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230377/clinical-significance-of-circulating-immune-cells-in-left-and-right-sided-colon-cancer
#10
Jiabo Di, Meng Zhuang, Hong Yang, Beihai Jiang, Zaozao Wang, Xiangqian Su
Background: Left-sided and right-sided colon cancers (LCCs and RCCs, respectively) differ in their epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetic and epigenetic alterations, molecular pathways and prognosis. Notably, immune response gene expression profiles have been shown to differ between patients with LCC and patients with RCC. The immune system plays an important role in tumor immunosurveillance, and there is increasing evidence that peripheral blood immune cells have a profound influence on tumor prognosis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229664/metabolic-vulnerabilities-of-prostate-cancer-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#11
Giorgia Zadra, Massimo Loda
Cancer cells hijack metabolic pathways to support bioenergetics and biosynthetic requirements for their uncontrolled growth. Thus, cancer can be considered as a metabolic disease. In this review, we discuss the main metabolic features of prostate cancer with a particular focus on the link between oncogene-directed cancer metabolic regulation, metabolism rewiring, and epigenetic regulation. The potential of using metabolic profiling as a means to predict disease behavior and to identify novel therapeutic targets and new diagnostic markers will be addressed as well as the current challenges in metabolomics analyses...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229502/sodium-butyrate-abolishes-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depression-like-behaviors-and-hippocampal-microglial-activation-in-mice
#12
Yosuke Yamawaki, Norika Yoshioka, Kanako Nozaki, Hikaru Ito, Keisuke Oda, Kana Harada, Satomi Shirawachi, Satoshi Asano, Hidenori Aizawa, Shigeto Yamawaki, Takashi Kanemastu, Hiroyuki Akagi
Patients with major depressive disorder have elevated peripheral inflammation; the degree of this increase correlates with the severity of the disorder. Chronic psychological stress increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes microglial activation, leading to stress vulnerability. Epigenetics, including DNA methylation and histone modification, are also related to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Sodium butyrate (SB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, exerts an antidepressant effect by altering gene expression in the hippocampus...
December 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228694/the-ezh2-inhibitor-gsk343-suppresses-cancer-stem-like-phenotypes-and-reverses-mesenchymal-transition-in-glioma-cells
#13
Tianfu Yu, Yingyi Wang, Qi Hu, WeiNing Wu, Youzhi Wu, Wenjin Wei, Dongfeng Han, Yongping You, Ning Lin, Ning Liu
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is the catalytic unit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) which epigenetically silences many genes involved in tumor-suppressive mechanisms via the trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3). We recently found that overexpression of EZH2 was associated with poor outcome of glioblastoma (GBM). In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of the EZH2 inhibitor GSK343 on glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. The proliferation and cell cycle of glioma cells was measured...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228692/epigenetic-landscape-change-analysis-during-human-emt-sheds-light-on-a-key-emt-mediator-trim29
#14
Sung Kyung Choi, Kurinji Pandiyan, Jung Woo Eun, Xiaojing Yang, Seong Hwi Hong, Suk Woo Nam, Peter A Jones, Gangning Liang, Jueng Soo You
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key trans-differentiation process, which plays a critical role in physiology and pathology. Although gene expression changes in EMT have been scrutinized, study of epigenome is in its infancy. To understand epigenetic changes during TWIST-driven EMT, we used the AcceSssIble assay to study DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility in human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). The DNA methylation changes were found to have functional significance in EMT - i.e. methylated genes were enriched for E-box motifs that can be recognized by TWIST, at the promoters suggesting a potential targeting phenomenon, whereas the demethylated regions were enriched for pro-metastatic genes, supporting the role of EMT in metastasis...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226748/epigenetic-biomarkers-current-strategies-and-future-challenges-for-their-use-in-the-clinical-laboratory
#15
José Luis García-Giménez, Marta Seco-Cervera, Trygve O Tollefsbol, Carlos Romá-Mateo, Lorena Peiró-Chova, Pablo Lapunzina, Federico V Pallardó
