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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#1
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936467/peroxisome-motility-measurement-and-quantification-assay
#2
Jeremy Metz, Inês G Castro, Michael Schrader
Organelle movement, distribution and interaction contribute to the organisation of the eukaryotic cell. Peroxisomes are multifunctional organelles which contribute to cellular lipid metabolism and ROS homeostasis. They distribute uniformly in mammalian cells and move along microtubules via kinesin and dynein motors. Their metabolic cooperation with mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is essential for the β-oxidation of fatty acids and the synthesis of myelin lipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids...
September 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935372/structural-insights-into-the-dimer-tetramer-transition-of-fabi-from-bacillus-anthracis
#3
Hyun Tae Kim, Sulhee Kim, Byeong Kwan Na, Jiwoung Chung, Eunha Hwang, Kwang Yeon Hwang
Enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR, also known as FabI) has received considerable interest as an anti-bacterial target due to its essentiality in fatty acid synthesis. All the FabI structures reported to date, regardless of the organism, are composed of homo-tetramers, except for two structures: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus FabI (bcFabI and saFabI, respectively), which have been reported as dimers. However, the reason for the existence of the dimeric form in these organisms and the biological meaning of dimeric and tetrameric forms of FabI are ambiguous...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933767/hemin-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-cultured-hepatocytes-and-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#4
Yi Luan, Fang Zhang, Yalan Cheng, Jun Liu, Rui Huang, Menghong Yan, Yuangao Wang, Zhishui He, Hejin Lai, Hui Wang, Hao Ying, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai
Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions...
July 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933423/omega-3-pufa-ameliorates-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-by-inhibiting-hepatic-ceramide-synthesis
#5
Yong-Qiang Dong, Xing-Zhong Zhang, Lu-Lu Sun, Song-Yang Zhang, Bo Liu, Hui-Ying Liu, Xian Wang, Chang-Tao Jiang
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a key risk factor in hepatic steatosis. In this study, we applied a metabolomic approach to investigate the changes in the metabolite profile due to HHcy-induced hepatic steatosis and the effects of omega-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) supplementation in mice. HHcy was induced in mice by giving DL-Hcy (1.8 g/L) in drinking water for 6 weeks, then the mice were sacrificed, and the metabolic profiles of the liver and plasma were analyzed through UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS-based lipidomics...
September 21, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931940/brd4-regulates-adiponectin-gene-induction-by-recruiting-the-p-tefb-complex-to-the-transcribed-region-of-the-gene
#6
Naoko Sakurai, Yuko Inamochi, Takuya Inoue, Natsuyo Hariya, Musashi Kawamura, Masami Yamada, Anup Dey, Akira Nishiyama, Takeo Kubota, Keiko Ozato, Toshinao Goda, Kazuki Mochizuki
We previously reported that induction of the adipocyte-specific gene adiponectin (Adipoq) during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation is closely associated with epigenetic memory histone H3 acetylation on the transcribed region of the gene. We used 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Brd4 heterozygous mice to investigate whether the induction of Adipoq during adipocyte differentiation is regulated by histone acetylation and the binding protein bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) on the transcribed region. Depletion of BRD4 by shRNA and inhibition by (+)-JQ1, an inhibitor of BET family proteins including BRD4, reduced Adipoq expression and lipid droplet accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931545/regulation-of-genes-related-to-cholesterol-metabolism-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-fed-plant-based-diet
#7
Tengfei Zhu, Genevieve Corraze, Elisabeth Plagnes-Juan, Edwige Quillet, Mathilde Dupont-Nivet, Sandrine Skiba-Cassy
Compared to fishmeal and fish oil, plant ingredients differ not only in the protein content, amino acid and fatty acid profiles but are also devoid of cholesterol, the major component of cell membrane and precursor of several bioactive compounds. Based on these nutritional characteristics, plant-based diets can affect fish physiology and cholesterol metabolism. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying cholesterol homeostasis, rainbow trout were fed from 1g body weight during six months with a totally plant-based diet (V), a marine diet (M) and a marine restricted diet (MR) with feed intake adjusted to that of the V group...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930144/chemical-synthesis-of-marine-derived-sulfoglycolipids-a-new-class-of-molecular-adjuvants
#8
Emiliano Manzo, Laura Fioretto, Dario Pagano, Genoveffa Nuzzo, Carmela Gallo, Raffaele De Palma, Angelo Fontana
Vaccines play a primary role in the protection of human health by preventing infectious and chronic diseases. Recently we have reported 1,2-O-distearoyl-3-O-β-d-sulfoquinovosylglycerol (β-SQDG18), here named Sulfavant A (1), which shows promising properties as a new molecular adjuvant in in vitro and in vivo tests. In the present manuscript, we provide full details about a synthetic strategy for the preparation of 1, including a discussion of chemical determinants of the activity and the major technical hurdles we faced during the study...
