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Endorectal ultrasound

Courtney C Moreno, Patrick S Sullivan, Pardeep K Mittal
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the staging and restaging of rectal cancer. Multiplanar high-resolution (≤3-mm section thickness) T2-weighted images are the primary sequences used for rectal cancer staging. No preprocedural bowel cleansing regimen, intravenous contrast material, nor endorectal coil is necessary. MRI is highly accurate for differentiating T1-T2 disease from T3 and T4 disease, an important distinction as patients with T3 and T4 tumors typically undergo preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation before resection...
November 21, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Mohamed Azzaza, Houssem Ammar, Nihed Abdessayed, Rahul Gupta, Mohamed Said Nakhli, Amine Chhaider, Nafis Abdennaceur, Ali Ben Ali
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are tumors of mesenchymal origin commonly detected in stomach and small bowel. GIST arising primarily from the anal canal is extremely rare. Due to the malignant potential, these tumors are treated with radical surgery like abdominoperineal resection. But with the advent of imatinib therapy and a better understanding of the tumor biology, some cases have been successfully treated with wide local excision. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe a case of a 70-year-old lady presenting with a 2cm mass in the anal canal...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Michail Sideris, Jane Moorhead, Salvador Diaz-Cano, Ingvar Bjarnason, Amyn Haji, Savvas Papagrigoriadis
BACKGROUND/AIM: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is emerging as an alternative treatment for rectal cancer Stage I. There remains a risk of local recurrence. The Aim of the study was to study the effect of biomarkers in local recurrence for Stage I rectal cancer following TEMS plus or minus radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a case control study where we compared 10 early rectal cancers that had recurred, against 19 cases with no recurrence, total 29 patients (age=28...
2016: Anticancer Research
J Cohen, C Andre, P Mozer
Prostate cancer is the first cancer and the second cause of cancer death in men in France. It is now a major public health issue, particularly given the increase of life expectancy. If screening is based on blood PSA and clinical examination (DRE), diagnosis requires the histological analysis of prostate samples. In current clinical routine, these biopsies are performed by endorectal through ultrasound guidance. In most cases, the cancer is not visible in the ultrasound image and the latter is used to make a dozen samples (or core), distributed as best as possible in the prostate...
November 2016: Progrès en Urologie
A S Dhadda, A Martin, S Killeen, I A Hunter
AIMS: Contact radiotherapy for early rectal cancer uses 50 kV X-rays to treat rectal cancers under direct vision. We present data of a series of patients treated at a single centre with prospective follow-up and functional assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients were treated at the Queen's Centre for Oncology, Hull, UK between September 2011 and October 2015. Patients received a biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver/pelvis, computed tomography of the chest and endorectal ultrasound...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
P De Visschere, N Lumen, P Ost, K Decaestecker, E Pattyn, G Villeirs
AIM: To determine the added value of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) over T2-weighted imaging (T2-WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPC) in patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two hundred and forty-five patients with elevated PSA underwent multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate before biopsy. mpMRI was performed using a 3 T MRI system without an endorectal coil...
January 2017: Clinical Radiology
Matthias Haas, Karsten Günzel, Kurt Miller, Bernd Hamm, Hannes Cash, Patrick Asbach
Prostate volume in multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is of clinical importance. For 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil, there is no distinctive standard for volume calculation. We tested the accuracy of the ellipsoid formula with planimetric volume measurements as reference and investigated the correlation of gland volume and cancer detection rate on MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided biopsy. One hundred forty-three patients with findings on 3-Tesla mpMRI suspicious of cancer and subsequent MRI/US fusion-guided targeted biopsy and additional systematic biopsy were analyzed...
2017: Urologia Internationalis
Geraldine N Tran, Michael S Leapman, Hao G Nguyen, Janet E Cowan, Katsuto Shinohara, Antonio C Westphalen, Peter R Carroll
BACKGROUND: Fusion biopsy using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transrectal ultrasound has demonstrated favorable detection rates of high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) among previously undiagnosed men. However, the diagnostic yield among men with active surveillance (AS) remains undefined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy during AS by reporting rates of PCa upgrading and comparing findings with systematic biopsy...
August 29, 2016: European Urology
Simpa S Salami, Eran Ben-Levi, Oksana Yaskiv, Baris Turkbey, Robert Villani, Ardeshir R Rastinehad
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and lesion volume in potentially risk-stratifying patients with prostate cancer (PCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men with elevated prostate-specific antigen or abnormal digital rectal exam underwent a 3T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) with endorectal coil. ADC maps were calculated using b values of 0, 500, 1000, and 1500; additional images were obtained with b value of 2000...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Jenny-Claude Millochau, Carole Abo, Basma Darwish, Emmanuel Huet, Gauthier Dietrich, Horace Roman
We present the case of a patient in whom consecutive imaging assessment and surgery demonstrated the obvious progression of colorectal endometriosis under continuous medical therapy. A 26-year-old nullipara presented with secondary dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, diarrhea, and constipation during menstruation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment revealed 2 right ovarian endometriomas, but no deep endometriosis lesion. Intraoperatively, we found a 2-cm length of thickened and congestive area of sigmoid colon, along with small superficial lesions arising in the small bowel and appendix...
