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Preterm birth

Renate Von Linsingen, Geórgia Fernanda Gelmini, Maria da Graça Bicalho, Newton Sérgio De Carvalho
The aim of this case- control study was to investigate the association between preterm birth (PTB), MICA-129 A/G dimorphism and sMICA levels. Fifty pregnant women with singleton pregnancy and previous PTB, or clinic diagnostic of threatened preterm labor in the actual pregnancy, or cervical length less than 25 mm and 50 healthy pregnant women were enrolled. DNA was extracted for genotyping for MICA-129 A/G by real-time PCR and sMICA plasma level was quantified by sandwich ELISA assay. Clinical and socioeconomic characteristics, results of TaqMan® genotyping and ELISA quantification were compared between the groups using qui-square, Fisher´s exact or Mann-Whitney test...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Josephine V Seale, Richard A Hutchinson, Paul F Fleming, Ajay Sinha, Stephen T Kempley, Shahid M Husain, Michael R Millar
BACKGROUND: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality, disproportionately affecting those of extreme prematurity and/or very low birth weight. A number of risk factors have been identified, including an association between the use of antibiotics, and the subsequent development of NEC. AIM: This review sought to address whether the choice of antibiotic(s) used to treat infants with suspected late-onset sepsis (LOS) influences the risk of developing NEC...
July 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Shabir A Madhi, Marta C Nunes
Young infants contribute to relatively high burden of vaccine-preventable diseases, including infections by influenza virus and Bordetella pertussis. Vaccination of pregnant women can enhance transplacental transfer of protective antibody to the fetus and protect the infant against disease during the first few months of life. Pregnant women are a priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination, due to third-trimester pregnancy being a risk-factor for severe influenza illness. Furthermore, randomized controlled trials confirmed that influenza vaccination during pregnancy confers protection against influenza-confirmed illness in the women, and their infants up to 3 months of age; and is also associated with 20% reduction in all-cause pneumonia among young-infants...
July 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Damian Warzecha, Eliza Kobryń, Marta Bagińska, Dorota Bomba-Opoń
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is an unclearly defined condition described as a fetal weight which is too low in relation to gestational age. It is recognized in 10-15% of singleton pregnancies and can lead to severe complications, including stillbirth. To reduce the adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes, many medical interventions are being introduced by obstetricians. These, like all medical procedures, may induce further complications, such as preterm labor and its consequences...
July 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Zongjian Yang, Hai Phung, Louise Freebairn, Rosalind Sexton, Alexandra Raulli, Paul Kelly
AIMS: Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy are known to increase the risk of a range of complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study estimates the population-level contribution of maternal overweight and obesity to adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Data derived from the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Maternal and Perinatal Data Collection were analysed. A total of 24 161 women who had a singleton birth in 2009-2015, with maternal weight and height information available, were included...
July 19, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Abdullah H Baqui, Salahuddin Ahmed, Nazma Begum, Rasheda Khanam, Diwakar Mohan, Meagan Harrison, Ahmed Al Kabir, Catharine McKaig, Neal Brandes, Maureen Norton, Saifuddin Ahmed
Background: Short birth intervals are associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, reduction of rates of short birth intervals is challenging in low-resource settings where majority of the women deliver at home with limited access to family planning services immediately after delivery. This study examines the feasibility of integrating a post-partum family planning intervention package within a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention package, and evaluates the impact of integration on reduction of rates of short birth intervals and preterm births...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Qian-Qian Li, Qian Liu, Jun-Mei Yan, Xian Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the growth and development of very low birth weight (VLBW)/extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants within the corrected age of 6 months and the effect of different feeding patterns on growth and development. METHODS: A total of 109 VLBW/ELBW preterm infants who were discharged from January 2016 to April 2017 and who had completed regular follow-up were enrolled, and their growth and development within the corrected age of 6 months were monitored...
