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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679528/intravoxel-incoherent-motion-diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-primary-rectal-carcinoma-correlation-with-histopathology
#1
Baolan Lu, Xinyue Yang, Xiaojuan Xiao, Yan Chen, Xu Yan, Shenping Yu
BACKGROUND Comprehensive and precise assessment of rectal carcinoma is crucial before surgery to plan an individual treatment strategy. New functional techniques, such as intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), have emerged and could lead to more detailed information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between the rectal tumor parenchyma and normal wall by IVIM and to explore the correlations of IVIM parameters and histopathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS We prospectively enrolled 128 patients with pathologically proven rectal non-mucinous carcinoma with differentiation degree and 16 patients with mucinous carcinoma...
April 21, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679245/a-systematic-review-of-minimally-invasive-surgery-for-retrorectal-tumors
#2
REVIEW
T G Mullaney, A L Lightner, M Johnston, S R Kelley, D W Larson, E J Dozois
Retrorectal tumors are rare tumors that require resection for symptoms, malignancy and potential malignant transformation. Traditional approaches have included laparotomy, perineal excision or a combination. Multiple minimally invasive techniques are available which have the potential to minimize morbidity and enhance recovery. We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the feasibility and surgical outcomes of retrorectal tumors approached using minimally invasive surgical techniques. Publications in which adult patients (≥ 18 years) had a minimally invasive approach (laparoscopic or robotic) for resection of a primary retrorectal tumor were included...
April 20, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678529/total-mesorectal-excision-versus-local-excision-after-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer-with-lymph-node-metastasis-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#3
Young Seob Shin, Jin-Hong Park, Sang Min Yoon, Jin Cheon Kim, Chang Sik Yu, Seok-Byung Lim, In Ja Park, Tae Won Kim, Yong Sang Hong, Kyu-Pyo Kim, Eun Kyung Choi, Seung Do Ahn, Sang-Wook Lee, Jong Hoon Kim
PURPOSE: To determine whether local excision (LE) outcomes were comparable to total mesorectal excision (TME) outcomes in node-positive (cN+) rectal cancer patients who were good responders. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This retrospective study included clinical T2-3 and cN+ low rectal cancer patient who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) followed by TME or LE. Clinical stage T1 or T4 tumors, upper-to-middle rectal tumors (>7 cm from anal verge), and synchronous distant metastases were excluded...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678303/tumor-response-after-long-interval-comparing-5x5gy-radiation-therapy-with-chemoradiation-therapy-in-rectal-cancer-patients
#4
A J M Rombouts, N Hugen, R H A Verhoeven, M A G Elferink, P M P Poortmans, I D Nagtegaal, J H W de Wilt
BACKGROUND: In the era of organ preserving strategies in rectal cancer, insight into the efficacy of preoperative therapies is crucial. The goal of the current study was to evaluate and compare tumor response in rectal cancer patients according to their type of preoperative therapy. METHODS: All rectal cancer patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2014, receiving radiation therapy (RT, 5 × 5Gy; N = 764) or chemoradiation therapy (CRT; N = 5070) followed by total mesorectal excision after an interval of 5-15 weeks were retrieved from the nationwide Netherlands Cancer registry...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675892/dna-repair-protein-xpa-is-differentially-expressed-in-colorectal-cancer-and-predicts-better-prognosis
#5
Xue Feng, Jingwei Liu, Yuehua Gong, Kaihua Gou, Huaiwei Yang, Yuan Yuan, Chengzhong Xing
As an indispensable factor in DNA damage recognition step of nucleotide excision repair, XPA interacts with a series of proteins to initiate repair process. The expression characteristics of XPA in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its influence on CRC prognosis remain elusive. Tissue specimens of CRC and nontumor adjacent tissues from 283 patients were collected. XPA protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry staining. Nonparametric test was used to investigate the difference of XPA expression between CRC and nontumor adjacent tissues, as well as the correlation between XPA expression and clinicopathological parameters of CRC...
April 19, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674444/adjuvant-chemotherapy-seemed-not-to-have-survival-benefit-in-rectal-cancer-patients-with-yptis-2n0-after-preoperative-radiotherapy-and-surgery-from-a-population-based-propensity-score-analysis
#6
Xiang Hu, Ya-Qi Li, Qing-Guo Li, Yan-Lei Ma, Jun-Jie Peng, San-Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently offered routinely, as standard, after radical resection for patients with rectal cancer receiving neo-adjuvant chemoradiation. However, the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with ypTis-2N0M0 has not been documented to the same extent, and the survival benefit remained controversial. The purpose of this work was to determine the role of chemotherapy in patients with ypTis-2N0M0 classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database ( n  = 4,217)...
