keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Fatty acid synthesis

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163362/obesity-and-breast-cancer-current-insights-on-the-role-of-fatty-acids-and-lipid-metabolism-in-promoting-breast-cancer-growth-and-progression
#1
REVIEW
Christina Blücher, Sonja C Stadler
Obesity and excess accumulation of adipose tissue are known risk factors for several types of cancer, including breast cancer. With the incidence of obesity constantly rising worldwide, understanding the molecular details of the interaction between adipose tissue and breast tumors, the most common tumors in women, becomes an urgent task. In terms of lipid metabolism, most of the studies conducted so far focused on upregulated de novo lipid synthesis in cancer cells. More recently, the use of extracellular lipids as source of energy came into focus...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162450/visualization-of-local-phosphatidylcholine-synthesis-within-hippocampal-neurons-using-a-compartmentalized-culture-system-and-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#2
Eiji Sugiyama, Ikuko Yao, Mitsutoshi Setou
Neurons extend neurites with an increased synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) that is not only a membrane component but also a functional regulator with specific fatty acid composition. To analyze the local synthesis of the PC molecular species within neurons, we combined a compartmentalized culture system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). We observed that a newly synthesized PC, which contains exogenously administered palmitic acid-d3, is accumulated at the cell bodies and the tips of the distal neurites...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160608/apple-fruit-superficial-scald-resistance-mediated-by-ethylene-inhibition-is-associated-with-diverse-metabolic-processes
#3
Nicola Busatto, Brian Farneti, Mauro Commisso, Martino Bianconi, Barbara Iadarola, Elisa Zago, Benedetto Ruperti, Francesco Spinelli, Angelo Zanella, Riccardo Velasco, Alberto Ferrarini, Giulia Chitarrini, Urska Vrhovsek, Massimo Delledonne, Flavia Guzzo, Guglielmo Costa, Fabrizio Costa
Fruits stored at low temperature can exhibit different types of chilling injury. In apple, one of the most serious physiological disorders is superficial scald, which is characterized by discoloration and brown necrotic patches on the fruit exocarp. Although this phenomenon is widely ascribed to the oxidation of α-farnesene, its physiology is not yet fully understood. To elucidate the mechanism of superficial scald development and possible means of prevention, we performed an integrated metabolite screen, including an analysis of volatiles, phenols and lipids, together with a large-scale transcriptome study...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160228/controlled-synthesis-of-quantum-confined-cspbbr3-perovskite-nanocrystals-under-ambient-condition
#4
Huimei He, Bing Tang, Ying Ma
Room temperature recrystallization is a simple and convenient method for synthesis of all-inorganic perovskite nanomaterials with excellent luminescent properties. However, the fast crystallization usually brings the colloidal stability and uncontrollable synthesis issues in the formation of all-inorganic perovskite. In the present study, we present a new strategy to prepare the quantum confined CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with controlled morphology under ambient condition. With the assist of fatty acid-capped precursor, the crystallization and the following growth rate can be retarded...
November 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159775/toxic-effects-of-phytol-and-retinol-on-human-glioblastoma-cells-are-associated-with-modulation-of-cholesterol-and-fatty-acid-biosynthetic-pathways
#5
Gustavo Facchini, Raffaela Silvestre Ignarro, Erika Rodrigues-Silva, André Schwambach Vieira, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Roger Frigério Castilho, Fabio Rogerio
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor. Genetic mutations may reprogram the metabolism of neoplastic cells. Particularly, alterations in cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways may favor biomass synthesis and resistance to therapy. Therefore, compounds that interfere with those pathways, such as phytol (PHY) and retinol (RET), may be appropriate for cytotoxic approaches. We tested the effect of PHY or RET on the viability of human GBM cell lines (U87MG, A172 and T98G). Since the compounds showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect, additional analyses were performed with IC50 values...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158183/serine-prevented-high-fat-diet-induced-oxidative-stress-by-activating-ampk-and-epigenetically-modulating-the-expression-of-glutathione-synthesis-related-genes
#6
Xihong Zhou, Liuqin He, Shengnan Zuo, Yumei Zhang, Dan Wan, Ciming Long, Pan Huang, Canrong Wu, Xin Wu, Gang Liu, Yulong Yin
Serine deficiency has been observed in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether serine supplementation has any beneficial effects on the prevention of NAFLD remains unknown. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of serine supplementation on hepatic oxidative stress and steatosis and its related mechanisms. Forty male C57BL/6J mice (9week-old) were randomly assigned into four groups (n=10) and fed: i) a low-fat diet; ii) a low-fat diet supplemented with 1% (wt:vol) serine; iii) a high-fat (HF) diet; and iv) a HF diet supplemented with 1% serine, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156448/-de-hydratases-recent-developments-and-future-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca M Demming, Max-Philipp Fischer, Jens Schmid, Bernhard Hauer