July 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Nadine Wentzell, Tania Schink, Ulrike Haug, Sandra Ulrich, Marieke Niemeyer, Rafael Mikolajczyk
PURPOSE: For studying drug utilization and safety in pregnancy based on administrative health care data, the reliable identification and classification of pregnancy outcomes in the data is essential. We aimed to optimize an existing algorithm for the identification and classification of pregnancy outcomes in the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database (GePaRD) with a particular focus on births. METHODS: We reconsidered all codes used by the original algorithm and applied it to data of GePaRD from 2006 to 2014...
July 18, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Andrea Larson, Lawrence M Berger, David C Mallinson, Eric Grodsky, Deborah B Ehrenthal
Prenatal care coordination programs direct pregnant Medicaid beneficiaries to medical, social, and educational services to improve birth outcomes. Despite the relevance of service context and treatment level to investigations of program implementation and estimates of program effect, prior investigations have not consistently attended to these factors. This study examines the reach and uptake of Wisconsin's Prenatal Care Coordination (PNCC) program among Medicaid-covered, residence occurrence live births between 2008 and 2012...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Can Liu, Bo Vinnerljung, Viveca Östberg, Karl Gauffin, Sol Juarez, Sven Cnattingius, Anders Hjern
OBJECTIVES: Adverse early-life experience may affect preterm delivery later in life through priming of stress response. We aim to investigate the links between out-of-home care (OHC) experience in childhood, as a proxy of severe adversities, on subsequent risk of preterm delivery. METHODS: A register-based national cohort of all women born in Sweden between 1973 and 1977 ( N = 175 821) was crosslinked with information on these women's subsequent deliveries as recorded in the Swedish medical birth register...
July 18, 2018: Pediatrics
Elias Merdassa Roro, Mitike Molla Sisay, Lynn M Sibley
BACKGROUND: Statistics indicate that Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality. It is however estimated that there is high rate of perinatal mortality although there is scarcity of data due to a lack of vital registration in the country. This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing the determinants and causes of perinatal mortality among babies born from cohorts of pregnant women in three selected districts of North Showa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia...
July 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Elizabeth M Stringer, Michelle A Kendall, Shahin Lockman, Thomas B Campbell, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Fred Sawe, Susan Cu-Uvin, Xingye Wu, Judith S Currier
As antiretroviral therapy (ART) expands in resource-limited settings, understanding the impact of ART on pregnancy outcomes is critical. We analyzed women who became pregnant on ART while enrolled in a clinical trial (HPTN 052, ACTG A5208, and ACTG A5175); the majority of women were from Africa, with a median age of 29 years. Eligible women were on ART at conception and had a documented date of a last menstrual period and a pregnancy outcome. The primary outcome was non-live birth (stillbirth; spontaneous abortion; elective termination; or ectopic pregnancy) versus live birth...
2018: PloS One
Maria Dalva Barbosa Baker Méio, Letícia Duarte Villela, Saint Clair Dos Santos Gomes Júnior, Camilla Morcelli Tovar, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira
This paper aims to evaluate the prevalence of breastfeeding among premature infants following hospital discharge. Cohort (< 33 gestation weeks) followed up to 12 months (adjusted age). VARIABLES: breastfeeding, anthropometric measurements, social and family information. The proportion of breastfeeding during follow-up was calculated. Survival analysis was conducted to estimate breastfeeding duration. In total, 242 of the 258 infants (93.7%) returned to follow-up; 170 (69.9%) at 6 months and 139 (57...
July 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Bethany G Everett, Michelle A Kominiarek, Stefanie Mollborn, Daniel E Adkins, Tonda L Hughes
Objectives Little is known about maternal and infant health among sexual minority women (SMW), despite the large body of research documenting their multiple preconception risk factors. This study used data from the 2006-2015 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to investigate sexual orientation inequities in pregnancy and birth outcomes, including miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth weight. Methods Women reported 19,955 study eligible pregnancies and 15,996 singleton live births. Sexual orientation was measured using self-reported identity and histories of same-sex sexual experiences (heterosexual-WSM [women who only report sex with men]; heterosexual-WSW [women who report sex with women]; bisexual, and lesbian)...
