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Preterm birth

Susanne Hesselman, Maria Jonsson, Eva-Britta Råssjö, Monika Windling, Ulf Högberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the maternal complications associated with cesarean section (CS) in the extremely preterm period according to the gestational week (GW) and to indication of delivery. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective case-referent study with a review of medical records of women who delivered at 22-27 weeks of gestation (n=647) at two level III units in Sweden. For abdominal delivery, gestational length was stratified into 22-24 (n=105) and 25-27 (n=301) weeks...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Prabha H Andraweera, Gustaaf A Dekker, Shalem Leemaqz, Lesley McCowan, Claire T Roberts
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the FTO rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), which is a risk factor for obesity and vascular diseases, is also associated with pregnancy complications including pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, small for gestational age pregnancy (SGA), and spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). METHODS: A case-control study of 1,741 nulliparous Caucasian women, their partners, and infants was conducted. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood or saliva from parents and cord blood from infants and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY system...
October 21, 2016: Obesity
Maria do Carmo Leal, Ana Paula Esteves-Pereira, Marcos Nakamura-Pereira, Jacqueline Alves Torres, Mariza Theme-Filha, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Maria Elizabeth Moreira, Silvana Granado Gama
BACKGROUND: The rate of preterm birth has been increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. This constitutes a significant public health challenge because of the higher levels of morbidity and mortality and long-term health effects associated with preterm birth. This study describes and quantifies factors affecting spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm birth in Brazil. METHODS: Data are from the 2011-2012 "Birth in Brazil" study, which used a national population-based sample of 23,940 women...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Maria Elisabeth Moreira, Ana Paula Esteves Pereira, Saint Clair Gomes Junior, Ruth Guinsburg, Maria Fernanda Branco de Almeida, Silvana Granado Gama, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: Approximately 5-10 % of newborns require some form of resuscitationupon delivery; several factors, such as maternal abnormal conditions, gestational age and type of delivery could be responsible for this trend. This study aimed to describe the factors associated with the need for positive pressure ventilation (PPV) via a mask or endotracheal tube and the use of supplemental O2 in newborns with a gestational age greater than 34 weeks in Brazil. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study and obtained data from the Birth in Brazil Survey...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Ejaz Ahmad, Mohammad S Jamal, Mohd Rehan, Mourad Assidi, Iftikhar A Tayubi, Samera F AlBasri, Osama S Bajouh, Rola F Turki, Adel M Abuzenadah, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Mohd A Beg, Mohammed Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB), birth at <37 weeks of gestation, is a significant global public health problem. World-wide, about 15 million babies are born preterm each year resulting in more than a million deaths of children. Preterm neonates are more prone to problems and need intensive care hospitalization. Health issues may persist through early adulthood and even be carried on to the next generation. Majority (70 %) of PTBs are spontaneous with about a half without any apparent cause and the other half associated with a number of risk factors...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Mariza Miranda Theme-Filha, Marcia Leonardi Baldisserotto, Ana Claudia Santos Amaral Fraga, Susan Ayers, Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy, a pregnancy that have been either unwanted or mistimed, is a serious public health issue in Brazil. It is reported for more than half of women who gave birth in the country, but the characteristics of women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence and the association between unintended pregnancy and a set of sociodemographic characteristics, individual-level variables and history of obstetric outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Marcos Nakamura-Pereira, Maria do Carmo Leal, Ana Paula Esteves-Pereira, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Jacqueline Alves Torres, Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Maria Elisabeth Moreira
BACKGROUND: Cesarean section (CS) rates are increasing worldwide but there is some concern with this trend because of potential maternal and perinatal risks. The Robson classification is the standard method to monitor and compare CS rates. Our objective was to analyze CS rates in Brazil according to source of payment for childbirth (public or private) using the Robson classification. METHODS: Data are from the 2011-2012 "Birth in Brazil" study, which used a national hospital-based sample of 23,940 women...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Satoko Kinomoto-Kondo, Nagayoshi Umehara, Shiori Sato, Kohei Ogawa, Takeo Fujiwara, Naoko Arata, Haruhiko Sago
PURPOSE: To study the effects of gestational transient thyrotoxicosis (GTT) on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: This case-control study retrospectively analyzed 7976 women with singleton pregnancies whose thyroid function was measured before 16 weeks of gestation and who delivered at ≥22 weeks of pregnancy. GTT was defined as hyperthyroidism (free thyroxine [FT4] level: ≥95th percentile) in the early pregnancy, which normalized in mid-pregnancy without thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Nathalie Charpak, Juan Gabriel Ruiz
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a human-based care intervention devised to complement neonatal care for low birth weight and premature infants. Kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest) offers thermal regulation, physiological stability, appropriate stimulation and enhances bonding and breastfeeding. Kangaroo nutrition is based on breastfeeding and kangaroo discharge policy relies on family empowerment and early discharge in kangaroo position with close ambulatory follow-up. We describe how the evidence has been developed, and how it has been put into practice by means of direct preterm infants care and dissemination of the method, including training of KMC excellence centers in many countries not only in Latin America but worldwide...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
M Schneider, I Schmeh, A Fruth, C Whybra-Trümpler, E Mildenberger
Monozygotic twins were previously regarded as "identical". By now an increasing number of case reports of monozygotic but discordant twins have been reported, and therefore discordance between monozygotic twins is being investigated intensively. We report a case of female preterm monozygotic twins who were discordant for fetal megacystis due to cloacal dysgenesis. Pregnancy was achieved after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection and transfer of 2 embryos. By the first trimester fetal megacystis with consecutive oligohydramnios and hypoplasia of the lungs was diagnosed...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