Hydratases have gained attention as alternative to chemical catalysts for their ability to add and eliminate water with high regio-selectivity, stereo-selectivity and enantio-selectivity. Recently, especially cofactor-independent hydratases came into research focus as they are of particular interest for industrial application. The investigation of the substrate scope as well as mutagenesis studies combined with high-resolution crystal structures and bioinformatic methods shed light on this promising enzyme class...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154730/effect-of-increased-milking-frequency-and-residual-milk-removal-on-milk-production-and-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-lactating-cows
#8
Sabine Ferneborg, Lucia Kovac, Kevin J Shingfield, Sigrid Agenäs
It has been well established that milk yield is affected both by milking frequency and due to the removal of residual milk, but the influence of a combination of these factors is unclear. In this study, four mid-lactation cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the effects of more frequent milking and residual milk removal on milk yield and composition are additive and alter milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised two or four times daily milking in combination with (or without) residual milk removal over a 96 h interval preceded by a 2 d pretreatment period and followed by a 8 d washout in each 14 d experimental period...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154466/%C3%AE-fosb-regulates-rosiglitazone-induced-milk-fat-synthesis-and-cell-survival
#9
Xuefeng Wei, Hui Li, Guangwei Zhao, Jiameng Yang, Lihui Li, Yongzhen Huang, Xianyong Lan, Yun Ma, Huiling Zheng, Hong Chen
Rosiglitazone induces adipogenesis in adipocyte and regulates cell survival and differentiation in number of cell types. However, whether PPARγ regulates the synthesis of milk fat and cell survival in goat mammary gland remains unknown. Rosiglitazone strongly enhanced cellular triacylglycerol content and accumulation of lipid droplet in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). Furthermore, ΔFosB decreased the expression of PPARγ at both mRNA and protein levels, and rosiglitazone-induced milk fat synthesis was abolished by ΔFosB overexpression...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153483/crosstalks-between-translation-and-metabolism-in-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Stefano Biffo, Nicola Manfrini, Sara Ricciardi
Albeit cancer patients' heterogeneity, all tumor cells have alterations of both metabolism and translation. The simplest explanation for this common feature is that several oncogenes coordinate a translational and metabolic reprogramming that is necessary for tumor cells to thrive. Overall, at least three oncogenic pathways, namely c-Myc, RAS and PI3K-mTOR, are known to affect both translation and metabolism by stimulating glycolysis and protein synthesis. The crosstalk between metabolite production and the translational machinery is, instead, less understood...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152836/modulation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-immune-suppression-are-features-of-in-vitro-tumour-sphere-formation-in-ontogenetically-distinct-dog-cancers
#11
J-H Kim, A M Frantz, A L Sarver, B H Gorden Klukas, M Lewellen, T D O'Brien, E B Dickerson, J F Modiano
Non-adherent, 3-dimensional sphere formation is used as an in vitro surrogate to evaluate cellular potential for tumour initiation and self-renewal. To determine if a shared molecular program underlies the capacity for sphere formation by cells originating from diverse tumour types, we characterized molecular and functional properties of 10 independent cell lines derived from 3 ontogenetically distinct dog cancers: hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma and glial brain tumours. Genome-wide gene expression profiling identified tumour-of-origin-dependent patterns of adjustment to sphere formation in a uniform culture condition...
November 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151267/impaired-permeability-and-antimicrobial-barriers-in-type-2-diabetes-skin-are-linked-to-increased-serum-levels-of-advanced-glycation-end-product
#12
Jae-Hong Kim, Na Young Yoon, Dong Hye Kim, Minyoung Jung, Myungsoo Jun, Hwa-Young Park, Choon Hee Chung, Kyohoon Lee, Sunki Kim, Chang Seo Park, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Eung Ho Choi
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing rapidly, and the disease has become a serious sociomedical problem. Many skin problems, such as xerosis, pruritus, skin infections, and delayed wound healing, that might be related to chronic impairment of skin barrier function decrease the quality of life in DM patients. However, the status of the permeability and antimicrobial barrier of the skin in DM remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to elucidate skin barrier impairment in type 2 DM patients and its patho-mechanisms using classic animal models of type 2 DM...