Epigenetic modifications and regulators represent potential molecular elements which control relevant physiological and pathological features, thereby contributing to the natural history of human disease. These epigenetic modulators can be employed as disease biomarkers, since they show several advantages and provide information about gene function, thus explaining differences among patient endophenotypes. In addition, epigenetic biomarkers can incorporate information regarding the effects of the environment and lifestyle on health and disease, and monitor the effect of applied therapies...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226124/epigenetic-and-neural-circuitry-landscape-of-psychotherapeutic-interventions
#16
REVIEW
Christopher W T Miller
The science behind psychotherapy has garnered considerable interest, as objective measures are being developed to map the patient's subjective change over the course of treatment. Prenatal and early life influences have a lasting impact on how genes are expressed and the manner in which neural circuits are consolidated. Transgenerationally transmitted epigenetic markers as well as templates of enhanced thought flexibility versus evasion can be passed down from parent to child. This influences gene expression/repression (impacting neuroplasticity) and kindling of neurocircuitry which can perpetuate maladaptive cognitive processing seen in a number of psychiatric conditions...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225347/accelerated-epigenetic-aging-and-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
Gabriel R Fries, Isabelle E Bauer, Giselli Scaini, Mon-Ju Wu, Iram F Kazimi, Samira S Valvassori, Giovana Zunta-Soares, Consuelo Walss-Bass, Jair C Soares, Joao Quevedo
Bipolar disorder (BD) has been previously associated with accelerated aging; yet, the mechanisms underlying this association are largely unknown. The epigenetic clock has been increasingly recognized as a valuable aging marker, although its association with other biological clocks in BD patients and high-risk subjects, such as telomere length and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, has never been investigated. We included 22 patients with BD I, 16 siblings of BD patients, and 20 healthy controls in this analysis...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225137/valproic-acid-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-induces-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#18
Nazlıhan Aztopal, Merve Erkisa, Elif Erturk, Engin Ulukaya, Asuman Hatice Tokullugil, Ferda Ari
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a cell subpopulation that can reinitiate tumors, resist chemotherapy, give rise to metastases and lead to disease relapse because of an acquired resistance to apoptosis. Especially, epigenetic alterations play a crucial role in the regulation of stemness and also have been implicated in the development of drug resistance. Hence, in the present study, we examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of valproic acid (VPA) as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) against breast CSCs (BCSCs)...
December 7, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224950/mrna-microrna-and-lncrna-as-novel-bladder-tumor-markers
#19
REVIEW
Edyta Wieczorek, Edyta Reszka
Early detection of bladder cancer (BC) is essential for improvement of the patient's prognosis and general survival rates. Current diagnostic methods are still limited, so new specific and cost-effective biomarkers are emerging as the noninvasive tools in treatment decisions in recurrent BC. Gene expression and epigenetic profile can be analysed using quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) method in urine, blood and tissue. This review provides an update of recent findings on BC molecular profile as novel markers in diagnosis and prognosis of bladder tumors...
December 7, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221125/tctn2-a-novel-tumor-marker-with-oncogenic-properties
#20
David Cano-Rodriguez, Susanna Campagnoli, Alberto Grandi, Matteo Parri, Elisa De Camilli, Chaojun Song, Boquan Jin, Aurelien Lacombe, Andrea Pierleoni, Mauro Bombaci, Chiara Cordiglieri, Marcel Hj Ruiters, Giuseppe Viale, Luigi Terracciano, Paolo Sarmientos, Sergio Abrignani, Guido Grandi, Piero Pileri, Marianne G Rots, Renata Grifantini
Tectonic family member 2 (TCTN2) encodes a transmembrane protein that belongs to the tectonic family, which is involved in ciliary functions. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of tectonics in regulating a variety of signaling pathways at the transition zone of cilia. However, the role of tectonics in cancer is still unclear. Here we identify that TCTN2 is overexpressed in colorectal, lung and ovary cancers. We show that different cancer cell lines express the protein that localizes at the plasma membrane, facing the intracellular milieu...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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