April 19, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674013/the-tipping-point-key-oncologic-imaging-findings-resulting-in-critical-changes-in-the-management-of-malignant-tumors-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan Wu, Lipika Goyal, Ryan Nipp, Jennifer Wo, Motaz Qadan, Raul N Uppot
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review tumor staging systems for gastrointestinal tumors including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma, rectal carcinoma, and anal carcinoma and identify the key imaging findings ("tipping points"), which change patient management based on changes in tumor staging. CONCLUSION: For all malignant gastrointestinal tumors, there are key imaging findings ("tipping points") including tumor size, tumor extension, lymphadenopathy, vascular invasion, and distant metastasis that dictate patient management and prognosis, based on changes in tumor stage...
January 31, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672311/inverse-association-of-prostatic-chronic-inflammation-among-prostate-cancer-tumor-grade-groups-retrospective-study-of-738-consecutive-cases-elected-to-a-first-random-biopsy-set
#8
Antonio Benito Porcaro, Alessandro Tafuri, Giovanni Novella, Marco Sebben, Arianna Mariotto, Davide Inverardi, Paolo Corsi, Tania Processali, Marco Pirozzi, Nelia Amigoni, Riccardo Rizzetto, Matteo Brunelli, Matteo Balzarro, Salvatore Siracusano, Walter Artibani
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to evaluate associations of prostatic chronic inflammation (PCI) with prostate cancer (PCA) grade groups by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP). METHODS: The study evaluated retrospectively 738 cases. The patient population was sampled into 3 groups collecting cases without and with PCA including subjects with lSUP grade group 1 and grade groups 2-5. RESULTS: PCI was assessed in 185 patients (25...
April 19, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668359/laparoscopic-total-mesorectal-excision-following-transanal-endoscopic-microsurgery-for-rectal-cancer
#9
Nidal Issa, Yaniv Fenig, Rachel Gingold-Belfer, Muhammad Khatib, Wisam Khoury, Lea Wolfson, Hemda Schmilovitz-Weiss
BACKGROUND: Patients' selection for transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) depends on diagnostic modalities; however, there are still some limitations in the preoperative diagnosis of rectal lesions, and in some reports, up to third of the adenomas resected by TEM were found to be adenocarcinoma; therefore, salvage radical resection (RR) remains necessary for achieving oncological resection. Salvage RR may encounter some technical problems as the violation of the mesorectum and the scar formation...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667217/secondary-prostate-cancer-screening-outcomes-by-race-in-the-prostate-lung-colorectal-and-ovarian-plco-screening-trial
#10
Eric A Miller, Paul F Pinsky, Amanda Black, Gerald L Andriole, Dudith Pierre-Victor
BACKGROUND: Despite disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates between black and white men, there is still insufficient data available to assess potential differences in the benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening by race. Although the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Screening Trial is underpowered to detect a difference by race in prostate-cancer specific mortality, because of the large study size, there are still sufficient numbers to examine secondary screening outcomes...
April 17, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665665/-risk-factors-for-low-anterior-resection-syndrome
#11
G J Wu, W W Jia, Q An, T Yu, X L Cao, G Xiao
Objective: While low anterior resection avoided a permanent stoma, it might also cause bowel dysfunction which can significantly impact patients' quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence and risk factors for the development of bowel dysfunction following rectal surgery. Methods: Patients undergoing anterior resection for rectal neoplasm between January 2010 and December 2015 were identified from a rectal cancer database at the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Beijing Hospital...
March 27, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664795/impact-of-right-sided-primary-tumor-location-among-patients-with-oligometastatic-colorectal-cancer-treated-with-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#12
James E Bates, Gyujae Choi, Kenneth Y Usuki, Alan W Katz, Michael T Milano
INTRODUCTION: Among patients with colorectal cancer, those with right-sided primary tumors have worse outcomes in both the primary and metastatic setting. Patients with oligometastatic colorectal cancer (OMCC) have improved prognosis relative to those with diffusely metastatic disease. We aimed to assess if the trend toward worse outcomes with right-sided tumors remained in the oligometastatic setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 31 patients treated at a single institution with stereotactic body radiotherapy for OMCC from 2011 to 2014 to assess the impact that primary tumor location had on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS)...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663854/cyclin-dependent-kinase-1-targeting-improves-sensitivity-to-radiation-in-braf-v600e-colorectal-carcinoma-cells
#13
Girolamo Spagnoletti, Valeria Li Bergolis, Annamaria Piscazzi, Francesca Giannelli, Valentina Condelli, Lorenza Sisinni, Giuseppe Bove, Giovanni Storto, Matteo Landriscina
OBJECTIVES: Preoperative chemoradiation is currently the standard of care in locally advanced rectal carcinoma, even though a subset of rectal tumors does not achieve major clinically meaningful responses upon neoadjuvant chemoradiation. At present, no molecular biomarkers are available to predict response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation and select resistant tumors willing more intense therapeutic strategies. Thus, BRAF mutational status was investigated for its role in favoring resistance to radiation in colorectal carcinoma cell lines and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 as a target to improve radiosensitivity in BRAF V600E colorectal tumor cells...
