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Fatty acid synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332207/skeletal-muscle-expression-of-p43-a-truncated-thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-affects-lipid-composition-and-metabolism
#1
François Casas, Gilles Fouret, Jérome Lecomte, Fabienne Cortade, Laurence Pessemesse, Emilie Blanchet, Chantal Wrutniak-Cabello, Charles Coudray, Christine Feillet-Coudray
Thyroid hormone is a major regulator of metabolism and mitochondrial function. Thyroid hormone also affects reactions in almost all pathways of lipids metabolism and as such is considered as the main hormonal regulator of lipid biogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the possible involvement of p43, a 43 Kda truncated form of the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor TRα1 which stimulates mitochondrial activity. Therefore, using mouse models overexpressing p43 in skeletal muscle (p43-Tg) or lacking p43 (p43-/-), we have investigated the lipid composition in quadriceps muscle and in mitochondria...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331507/adropin-an-endocrine-link-between-the-biological-clock-and-cholesterol-homeostasis
#2
Sarbani Ghoshal, Joseph R Stevens, Cyrielle Billon, Clemence Girardet, Sadichha Sitaula, Arthur S Leon, D C Rao, James S Skinner, Tuomo Rankinen, Claude Bouchard, Marinelle V Nuñez, Kimber L Stanhope, Deborah A Howatt, Alan Daugherty, Jinsong Zhang, Matthew Schuelke, Edward P Weiss, Alisha R Coffey, Brian J Bennett, Praveen Sethupathy, Thomas P Burris, Peter J Havel, Andrew A Butler
OBJECTIVE: Identify determinants of plasma adropin concentrations, a secreted peptide translated from the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene linked to metabolic control and vascular function. METHODS: Associations between plasma adropin concentrations, demographics (sex, age, BMI) and circulating biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism were assessed in plasma obtained after an overnight fast in humans. The regulation of adropin expression was then assessed in silico, in cultured human cells, and in animal models...
December 30, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#3
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330792/evaluating-the-metabolic-impact-of-hypoxia-on-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#4
Divya Murthy, Enza Vernucci, Gennifer Goode, Jaime Abrego, Pankaj K Singh
Hypoxia is frequently observed in human cancers and induces global metabolic reprogramming that includes an increase in glucose uptake and glycolysis, alterations in NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ and intracellular ATP levels, and increased utilization of glutamine as the major precursor for fatty acid synthesis. In this chapter, we describe in detail various physiological assays that have been adopted to study the metabolic shift propagated by exposure to hypoxic conditions in pancreatic cell culture model that includes glucose uptake, glutamine uptake, and lactate release by pancreatic cancer cell lines...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#5
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329354/palmitate-induced-er-stress-and-inhibition-of-protein-synthesis-in-cultured-myotubes-does-not-require-toll-like-receptor-4
#6
Ben D Perry, Jill A Rahnert, Yang Xie, Bin Zheng, Myra E Woodworth-Hobbs, S Russ Price
Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, are elevated in metabolically dysfunctional conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus. Palmitate has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity and suppress protein synthesis while upregulating proteolytic systems in skeletal muscle. Increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response may contribute to the palmitate-induced impairment of muscle protein synthesis. In some cell types, ER stress occurs through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329215/dietary-supplement-of-large-yellow-tea-ameliorates-metabolic-syndrome-and-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-in-db-db-mice
#7
Yun Teng, Daxiang Li, Ponmari Guruvaiah, Na Xu, Zhongwen Xie
Yellow tea has been widely recognized for its health benefits. However, its effects and mechanism are largely unknown. The current study investigated the mechanism of dietary supplements of large yellow tea and its effects on metabolic syndrome and the hepatic steatosis in male db/db mice. Our data showed that dietary supplements of large yellow tea and water extract significantly reduced water intake and food consumption, lowered the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and significantly reduced blood glucose level and increased glucose tolerance in db/db mice when compared to untreated db/db mice...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325757/the-role-of-fatty-acids-and-their-endocannabinoid-like-derivatives-in-the-molecular-regulation-of-appetite
#8
REVIEW
Renger F Witkamp
Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the oronasal cavity and along the entire gastrointestinal tract, in various other tissues, and, for some receptors also in brain...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325602/bile-acid-metabolism-in-liver-pathobiology
#9
John Y L Chiang, Jessica M Ferrell
Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 11, 2018: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325023/the-extending-spectrum-of-npc1-related-human-disorders-from-niemann-pick-c1-disease-to-obesity
#10
Amel Lamri, Marie Pigeyre, William S Garver, David Meyre
The Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein regulates the transport of cholesterol and fatty acids from late endosomes / lysosomes and has a central role in maintaining lipid homeostasis. NPC1 loss-of-function mutations in humans cause NPC1 disease, a rare autosomal-recessive lipid-storage disorder characterized by progressive and lethal neurodegeneration, liver and lung failure, due to cholesterol infiltration. In humans, genome wide association studies (GWAS) and post-GWAS reports highlight the implication of common variants in NPC1 in adult-onset obesity, body fat mass, and type 2 diabetes...
