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Virology, microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346651/bipartite-network-analysis-of-gene-sharings-in-the-microbial-world
#1
Eduardo Corel, Raphaël Méheust, Andrew K Watson, James O McInerney, Philippe Lopez, Eric Bapteste
Extensive microbial gene flows affect how we understand virology, microbiology, medical sciences, genetic modification and evolutionary biology. Phylogenies only provide a narrow view of these gene flows: plasmids and viruses, lacking core genes, cannot be attached to cellular life on phylogenetic trees. Yet viruses and plasmids have a major impact on cellular evolution, affecting both the gene content and the dynamics of microbial communities. Using bipartite graphs that connect up to 149,000 clusters of homologous genes with 8217 related and unrelated genomes, we can in particular show patterns of gene sharing that do not map neatly with the organismal phylogeny...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341032/-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-nosocomial-pneumonia-update-2017-s3-guideline-of-the-german-society-for-anaesthesiology-and-intensive-care-medicine-the-german-society-for-infectious-diseases-the-german-society-for-hygiene-and-microbiology
#2
K Dalhoff, M Abele-Horn, S Andreas, M Deja, S Ewig, P Gastmeier, S Gatermann, H Gerlach, B Grabein, C P Heußel, G Höffken, M Kolditz, E Kramme, H Kühl, C Lange, K Mayer, I Nachtigall, M Panning, M Pletz, P-M Rath, G Rohde, S Rosseau, B Schaaf, D Schreiter, H Schütte, H Seifert, C Spies, T Welte
Nosocomial pneumonia (HAP) is a frequent complication of hospital care. Most data are available on ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, infections on general wards are increasing. A central issue are infections with multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens which are difficult to treat in the empirical setting potentially leading to inappropriate use of antimicrobial therapy.This guideline update was compiled by an interdisciplinary group on the basis of a systematic literature review. Recommendations are made according to GRADE giving guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP on the basis of quality of evidence and benefit/risk ratio...
January 2018: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258922/flow-virometry-as-a-tool-to-study-viruses
#3
REVIEW
J Lizbeth Zamora Reyes, Hector C Aguilar
In the last few decades, flow cytometry has redefined the field of biology, exponentially enhancing our understanding of cells, immunology, and microbiology. Flow cytometry recently gave birth to flow virometry, a new way to detect, analyze, and characterize single viral particles. Detection of viruses by flow cytometry is possible due to improvements in current flow cytometers, calibration and tuning methods. We summarize the recent birth and novel uses of flow virometry and the progressive evolution of this tool to advance the field of virology...
December 16, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166867/clinical-and-virological-factors-associated-with-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-infection-a-two-year-prospective-study-in-general-practice-medicine
#4
Laetitia Minodier, Shirley Masse, Lisandru Capai, Thierry Blanchon, Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi, Sylvie van der Werf, Thomas Hanslik, Remi Charrel, Alessandra Falchi
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain and nausea are not an uncommon manifestation of an acute respiratory infection (ARI). We therefore evaluated clinical and microbiological factors associated with the presence of GI symptoms in patients consulting a general practitioner (GP) for ARI. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs, stool specimens and clinical data from patients presenting to GPs with an ARI were prospectively collected during two winter seasons (2014-2016)...
November 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155041/epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-coronavirus-and-bocavirus-respiratory-infections-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-prospective-single-center-study
#5
José Luis Piñana, Silvia Madrid, Ariadna Pérez, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Estela Giménez, María José Terol, Marisa Calabuig, David Navarro, Carlos Solano
Epidemiological data about coronaviruses (CoVs) and human bocavirus (HBoV) in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is scarce. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study on respiratory viral infections (RVIs) in allo-HSCT recipients having respiratory symptoms from December 2013 until June 2016. Respiratory virus in upper and/or lower respiratory tract (URT and LRT) specimens were tested using Luminex xTAG RVP Fast v1 assay. RESULTS: Seventy-nine consecutive allo-HSCT recipients developed a total of 192 virologically documented RVI episodes over 30 months...