September 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929610/identification-of-bottlenecks-in-the-accumulation-of-cyclic-fatty-acids-in-camelina-seed-oil
#9
Xiao-Hong Yu, Rebecca E Cahoon, Patrick J Horn, Hai Shi, Richa Rawat Prakash, Yuanheng Cai, Maegan Hearney, Kent D Chapman, Edgar B Cahoon, Jorg Schwender, John Shanklin
Modified fatty acids (mFA) have diverse uses, e.g., cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) are feedstocks for producing coatings, lubricants, plastics, and cosmetics. The expression of mFA-producing enzymes in crop and model plants generally results in lower levels of mFA accumulation than in their natural-occurring source plants. Thus, to further our understanding of metabolic bottlenecks that limit mFA accumulation, we generated transgenic Camelina sativa lines co-expressing Escherichia coli cyclopropane synthase (EcCPS) and Sterculia foetida lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (SfLPAT)...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928235/testosterone-protects-high-fat-low-carbohydrate-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-castrated-male-rats-mainly-via-modulating-er-stress
#10
Yue Jia, Jennifer Kuang Yee, Christina Wang, Liana Nikolaenko, Maruja Diaz-Arjonilla, Joshua N Cohen, Samuel W French, Peter Y Liu, YanHe Lue, Wai-Nang Paul Lee, Ronald S Swerdloff
We previously showed that testosterone (T) deficiency enhanced high-fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in rats that was independent of insulin resistance, and that T replacement reduced hepatic macrovesicular fat accumulation and inflammation. The present report explores the mechanism of T-protective effects on HFD-induced steatohepatitis. Adult male rats were randomized into four treatment groups for 15 weeks (intact rats on regular chow diet or HFD, and castrated rats on HFD with/without T replacement)...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927897/does-nutrition-play-a-role-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-sarcopenia
#11
REVIEW
S M Robinson, J Y Reginster, R Rizzoli, S C Shaw, J A Kanis, I Bautmans, H Bischoff-Ferrari, O Bruyère, M Cesari, B Dawson-Hughes, R A Fielding, J M Kaufman, F Landi, V Malafarina, Y Rolland, L J van Loon, B Vellas, M Visser, C Cooper
There is a growing body of evidence that links nutrition to muscle mass, strength and function in older adults, suggesting that it has an important role to play both in the prevention and management of sarcopenia. This review summarises the discussions of a working group [ESCEO working group meeting 8th September 2016] that met to review current evidence and to consider its implications for preventive and treatment strategies. The review points to the importance of 'healthier' dietary patterns that are adequate in quality in older age, to ensure sufficient intakes of protein, vitamin D, antioxidant nutrients and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927726/recent-trends-in-analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-amino-acids-in-biological-samples
#12
REVIEW
Yanting Song, Chang Xu, Hiroshi Kuroki, Yiyi Liao, Makoto Tsunoda
Amino acids are widely distributed in biological fluids and involved in many biological processes, such as the synthesis of proteins, fatty acids, and ketone bodies. The altered levels of amino acids in biological fluids have been found to be closely related to several diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer. Therefore, the development of analytical methods to measure amino acid concentrations in biological samples can contribute to research on the physiological actions of amino acids and the prediction, diagnosis and understanding of diseases...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926951/insights-into-the-hexose-liver-metabolism-glucose-versus-fructose
#13
REVIEW
Bettina Geidl-Flueck, Philipp A Gerber
High-fructose intake in healthy men is associated with characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Extensive knowledge exists about the differences between hepatic fructose and glucose metabolism and fructose-specific mechanisms favoring the development of metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, the causal relationship between fructose consumption and metabolic alterations is still debated. Multiple effects of fructose on hepatic metabolism are attributed to the fact that the liver represents the major sink of fructose...