January 9, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324448/the-expression-of-hsd17b12-is-associated-with-cox-2-expression-and-is-increased-in-high-grade-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#11
Heidi Kemiläinen, Kaisa Huhtinen, Annika Auranen, Olli Carpén, Leena Strauss, Matti Poutanen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenase type 12 (HSD17B12), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of arachidonic acid (AA), in ovarian cancer, and to study its coexpression with its upstream and downstream enzymes in the AA pathway, namely elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 5 (ELOVL5) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from benign and malignant ovarian neoplastic lesions were immunohistochemically stained with HSD17B12, ELOVL5, and COX-2...
January 12, 2018: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323924/akt-serine-threonine-kinase-1-regulates-de-novo-fatty-acid-synthesis-through-mtor-srebp1-axis-in-dairy-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#12
Tianying Zhang, Jiangtao Huang, Yongqing Yi, Xueying Zhang, Juan J Loor, Yanhong Cao, Huaiping Shi, Jun Luo
Akt serine/threonine kinase acts as a central mediator in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, regulating a series of biological processes. In lipid metabolism, Akt activation regulates a series of gene expressions, including genes related to intracellular fatty acid synthesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of Akt in dairy goat mammary lipid metabolism have not been elaborated. In this study, the coding sequences of goat Akt1 gene were cloned and analyzed. Gene expression of Akt1 in different lactation stages was also investigated...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321595/microrna-7-mediates-cross-talk-between-metabolic-signaling-pathways-in-the-liver
#13
Ragunath Singaravelu, Curtis Quan, Megan H Powdrill, Tyler A Shaw, Prashanth Srinivasan, Rodney K Lyn, Rhea C Alonzi, Daniel M Jones, Roxana Filip, Rodney S Russell, John P Pezacki
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of cellular metabolism. To characterise miRNAs crucial to the maintenance of hepatic lipid homeostasis, we examined the overlap between the miRNA signature associated with inhibition of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) signaling, a pathway regulating fatty acid metabolism, and the miRNA profile associated with 25-hydroxycholesterol treatment, an oxysterol regulator of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) and liver X receptor (LXR) signaling...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316673/transcriptome-analysis-in-haematococcus-pluvialis-astaxanthin-induction-by-high-light-with-acetate-and-fe2
#14
Bangxiang He, Lulu Hou, Manman Dong, Jiawei Shi, Xiaoyun Huang, Yating Ding, Xiaomei Cong, Feng Zhang, Xuecheng Zhang, Xiaonan Zang
Haematococcus pluvialis is a commercial microalga, that produces abundant levels of astaxanthin under stress conditions. Acetate and Fe2+ are reported to be important for astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis. In order to study the synergistic effects of high light stress and these two factors, we obtained transcriptomes for four groups: high light irradiation (HL), addition of 25 mM acetate under high light (HA), addition of 20 μM Fe2+ under high light (HF) and normal green growing cells (HG). Among the total clean reads of the four groups, 156,992 unigenes were found, of which 48...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313898/modulation-of-saturation-and-chain-length-of-fatty-acids-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-production-of-cocoa-butter-like-lipids
#15
David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Yongjun Wei, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance...