November 15, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138308/sex-reporting-in-preclinical-microbiological-and-immunological-research
#6
EDITORIAL
Tanvi Potluri, Kyrra Engle, Ashley L Fink, Landon G Vom Steeg, Sabra L Klein
Both sex (i.e., biological construct of male and female) and gender (i.e., social construct of masculine and feminine) impact the pathogenesis of diseases, including those caused by microbial infections. Following the 2015 NIH policy for consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research, in 2018, authors of papers published in primary-research American Society for Microbiology (ASM) journals will be asked to report the sex of the research subjects and animals and of materials derived directly from them...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099783/metagenomic-analysis-of-therapeutic-pyo-phage-cocktails-from-1997-to-2014
#7
Julia Villarroel, Mette Voldby Larsen, Mogens Kilstrup, Morten Nielsen
Phage therapy has regained interest in recent years due to the alarming spread of antibiotic resistance. Whilst phage cocktails are commonly sold in pharmacies in countries such as Georgia and Russia, this is not the case in western countries due to western regulatory agencies requiring a thorough characterization of the drug. Here, DNA sequencing of constituent biological entities constitutes a first step. The pyophage (PYO) cocktail is one of the main commercial products of the Georgian Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology and is used to cure skin infections...
November 3, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072655/-the-specific-features-of-the-clinical-course-of-acute-suppurative-otitis-media-of-viral-and-mixed-viral-bacterial-etiology-in-the-children-of-the-preschool-age
#8
E Yu Radtsig, O V Bugaichuk
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the spectrum of the pathogenic agents responsible for the development of acute suppurative otitis media in the children of the preschool age and to reveal the specific clinical features of this disease depending on its etiological factors. The study involved 138 patients (186 ears) of either sex at the age from 1 year to 84 months who presented with acute suppurative otitis media. The following methods were employed for the purpose of the study: analysis of the patients' complaints and the past medical histories, examination of the ENT organs, microbiological (bacteriological and virological) studies of secretion from the tympanic cavity, diagnostic endoscopy of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx, laboratory investigations...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043909/british-journal-of-biomedical-science-in-2017-what-have-we-learned
#9
Andrew Blann
In 2017 the British Journal of Biomedical Science published 35 articles in the various disciplines that comprise biomedical science. These were 6 reviews, 22 original articles, 6 'In Brief' short reports and one guideline. Of these, the majority were in clinical chemistry (one review, six data papers), microbiology (one review, four data papers), cellular pathology (four data papers) and virology (one review, two data papers). There were two data papers in transfusion science, whilst haematology, cytopathology and immunology were each represented by one review and one data paper...
October 18, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994447/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-and-ribotype-027-infection-in-patients-with-nosocomial-diarrhoea-in-southern-italy
#10
Raffaele Del Prete, Luigi Ronga, Grazia Addati, Raffaella Magrone, Giuseppe Miragliotta
Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of healthcare-associated infections. The increasing frequency and severity is attributed to highly virulent ribotypes such as 027. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of CDI and ribotype 027 in 481 clinical samples collected from hospitalized patients and sent to the laboratory of molecular biology, UOC Microbiology and Virology, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria, Policlinico of Bari, Italy. Toxins A+B and DNA C. difficile detections were performed using immunochromatographic test and a multiplex real-time PCR assay, respectively...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956542/prevalence-genotype-distribution-and-temporal-dynamics-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-in-a-population-in-southern-italy
#11
Raffaele Del Prete, Luigi Ronga, Grazia Addati, Raffaella Magrone, Domenico Di Carlo, Giuseppe Miragliotta
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the most important risk factor for the development of ano-genital region cancer in both women and men. Whereas low-risk genotypes are responsible for cutaneous and genital lesions, high-risk genotypes are associated with ano-genital cancer. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the prevalence, genotype distribution and temporal dynamics of HPV infection in 2312 specimens from 2312 subjects (2149 women and 163 men) who attended the laboratory of molecular biology, UOC Microbiology and Virology, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria, Policlinico of Bari, Italy...