September 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924523/the-interplay-of-genetics-and-environmental-factors-in-the-development-of-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Abu Baker Sheikh, Adeel Nasrullah, Shujaul Haq, Aisha Akhtar, Haider Ghazanfar, Amara Nasir, Rao M Afzal, Marvi M Bukhari, Ahtsham Yousaf Chaudhary, Syed W Naqvi
Obesity is a major health issue in the developed nations, and it has been increasingly clear that both genetics and environment play an important role in determining if an individual will be obese or not. We reviewed the latest researches which were carried out to identify the obesity susceptible genes and to identify the metabolic pathways having a central role in energy balance. Obesity is a heritable disorder, and some of the many obesity susceptible genes are fat mass and obesity (FTO), leptin, and Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R)...
July 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922379/elevating-serotonin-pre-partum-alters-the-holstein-dairy-cow-hepatic-adaptation-to-lactation
#15
Samantha R Weaver, Allan S Prichard, Noah L Maerz, Austin P Prichard, Elizabeth L Endres, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Matthew S Akins, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Laura L Hernandez
Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921708/scopoletin-supplementation-ameliorates-steatosis-and-inflammation-in-diabetic-mice
#16
Ra-Yeong Choi, Ju Ri Ham, Hae-In Lee, Hyun Wook Cho, Myung-Sook Choi, Seok-Kyu Park, Jin Lee, Myung-Joo Kim, Kwon-Il Seo, Mi-Kyung Lee
Scopoletin is a bioactive component in many edible plants and fruits. This study investigated the effects of scopoletin on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in a high-fat diet fed type 1 diabetic mice by comparison with metformin. Scopoletin (0.01%, w/w) or metformin (0.5%, w/w) was provided with a high-fat diet to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice for 11 weeks. Both scopoletin and metformin lowered blood glucose and HbA1c , serum ALT, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, glucose intolerance, and hepatic lipid accumulation compared with the diabetic control group...
September 18, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919632/cd36-in-chronic-kidney-disease-novel-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#17
REVIEW
Xiaochun Yang, Daryl M Okamura, Xifeng Lu, Yaxi Chen, John Moorhead, Zac Varghese, Xiong Z Ruan
CD36 (also known as scavenger receptor B2) is a multifunctional receptor that mediates the binding and cellular uptake of long-chain fatty acids, oxidized lipids and phospholipids, advanced oxidation protein products, thrombospondin and advanced glycation end products, and has roles in lipid accumulation, inflammatory signalling, energy reprogramming, apoptosis and kidney fibrosis. Renal CD36 is mainly expressed in tubular epithelial cells, podocytes and mesangial cells, and is markedly upregulated in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919001/pharmacological-inhibition-of-aldh1a-enzymes-suppresses-weight-gain-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#18
Michael Haenisch, Piper M Treuting, Thea Brabb, Alex S Goldstein, Kathryn Berkseth, John K Amory, Jisun Paik
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid (RA) is known to play a role in weight regulation. Because mice without ALDH1A1, a major RA synthesizing enzyme, are resistant to diet-induced obesity, we tested a hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of RA synthesis can suppress weight gain in a murine model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce obesity and then randomized to a HFD with or without WIN 18,446, an RA synthesis inhibitor, for an additional 9 weeks...
September 11, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918598/triacsin-c-reduces-lipid-droplet-formation-and-induces-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-primary-rat-hepatocytes
#19
Carlos R P Dechandt, Felippe H Zuccolotto-Dos-Reis, Bruno G Teodoro, Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Marcos N Eberlin, Isis C Kettelhut, Carlos Curti, Luciane C Alberici
Intracellular long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA, which undergoes β-oxidation and participates in the synthesis of esterified lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). Imbalances in these metabolic routes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Triacsin C is one of the few compounds that inhibit TAG accumulation into lipid droplets (LD) by suppressing ACSL activity. Here we report that treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with triacsin C at concentrations lower than the IC50 (4...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918150/short-communication-effects-of-lysolecithin-on-milk-fat-synthesis-and-milk-fatty-acid-profile-of-cows-fed-diets-differing-in-fiber-and-unsaturated-fatty-acid-concentration
#20
D E Rico, Y Ying, K J Harvatine
Thirteen multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design that tested the effect of lysolecithin in diets differing in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations. Experimental periods were 20 d in length and included two 10-d phases. A standard fiber and lower fat diet was fed the first 10 d (30.5% NDF, no added oil, lower-risk phase) and a lower NDF and higher oil diet was fed during the second 10 d (29.0% NDF and 2% oil from whole soybeans and soybean oil, high-risk phase)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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