April 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663417/technical-note-a-deep-learning-based-auto-segmentation-of-rectal-tumors-in-mr-images
#14
Jiazhou Wang, Jiayu Lu, Gan Qin, Lijun Shen, Yiqun Sun, Hongmei Ying, Zhen Zhang, Weigang Hu
PURPOSE: Manual contouring of gross tumor volumes (GTV) is a crucial and time-consuming process in rectum cancer radiotherapy. This study aims to develop a simple deep learning based auto segmentation algorithm to segment rectal tumors on T2 weighted MR images. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MRI scans (3T, T2-weighted) of 93 patients with locally advanced (cT3-4 and/or cN1-2) rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery were enrolled in this study...
April 16, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663383/nanoparticle-based-targeted-cancer-strategies-for-non-invasive-prostate-cancer-intervention
#15
REVIEW
Nicholas H Farina, Areg Zingiryan, Michael A Vrolijk, Scott D Perrapato, Steven Ades, Gary S Stein, Jane B Lian, Christopher C Landry
Prostate cancer is screened by testing circulating levels of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biomarker, monitoring changes over time, or a digital rectal exam. Abnormal results often lead to prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer positive patients are stratified into very low-risk, low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk, based on clinical classification parameters, to assess therapy options. However, there remains a gap in our knowledge and a compelling need for improved risk stratification to inform clinical decisions and reduce both over-diagnosis and over-treatment...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663304/predictive-nomograms-for-synchronous-distant-metastasis-in-rectal-cancer
#16
Apostolos Gaitanidis, Michail Alevizakos, Alexandra Tsaroucha, Christos Tsalikidis, Michail Pitiakoudis
BACKGROUND: Nomograms may be used to quantitatively assess the probability of synchronous distant metastasis. The purpose of this study is to develop predictive nomograms for the presence of synchronous distant metastasis in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database was performed for cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014. RESULTS: Overall, 46,785 patients with rectal cancer (27,773 [59...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663303/abdominoperineal-resection-for-rectal-cancer-in-the-twenty-first-century-indications-techniques-and-outcomes
#17
Alexander T Hawkins, Katherine Albutt, Paul E Wise, Karim Alavi, Ranjan Sudan, Andreas M Kaiser, Liliana Bordeianou
BACKGROUND: Management of low rectal cancer continues to be a challenge, and decision making regarding the need for an abdominoperineal resection (APR) in patients with low-lying tumors is complicated. Furthermore, choices need to be made regarding need for modification of the surgical approach based on tumor anatomy and patient goals. DISCUSSION: In this article, we address patient selection, preoperative planning, and intraoperative technique required to perform the three types of abdominoperineal resections for rectal cancer: extrasphincteric, extralevator, and intersphincteric...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661719/rectal-ulcer-and-pseudomalignant-epithelial-changes-after-prostate-seed-brachytherapy-a-rare-complication-with-a-diagnostic-pitfall
#18
Hwajeong Lee, Natallia Sheuka, Osama El-Kadi, Brian P Murray, Hugh A Fisher, Bhaskar V S Kallakury, Edward C Lee, Ann Boguniewicz, Timothy A Jennings
BACKGROUND: Implant brachytherapy (IBT) is a well-recognized treatment modality for early stage prostate cancer. Rectal ulcer and rectourethral fistula complicating IBT may cause an alteration of the normal anatomic landmarks. In this context, pseudomalignant radiation-induced changes within prostatic epithelium may be misinterpreted as a primary rectal malignancy. Such challenging and misleading findings have not been described, and may not be recognized as such. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the clinical and pathologic aspects of two patients who underwent IBT for low stage prostate cancer that was complicated by deep rectal ulcer...
April 4, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661280/prognostic-value-of-neoadjuvant-treatment-response-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#19
Yvonne H Sada, Hop S Tran Cao, George J Chang, Avo Artinyan, Benjamin L Musher, Brandon G Smaglo, Nader N Massarweh
BACKGROUND: For locally advanced rectal cancer, response to neoadjuvant radiation has been associated with improved outcomes but has not been well characterized in general practice. The goals of this study were to describe disease response rates after neoadjuvant treatment and to evaluate the association between disease response and survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients aged 18-80 y with clinical stage II and III rectal adenocarcinoma in the National Cancer Database (2006-2012)...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658680/rectal-cancer-and-the-pathologist
#20
Mariana Berho, Pablo A Bejarano
INTRODUCTION: Examination of the rectum by pathologists is instrumental in the management of patients affected by rectal carcinoma. That role includes evaluation of multiple gross and microscopic features that convey prognostic implications. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The analysis is based on the authors' experience handling rectal specimens along with review of the pertinent literature in these areas: margins of excision, quality of the mesorectum, diligence and techniques to sample lymph nodes, tumor budding, grading of residual amount of carcinoma after pre-operative therapy, vascular/perineural invasion, and staging the tumor...
April 13, 2018: Minerva Chirurgica
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