July 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Hiroshi Yoshino, Kyoko Kawakami, Gen Yoshino, Katsuhiro Sawada
A 64-year-old man was admitted to Shin-suma General Hospital, Kobe, Japan, complaining of a 3-day history of scrotal swelling and high fever. He had type 2 diabetes mellitus. On examination, his body temperature had risen to 38.5 °C. Examination of the scrotum showed abnormal enlargement. Laboratory data were as follows: white cell count 35,400/μL and glycated hemoglobin 9.6%. Anal fistula was found in an endorectal ultrasound. Computed tomography scan showed a relatively high density of subcutaneous tissue and elevated air density...
March 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
In J Park, Y Nancy You, John M Skibber, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, Prajnan Das, Cathy Eng, Scott Kopetz, Robert A Wolff, Christopher H Crane, Sunil Krishnan, Bruce Minsky, Chung-Yuan Hu, Sa Nguyen, George J Chang
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major health concern and risk factor for colorectal cancer that may also impact cancer treatment and outcomes. Rectal cancer response to chemoradiotherapy (CXRT) is associated with long-term survival and sphincter preservation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity on treatment outcomes after neoadjuvant CXRT for rectal cancer. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed (1993 to 2010) with cT3-4 or cN+ (by endorectal ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging) rectal carcinoma and treated with CXRT and total mesorectal excision was performed...
March 29, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Glen R Guerra, Cherng H Kong, Satish K Warrier, Andrew C Lynch, Alexander G Heriot, Samuel Y Ngan
AIM: To provide an update on the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, staging and management of rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive search of Ovid MEDLINE was performed with the reference list of selected articles reviewed to ensure all relevant publications were captured. The search strategy was limited to the English language, spanning from 1946 to 2015...
March 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Arnaldo Mayer, Adi Zholkover, Orith Portnoy, Gil Raviv, Eli Konen, Zvi Symon
PURPOSE: Focal therapy in low-risk prostate cancer may provide the best balance between cancer control and quality of life preservation. As a minimally invasive approach performed under TRUS guidance, brachytherapy is an appealing framework for focal therapy. However, the contrast in TRUS images is generally insufficient to distinguish the target lesion from normal prostate tissue. MRI usually offers a much better contrast between the lesion and surrounding tissues. Registration between TRUS and MRI may therefore significantly improve lesion targeting capability in focal prostate brachytherapy...
June 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Anna Fábián, Renáta Bor, Klaudia Farkas, Anita Bálint, Ágnes Milassin, Mariann Rutka, László Tiszlavicz, Tibor Wittmann, Ferenc Nagy, Tamás Molnár, Zoltán Szepes
Background. Rectal tumour management depends highly on locoregional extension. Rectal endoscopic ultrasound (ERUS) is a good alternative to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, in Hungary only a small amount of rectal tumours is examined with ERUS. Methods. Our retrospective study (2006-2012) evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of ERUS and compares the results, the first data from Central Europe, with those from Western Europe. The effect of neoadjuvant therapy, rectal probe type, and investigator's experience were also assessed...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Shawn Dason, Christopher B Allard, Ian Wright, Bobby Shayegan
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel biopsy technique that involves performing a cognitively directed transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to diagnose suspected anterior prostate cancers (APCs) detected by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in patients with prior negative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies. METHODS: This is a prospective study in which participants aged 50-75 were offered inclusion if they had an elevated prostate-specific antigen level, a lesion suspicious for APC on mpMRI, and at least one prior negative TRUS-guided prostate biopsy...
May 2016: Urology
Marisa Leon-Carlyle, Jacqueline A Brown, Jeremy Hamm, P Terry Phang, Manoj J Raval, Carl J Brown
BACKGROUND: Endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) is used to preoperatively assess locoregional stage in patients with rectal neoplasms. This study evaluates the accuracy of ERUS in determining the T stage of rectal neoplasms treated by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). METHODS: All patients in the St Paul's Hospital TEM database were evaluated and excluded if they had been treated with neoadjuvant therapy. ERUS results were compared with gold-standard postoperative histopathology reports...
September 2016: American Journal of Surgery
H Roman, J Carilho, C Da Costa, C De Vecchi, O Suaud, M Monroc, P Hochain, M Vassilieff, C Savoye-Collet, M Saint-Ghislain
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the role of computed tomography-based virtual colonoscopy (CTC) in preoperative assessment of bowel endometriosis. METHODS: Retrospective study using data prospectively recorded, including 127 patients with colorectal endometriosis, having undergone CTC for bowel endometriosis. The study was conducted in a tertiary referral center during 38 consecutive months. Preoperative assessment included CTC, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) and clinical examination...
January 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Ryan C Hutchinson, Daniel N Costa, Yair Lotan
Prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a maturing imaging modality that has been used to improve detection and staging of prostate cancer. The goal of this review is to evaluate the economic effect of the use of MRI and MRI fusion in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. A literature review was used to identify articles regarding efficacy and cost of MRI and MRI-guided biopsies. There are currently a limited number of studies evaluating cost of incorporating MRI into clinical practice. These studies are primarily models projecting cost estimates based on meta-analyses of the literature...
July 2016: Urologic Oncology
Haijie Lu, Qiqi Chu, Guojiang Xie, Hao Han, Zheng Chen, Benhua Xu, Zhicao Yue
Preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy may be useful in patients with operable rectal cancer, but treatment responses are variable. We examined whether expression levels of circadian clock genes could be used as biomarkers to predict treatment response. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 250 patients with rectal cancer, treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in a single institute between 2011 and 2013. Gene expression analysis (RT-PCR) was performed in tissue samples from 20 patients showing pathological complete regression (pCR) and 20 showing non-pCR...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
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