Reshama Navathe, Vincenzo Berghella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tocolytic agents have been used for over 60 years in the fight against preterm labor, which ultimately can lead to preterm birth. Currently, clinicians can choose from a variety of drug classes to achieve the primary goal of delaying delivery by 48 h, thereby allowing time for administration of corticosteroids for fetal lung maturity, and if appropriate, starting magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection. However, there are currently no known therapies to maintain the tocolytic effect beyond those initial 48 h...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
L Murli, A Thukral, M J Sankar, S Vishnubhatla, A K Deorari, V K Paul, A Sakariah, Dolma, R Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measured from shielded skin and serum total bilirubin (STB) in infants (34 to 41 weeks of gestation) with hyperbilirubinemia receiving phototherapy (PT). STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective cohort study, we shielded a small area of skin on sternum using a commercial photo-opaque patch (BilEclipseTM, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA). The TcB from the shielded skin (TcBs) and STB were measured at four time points-before initiation, 12 and 24 h during and once after (12 h) cessation of PT...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Linling Zhu, Yu Zhang, Yifeng Liu, Runjv Zhang, Yiqing Wu, Yun Huang, Feng Liu, Meigen Li, Saijun Sun, Lanfeng Xing, Yimin Zhu, Yiyi Chen, Li Xu, Liangbi Zhou, Hefeng Huang, Dan Zhang
This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006-2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kai König, Katelyn J Guy, Claudia A Nold-Petry, Charles P Barfield, Geraldine Walsh, Sandra M Drew, Alex Veldman, Marcel F Nold, Dan M Casalaz
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is often complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH). We investigated three biomarkers potentially suitable as screening markers for extremely preterm infants at risk of BPD-associated PH. In this prospective observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit, 83 preterm infants with BPD born <28 weeks gestation and still inpatients at 36 weeks corrected age received an echocardiogram and blood tests of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), troponin I, and YKL-40...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Roseanne J S Vliegenthart, Christine H Ten Hove, Wes Onland, Anton H L C van Kaam
BACKGROUND: Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common complication of preterm birth, for which caffeine is the first treatment of choice. In case of persistent AOP, doxapram has been advocated as an additional therapy. OBJECTIVE: To identify and appraise all existing evidence regarding efficacy and safety of doxapram use for AOP in infants born before 34 weeks of gestational age. METHODS: All studies reporting on doxapram use for AOP were identified by searching electronic databases, references from relevant studies, and abstracts from the Societies for Pediatric Research...
October 20, 2016: Neonatology
G Chistyakova, I Gazieva, I Remizova, L Ustyantseva, V Lyapunov, S Bychkova
We conducted a study of markers of endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis regulation, as well as the identification of the main lymphocyte populations, activated CD3 (+) CD95(+)-cells and cytokine-producing CD4 (+) IFN-γ(+)-, CD4 (+) IL-4(+ )-lymphocytes in the 1st trimester of gestation in women with ART-induced pregnancy and spontaneous pregnancy. We used the same indicators to assess the immune status of ELBW infants at birth and at the post-conceptual age of 38-40 weeks. It was determined that the risk factors of very early preterm delivery are: threatened miscarriage, chronic placental insufficiency, endothelial dysfunction, increased spontaneous production of intracellular cytokines...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
E G Deryabina, G V Yakornova, L A Pestryaeva, N D Sandyreva
Preterm birth is defined as all births before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Preterm birth can be further sub-divided based on gestational age: extremely preterm (<28 weeks), very preterm (28 to <32 weeks) and moderate preterm (32 to <37 weeks). Retrospective observational case-control study review (1 year i.e., 2015) is to assess pregnancy outcome among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) delivering very preterm (28 + 0/7 to 31 + 6/7 weeks of gestation). The study group included all women diagnosed with GDM and were compared to a control group of women delivering at the same gestational age period but without GDM...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Ellis Voerman, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Eric A P Steegers, Romy Gaillard
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to identify critical periods and specific longitudinal growth patterns from fetal life onwards associated with childhood insulin and C-peptide levels. METHODS: In a prospective population-based cohort study of 4328 children, we repeatedly measured (femur) length and (estimated fetal) weight from the second trimester of fetal life until 6 years of age. BMI was calculated from 6 months onwards. Insulin and C-peptide levels were measured at 6 years of age...
October 18, 2016: Diabetologia
Sylvie Chokron, Gordon N Dutton
Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) has become the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in children in industrialized countries. Its prevalence has increased sharply, due to increased survival rates of children who sustain severe neurological conditions during the perinatal period. Improved diagnosis has probably contributed to this increase. As in adults, the nature and severity of CVI in children relate to the cause, location and extent of damage to the brain. In the present paper, we define CVI and how this impacts on visual function...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Judith Kikhney, Dinah von Schöning, Ina Steding, Julia Schulze, Annett Petrich, Andreas Hiergeist, Udo Reischl, Annette Moter, Anke Thomas
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to detect microorganisms in foetal membranes and placental tissue in preterm chorioamnionitis by combining FISH with broad range PCR. The combination of the two molecular techniques enables identification and localization of the microorganisms within the tissue, confirming their clinical relevance. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we compared 31 patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes or preterm labour and preterm delivery by caesarean section with a control group of 26 participants with elective caesarean section at term...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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