January 4, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307784/ablating-both-fabp1-and-scp2-scpx-tko-induces-hepatic-phospholipid-and-cholesterol-accumulation-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#16
Sherrelle Milligan, Gregory G Martin, Danilo Landrock, Avery L McIntosh, John T Mackie, Friedhelm Schroeder, Ann B Kier
Although singly ablating Fabp1 or Scp2/Scpx genes may exacerbate the impact of high fat diet (HFD) on whole body phenotype and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), concomitant upregulation of the non-ablated gene, preference for ad libitum fed HFD, and sex differences complicate interpretation. Therefore, these issues were addressed in male and female mice ablated in both genes (Fabp1/Scp2/Scpx null or TKO) and pair-fed HFD. Wild-type (WT) males gained more body weight as fat tissue mass (FTM) and exhibited higher hepatic lipid accumulation than WT females...
January 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305667/a-pilot-study-comparing-the-metabolic-profiles-of-elite-level-athletes-from-different-sporting-disciplines
#17
Fatima Al-Khelaifi, Ilhame Diboun, Francesco Donati, Francesco Botrè, Mohammed Alsayrafi, Costas Georgakopoulos, Karsten Suhre, Noha A Yousri, Mohamed A Elrayess
BACKGROUND: The outstanding performance of an elite athlete might be associated with changes in their blood metabolic profile. The aims of this study were to compare the blood metabolic profiles between moderate- and high-power and endurance elite athletes and to identify the potential metabolic pathways underlying these differences. METHODS: Metabolic profiling of serum samples from 191 elite athletes from different sports disciplines (121 high- and 70 moderate-endurance athletes, including 44 high- and 144 moderate-power athletes), who participated in national or international sports events and tested negative for doping abuse at anti-doping laboratories, was performed using non-targeted metabolomics-based mass spectroscopy combined with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography...
January 5, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305296/one-step-synthesis-of-carbohydrate-esters-as-antibacterial-and-antifungal-agents
#18
Madher N AlFindee, Qian Zhang, Yagya Prasad Subedi, Jaya P Shrestha, Yukie Kawasaki, Michelle Grilley, Jon Y Takemoto, Cheng-Wei Tom Chang
Carbohydrate esters are biodegradable, and the degraded adducts are naturally occurring carbohydrates and fatty acids which are environmentally friendly and non-toxic to human. A simple one-step regioselective acylation of mono-carbohydrates has been developed that leads to the synthesis of a wide range of carbohydrate esters. Screening of these acylated carbohydrates revealed that several compounds were active against a panel of bacteria and fungi, including Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum...
December 26, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303609/buffering-agent-induced-lactose-content-increases-via-growth-hormone-mediated-activation-of-gluconeogenesis-in-lactating-goats
#19
L Li, M L He, Y Liu, Y S Zhang
Dairy goats are often fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet to meet their lactation demands; however, long-term concentrate feeding is unhealthy and leads to milk yield and lactose content decreases. Therefore, we tested whether a buffering agent is able to increase the output of glucose in the liver and influence lactose synthesis. Eight lactating goats were randomly assigned to two groups: one group received a HC diet (Concentrate : Forage = 6:4, HG) and the other group received the same diet with a buffering agent added (0...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302212/ethyl-linoleate-inhibits-%C3%AE-msh-induced-melanogenesis-through-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signal-pathway
#20
Gyeong-A Ko, Somi Kim Cho
Ethyl linoleate is an unsaturated fatty acid used in many cosmetics for its various attributes, such as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and clinically proven to be an effective anti-acne agent. In this study, we investigated the effect of ethyl linoleate on the melanogenesis and the mechanism underlying its action on melanogenesis in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Our results revealed that ethyl linoleate significantly inhibited melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-induced B16F10 cells, but it did not directly inhibit activity of mushroom tyrosinase...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
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