November 19, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151076/modulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-by-the-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-monoacylglycerol-and-diacylglycerol-lipase-inhibitors-as-an-attractive-target-for-secretory-diarrhoea-therapy
#13
A Wasilewski, A Misicka, M Sacharczuk, J Fichna
Secretory diarrhoea is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Our aim was to characterize the effect of inhibition of selected enzymes involved in the synthesis or degradation of endocannabinoids on electrolyte equilibrium in the mouse colonic tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PF-3845, JZL-184 and RHC-80267, as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), monoacylglycerol (MAGL) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), respectively on epithelial ion transport in isolated mouse colon stimulated by forskolin (FSK), veratridine (VER) and bethanechol (BET)...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150677/phosphatidylserine-decarboxylase-ct699-lysophospholipid-acyltransferase-ct775-and-acyl-acp-synthase-ct776-provide-membrane-lipid-diversity-to-chlamydia-trachomatis
#14
Eric Soupene, Frans A Kuypers
De novo lipid synthesis and scavenging of fatty acids (FA) are processes essential for the formation of the membrane of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.). Host FA are assimilated via esterification by the bacterial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase AasC but inhibitors of the host acyl-CoA synthetase enymes ACSL also impaired growth of C.t. in human cells. In E. coli, activity of AasC was sensitive to triacsin C and rosiglitazone G. The absence of a triacsin C-insensitive pathway and the increased inhibition by rosiglitazone G confirmed the sensitivity of the bacterial acyl-ACP synthase to these drugs in infected human cells...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149647/dietary-fish-oil-differentially-ameliorates-high-fructose-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-hyperlipidemia-in-mice-depending-on-time-of-feeding
#15
Katsutaka Oishi, Tatsuya Konishi, Chiaki Hashimoto, Saori Yamamoto, Yoshinori Takahashi, Yasuhiko Shiina
Chrononutrition is the science of nutrition based on chronobiology. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that fish oil (FO) reduces the risk of cardiovascular events through various actions such as lowering triglycerides. The present study aimed to determine the time of day when the hypertriglyceridemia-decreasing ability of FO is optimal in mice. A high-fructose diet (HFrD) that induces hyperlipidemia in mice was replaced with the same diet containing 4% FO (HFrD-4% FO) at different times of the day for 2 weeks as described below...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148103/extracytoplasmic-function-sigma-factor-%C3%AF-d-confers-resistance-to-environmental-stress-by-enhancing-mycolate-synthesis-and-modifying-peptidoglycan-structures-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#16
Koichi Toyoda, Inui Masayuki
Mycolates are α-branched, β-hydroxylated, long-chain fatty acid specifically synthesized in bacteria in the suborder Corynebacterineae of the phylum Actinobacteria. They form an outer membrane, which functions as a permeability barrier and confers pathogenic mycobacteria to resistance to antibiotics. Although the mycolate biosynthetic pathway has been intensively studied, knowledge of transcriptional regulation of genes involved in this pathway is limited. Here we report that the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σ(D) is a key regulator of the mycolate synthetic genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum in the suborder...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146470/combination-of-type-ii-fatty-acid-biosynthesis-enzymes-and-thiolases-supports-a-functional-%C3%AE-oxidation-reversal
#17
James M Clomburg, Stephanie C Contreras, Alexander Chou, Justin B Siegel, Ramon Gonzalez
An engineered reversal of the β-oxidation cycle (r-BOX) and the fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) pathway are promising biological platforms for advanced fuel and chemical production in part due to their iterative nature supporting the synthesis of various chain length products. While diverging in their carbon-carbon elongation reaction mechanism, iterative operation of each pathway relies on common chemical conversions (reduction, dehydration, and reduction) differing only in the attached moiety (acyl carrier protein (ACP) in FAB vs Coenzyme A in r-BOX)...
November 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144390/rna-sequencing-and-coexpression-analysis-reveal-key-genes-involved-in-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-biosynthesis-in-perilla-frutescens-seed
#18
Tianyuan Zhang, Chi Song, Li Song, Zhiwei Shang, Sen Yang, Dong Zhang, Wei Sun, Qi Shen, Degang Zhao
Perillafrutescen is used as traditional food and medicine in East Asia. Its seeds contain high levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which is important for health, but is scarce in our daily meals. Previous reports on RNA-seq of perilla seed had identified fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis genes, but the underlying mechanism of ALA biosynthesis and its regulation still need to be further explored. So we conducted Illumina RNA-sequencing in seven temporal developmental stages of perilla seeds...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143042/synthesis-and-characterization-of-the-first-inhibitor-of-n-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase-d-nape-pld
#19
Beatrice Castellani, Eleonora Diamanti, Daniela Pizzirani, Piero Tardia, Martina Maccesi, Natalia Realini, Paola Magotti, Gianpiero Garau, Thomas Bakkum, Silvia Rivara, Marco Mor, Daniele Piomelli
N-Acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) is a membrane-associated zinc enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) into fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs). Here, we describe the identification of the first small-molecule NAPE-PLD inhibitor, the quinazoline sulfonamide derivative 2,4-dioxo-N-[4-(4-pyridyl)phenyl]-1H-quinazoline-6-sulfonamide, ARN19874.
November 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142825/creating-metabolic-demand-as-an-engineering-strategy-in-pseudomonas-putida-rhamnolipid-synthesis-as-an-example
#20
Till Tiso, Petra Sabelhaus, Beate Behrens, Andreas Wittgens, Frank Rosenau, Heiko Hayen, Lars Mathias Blank
Metabolic engineering of microbial cell factories for the production of heterologous secondary metabolites implicitly relies on the intensification of intracellular flux directed toward the product of choice. Apart from reactions following peripheral pathways, enzymes of the central carbon metabolism are usually targeted for the enhancement of precursor supply. In Pseudomonas putida, a Gram-negative soil bacterium, central carbon metabolism, i.e., the reactions required for the synthesis of all 12 biomass precursors, was shown to be regulated at the metabolic level and not at the transcriptional level...
December 2016: Metabolic Engineering Communications
keyword
keyword
34183
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"