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Preterm birth

Hannes Sallmon, Sven C Weber, Juliane Dirks, Tamara Schiffer, Tamara Klippstein, Anja Stein, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Boris Metze, Georg Hansmann, Christoph Bührer, Malte Cremer, Petra Koehne
Background: The role of platelets for mediating closure of the ductus arteriosus in human preterm infants is controversial. Especially, the effect of low platelet counts on pharmacological treatment failure is still unclear. Methods: In this retrospective study of 471 preterm infants [<1,500 g birth weight (BW)], who were treated for a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with indomethacin or ibuprofen, we investigated whether platelet counts before or during pharmacological treatment had an impact on the successful closure of a hemodynamically significant PDA...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Ashish A Ahuja, Yerahaia C V Reddy, Olukorede O Adenuga, Dheeraj Kewlani, Meenakshi Ravindran, Rengappa Ramakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, and associated risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a district in South India. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, cohort study involving babies at risk of ROP conducted in five Neonatal Intensive Care Units in a district in Tamil Nadu, South India. All babies with gestational age at birth of ≤36 weeks and a birth weight (BW) of ≤1900 g with a follow-up period of at least 6 months were enrolled for the study...
January 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
R A Shanmugha Priya, R Krishnamoorthy, Vinod Kumar Panicker, Binu Ninan
BACKGROUND: Lack of recent studies focusing on indications, pattern, and benefits of transfusions in low birth weight (B.Wt) and low gestational age (GA) preterm neonates prompted us to undertake this study. AIM: To estimate the transfusion requirements and outcomes in preterm neonates <1500 g and/or <32 weeks. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 2 years in a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted with 101 preterm neonates <1500 g and/or <32 weeks who received blood transfusions in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Maria Tølbøll Glavind, Maja Vedel Møllgaard, Maja Lundegaard Iversen, Linn Håkonsen Arendt, Axel Forman
Increasing evidence suggests that pregnant women with endometriosis have a higher risk of adverse obstetrical complications. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing literature on this aspect. A PubMed/MEDLINE search was performed from its inception until September 2017 for studies on adverse obstetrical complications in pregnant women with endometriosis, including: preeclampsia, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), antepartum hemorrhage, spontaneous hemoperitoneum, spontaneous bowel perforation, preterm birth, cesarean delivery, stillbirth and postpartum hemorrhage...
February 21, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Jenny Peng, Niels Rochow, Mohammadhossein Dabaghi, Radenka Bozanovic, Jan Jansen, Dragos Predescu, Bryon DeFrance, Sau-Young Lee, Gerhard Fusch, Ponnambalam Ravi Selvaganapathy, Christoph Fusch
INTRODUCTION: A lung assist device, which acts as an artificial placenta, can provide additional gas exchange for preterm and term newborns with respiratory failure. The concept of the lung assist device requires a large bore access via umbilical vessels to allow pumpless extracorporeal blood flow rates up to 30 mL/kg/min. After birth, constricted umbilical vessels need to be reopened for vascular access. The objective is to study the impact of umbilical vessel expansion on vessel integrity for achieving large bore access...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Tomas Matejek, Martina Navratilova, Lenka Zaloudkova, Jana Malakova, Jan Maly, Sylva Skalova, Vladimir Palicka
PURPOSE: The aim of this pilot study was to estimate physiological parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and their relationship with bone metabolism parameters in otherwise healthy preterm newborns with birth weight 1000-1500 g. METHODS: PTH, 25(OH)D, S-Ca, S-P, and ALP were analysed from blood samples obtained from 20 preterm infants once a week up to the 36th gestational week. RESULTS: Of the total 134 examined serum samples for PTH levels, the estimated range was 1...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Valentina Cardiello, Enrico Zecca, Mirta Corsello, Teresa Pianini, Francesca Serrao, Simonetta Costa, Francesco Cota
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremic dehydration is a complication of preterm infants with reportedly high morbility. In preterm infants, this happens due to a combination of low fluid intake, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and immaturity of kidney function. Semipermeable membranes are self-adhesive membranes that can be applied as an artificial skin to reduce TEWL. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that early application of a semipermeable membrane (Tegaderm™) in preterm infants ≤30 weeks could result in a significant reduction of hypernatremia (serum Na > 145 mEq/l) during the first 15 days of life...