July 17, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
James G Huang, Shi Hua Chan, Le Ye Lee
INTRODUCTION: We studied the effects of ethnicity on early infant growth patterns in exclusively breast-fed (EBF) infants from a Singaporean multiethnic population. This was a prospective cohort study conducted in National University Hospital, Singapore. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy, EBF infants born at-term completing 37 weeks and above, and whose birthweight was appropriate for gestational age (>10th centile, <90th centile) were recruited. Infants were required to be EBF at least until the minimum age of weaning...
June 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Mikko Hirvonen, Riitta Ojala, Päivi Korhonen, Paula Haataja, Kai Eriksson, Mika Gissler, Tiina Luukkaala, Outi Tammela
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine and compare the incidences of sensory impairments among very preterm (VP) (<32 + 0/7 weeks), moderately preterm (MP) (32 + 0/7-33 + 6/7 weeks), late preterm (LP) (34 + 0/7-36 + 6/7 weeks), and term infants (≥37 weeks) and to establish risk factors of neurosensory disabilities. METHODS: This national register study included all live-born infants in Finland between 1991 and 2008. Infants who died before the age of 1 year, who had any major congenital anomaly, or had missing data were excluded ( n = 21 007; 2...
July 17, 2018: Pediatrics
Shikha Pundir, Johanna Mäkelä, Anu Nuora, Niina Junttila, Clare Rosemary Wall, Kaisa Linderborg, David Cameron-Smith, Hanna Lagström
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Human milk (HM) contains a wide array of non-nutritive bioactive elements, including glucocorticoid hormones (glucocorticoid; cortisol and cortisone). The relationship between milk-borne glucocorticoids, measures of maternal health and patterns of breast-feeding is not yet established. This study was conducted to determine the influence of maternal and infant related biological and socio-demographic factors on the levels of glucocorticoids hormones in HM. METHODS: Samples were obtained from lactating mothers (n = 656) participating in the Finnish cohort the STEPS study (Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children) when the infants were 11...
July 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hiroko Iwami, Tetsuya Isayama, Abhay Lodha, Rody Canning, Ayman Abou Mehrem, Shoo K Lee, Anne Synnes, Prakesh S Shah
OBJECTIVE:  The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between neonatal seizure and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18 to 24 months in extremely preterm neonates. The association between anticonvulsants use and NDI was also assessed. STUDY DESIGN:  In this retrospective cohort study of infants born at <29 weeks' gestation from the Canadian Neonatal Network and Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Network databases, we compared mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants who had neonatal seizures with those without seizures after adjusting for confounders...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Ashley N Battarbee, Mark A Clapp, Kim A Boggess, Anjali Kaimal, Carrie Snead, Jay Schulkin, Sofia Aliaga
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to measure knowledge and practice variation in late preterm steroid use. STUDY DESIGN:  Electronic survey of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) members about data supporting the ACOG/Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) recommendations and practice when caring for women with anticipated late preterm birth (PTB), 340/7 to 366/7 weeks. RESULTS:  Of 352 administered surveys, we obtained 193 completed responses (55%); 82...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Zhi Zhang, Shilpa Narayan, Lilly Su, Hanaa Al-Alawyat, Jinhuan Liu, Sujatha Kannan
Cerebellum is involved in higher cognitive functions and plays important roles in neurological disorders. Cerebellar injury has been detected frequently in patients with preterm birth resulting in cognitive dysfunction later in life. Maternal infection and inflammation is associated with preterm birth and in neonatal brain injury. We have previously shown that intrauterine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure induces white matter injury and microglial activation in the cerebral white matter tracts of neonatal rabbits, resulting in motor deficits consistent with the clinical findings of cerebral palsy (CP)...
July 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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