March 18, 2018: Early Human Development
Junichi Sugawara, Noriyuki Iwama, Tetsuro Hoshiai, Hideki Tokunaga, Hidekazu Nishigori, Hirohito Metoki, Kunihiro Okamura, Nobuo Yaegashi
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to analyze post-disaster birth outcomes in coastal and inland regions of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. METHODS: Primary data sets were compiled from birth records of obstetric facilities and 12,808 patients were analyzed for baseline birth outcomes by region. Regional risk analysis of the low-birth-weight rate and premature birth rate were conducted using multi-level logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: From overall baseline birth outcomes, a preterm birth rate was 4...
March 21, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Núria Baños, Carla Julià, Núria Lorente, Silvia Ferrero, Teresa Cobo, Eduard Gratacos, Montse Palacio
Background  Short cervical length (CL) has not been shown to be adequate as a single predictor of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) in high-risk pregnancies. Objective  The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the mid-trimester cervical consistency index (CCI) to predict sPTB in a cohort of high-risk pregnancies and to compare the results with those obtained with the CL. Study Design  Prospective cohort study including high-risk singleton pregnancies between 19+0 and 24+6 weeks. The ratio between the anteroposterior diameter of the uterine cervix at maximum compression and at rest was calculated offline to obtain the CCI...
January 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Lucy Mackillop, Jane Elizabeth Hirst, Katy Jane Bartlett, Jacqueline Susan Birks, Lei Clifton, Andrew J Farmer, Oliver Gibson, Yvonne Kenworthy, Jonathan Cummings Levy, Lise Loerup, Oliver Rivero-Arias, Wai-Kit Ming, Carmelo Velardo, Lionel Tarassenko
BACKGROUND: Treatment of hyperglycemia in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with improved maternal and neonatal outcomes and requires intensive clinical input. This is currently achieved by hospital clinic attendance every 2 to 4 weeks with limited opportunity for intervention between these visits. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether the use of a mobile phone-based real-time blood glucose management system to manage women with GDM remotely was as effective in controlling blood glucose as standard care through clinic attendance...
March 20, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
L Ormesher, E D Johnstone, E Shawkat, A Dempsey, C Chmiel, E Ingram, L E Higgins, J E Myers
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of plasma Placental Growth Factor (PlGF), recommended by the recent NICE guidance, in women with suspected pre-eclampsia (PE) and/or fetal growth restriction (FGR). STUDY DESIGN: Non-randomised prospective clinical evaluation study in high-risk antenatal clinics in a tertiary maternity unit. METHODS: PlGF testing was performed in addition to routine clinical assessment in 260 women >20 weeks' gestation with chronic disease (hypertension, renal disease ± diabetes) with a change in maternal condition or in women with suspected FGR to determine the impact on clinical management...
March 13, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Vanesa Bellou, Lazaros Belbasis, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Evangelos Evangelou
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic associated with increased health expenditure, and low quality of life. Many non-genetic risk factors have been suggested, but their overall epidemiological credibility has not been assessed. METHODS: We searched PubMed to capture all meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization studies for risk factors of T2DM. For each association, we estimated the summary effect size, its 95% confidence and prediction interval, and the I2 metric...
2018: PloS One
Neha Bairoliya, Günther Fink
BACKGROUND: While the high prevalence of preterm births and its impact on infant mortality in the US have been widely acknowledged, recent data suggest that even full-term births in the US face substantially higher mortality risks compared to European countries with low infant mortality rates. In this paper, we use the most recent birth records in the US to more closely analyze the primary causes underlying mortality rates among full-term births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Linked birth and death records for the period 2010-2012 were used to identify the state- and cause-specific burden of infant mortality among full-term infants (born at 37-42 weeks of gestation)...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Ajay P Anvekar, Piyush S Shah, Elizabeth A Nathan, Dorota A Doherty, Sanjay K Patole, Karen N Simmer
OBJECTIVE: To assess if high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is associated with reduced odds of death or discharge home on oxygen in preterm infants. METHODS: A case control study (1 February 2010 - 1 June 2014) comparing the primary outcome as "death or discharge home on oxygen" in preterm infants who needed HFJV (Cases) versus those who did not (Controls). Controls were matched to cases (1:1) on gestation, birthweight, gender, place of birth, growth status, antenatal glucocorticoids, and dexamethasone as treatment for severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
An Eerdekens, Lies Langouche, Fabian Güiza, Johan Verhaeghe, Gunnar Naulaers, Christine Vanhole, Greet Van den Berghe
BACKGROUND: During pregnancy, maternal thyroid hormone supply is crucial for fetal development. Preterm infants often present with hypothyroxinemia. Preterm birth, either spontaneous or medically indicated, is always the result of a complicated pregnancy. We hypothesized that in preterm birth, the maternal transplacental thyroid hormone supply is influenced by the pregnancy complication and we questioned whether maternal and placental compensatory mechanisms are activated to increase thyroid hormone transfer...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Shruti Shambhavi, Rashmi Bagga, Pallavi Bansal, Jasvinder Kalra, Praveen Kumar
For prevention of a recurrent preterm birth (PTB), intramuscular 17-α-hydroxy progesterone caproate (IM 17 OHPC) weekly is recommended. Vaginal progesterone is preferred for women at risk for PTB due to a short cervical length, but may be useful in women with a prior PTB. However, there is no consensus about the optimal vaginal formulation or its efficacy as compared to 17 OHPC to prevent recurrent PTB. We randomised 100 women with a singleton pregnancy between 16 and 24 weeks of gestation and ≥ one prior spontaneous PTB, of a singleton (>16 to <37 weeks of gestation) to receive the 200 mg vaginal progesterone effervescent tablet daily (Group A) or IM 17-OHPC, 250 mg weekly (Group B) till 37 weeks of gestation or delivery...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Alison S Poulton, Bruce Armstrong, Ralph K Nanan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common and may require treatment in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the treatment patterns and perinatal outcomes of women with any history of stimulant treatment for ADHD. METHODS: We used health records of the New South Wales (NSW, Australia) population to compare perinatal outcomes of women treated with stimulants (dexamphetamine or methylphenidate) for ADHD from 1982 to 2012 who gave birth between 1994 and 2012, with perinatal outcomes of women with no known ADHD or stimulant treatment (comparison cohort)...
March 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
John R Weinstein, Lisa M Thompson, Anaité Díaz Artiga, Joe P Bryan, William E Arriaga, Saad B Omer, John P McCracken
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of death among children <5 years of age. Accurate determination of prematurity is necessary to provide appropriate neonatal care and guide preventive measures. To estimate the most accurate method to identify infants at risk for adverse outcomes, we assessed the validity of two widely available methods-last menstrual period (LMP) and the New Ballard (NB) neonatal assessment-against ultrasound in determining gestational age and preterm birth in highland Guatemala...
2018: PloS One
Filiz Mine Çizmecioğlu, Jeremy Huw Jones, Wendy Forsyth Paterson, Sakina Kherra, Mariam Kourime, Ruth McGowan, M Guftar Shaikh, Malcolm Donaldson
OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis is of proven benefit in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We therefore examined key perinatal features to aid early recognition. METHODS: Data were collected from case records of subjects attending a multi-disciplinary clinic and from a retrospective birth questionnaire. RESULTS: Ninety patients (54 male: 36 female) were seen between 1991-2015, most with paternal deletion (n=56) or maternal isodisomy (n=26). Features included cryptorchidism in 94% males, preterm birth (26%), birthweight <2500g (24%), polyhydramnios (23%), breech presentation (23%) and need for nasogastric feeding (83%)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Kay D Beharry, Charles L Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Sibel Guzel, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda
Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) followed by re-oxygenation in normoxia or supplemental oxygen (IHR) increases the risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The exact timing for the onset of retinal damage which may guide strategic interventions during retinal development, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure of the immature retina to neonatal IH induces early manifestations of retinal damage that can be utilized as key time points for strategic pharmacologic intervention. Newborn rats were exposed to IH within 2 hours of birth (P0) until P14, or allowed to recover in room air (RA) from P14 to P21 (IHR)...
2018: Journal of Nature and Science
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