September 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951510/increased-cholestatic-enzymes-in-two-patients-with-long-term-history-of-ulcerative-colitis-consider-primary-biliary-cholangitis-not-always-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#12
Erietta Polychronopoulou, Vasiliki Lygoura, Nikolaos K Gatselis, George N Dalekos
Several hepatobiliary disorders have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) being the most specific. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis, rarely occurs in UC. We present two PBC cases of 67 and 71 years who suffered from long-standing UC. Both patients were asymptomatic but they had increased cholestatic enzymes and high titres of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA)-the laboratory hallmark of PBC. After careful exclusion of other causes of cholestasis by MRI/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), virological and microbiological investigations, a diagnosis of PBC associated with UC was established...
September 25, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734862/respiratory-infections-and-antibiotic-usage-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#13
Johannes M Sperlich, Bodo Grimbacher, Sarita Workman, Tanzina Haque, Suranjith L Seneviratne, Siobhan O Burns, Veronika Reiser, Werner Vach, John R Hurst, David M Lowe
BACKGROUND: Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) suffer frequent respiratory tract infections despite immunoglobulin replacement and are prescribed significant quantities of antibiotics. The clinical and microbiological nature of these exacerbations, the symptomatic triggers to take antibiotics, and the response to treatment have not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVES: To describe the nature, frequency, treatment, and clinical course of respiratory tract exacerbations in patients with CVID and to describe pathogens isolated during respiratory tract exacerbations...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661360/the-swiss-society-of-microbiology-small-bugs-big-questions-and-cool-answers
#14
Gilbert Greub, Christof Holliger, Dominique Sanglard, Jacques Schrenzel, Volker Thiel, Patrick Viollier
The Swiss Society for Microbiology (SSM) represents around 700 scientists working in the fields of medical (human and veterinary), microbial biotechnology as well as fundamental, environmental, and food microbiology. Five sections: Clinical Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, Mycology, Prokaryotic Biology, and Virology reflects the main interests of the membership.
December 21, 2016: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579016/executive-summary-of-the-gesida-national-aids-plan-consensus-document-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-adults-infected-by-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-updated-january-2017
#15
(no author information available yet)
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by HIV-1. The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load (PVL). Initial ART should be based on a combination of 3 drugs, including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir in either of its two formulations plus emtricitabine or abacavir plus lamivudine) and another drug from a different family. Four of the recommended regimens, all of which have an integrase inhibitor as the third drug (dolutegravir, elvitegravir boosted with cobicistat or raltegravir), are considered preferential, whereas a further 3 regimens (based on elvitegravir/cobicistat, rilpivirine, or darunavir boosted with cobicistat or ritonavir) are considered alternatives...
May 31, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566077/-the-significance-and-place-of-hbsag-neutralization-test-in-the-diagnosis-and-algorithm-of-hepatitis-b-infection
#16
Özlem Aytaç, Alparslan Toyran, Altan Aksoy
The diagnosis of hepatitis B virus infection is evaluated serologically, virologically, biochemically, and with histologic liver indicators. The aim of this study was to investigate the place and significance of the HBsAg neutralization test in the diagnostic algorithm for hepatitis Binfection. From the venous blood samples sent to Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Medical Microbiology Laboratory between September 2014 and May 2016 for HBsAg test, serum samples regarded each patient as reactive (≥ 0...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566076/-evaluation-of-viral-etiology-in-central-nervous-system-infections-from-a-university-hospital-point-of-view-in-izmir-based-on-seven-years-data
#17
Ayşın Zeytinoğlu, Selda Erensoy, Rüçhan Sertöz, İmre Altuğlu, Candan Çiçek, Münevver Kayın, Hadiye Şirin, Şafak Taner
The serious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS); encephalitis and meningitis, have high mortality and morbidity rate especially not diagnosed and treated in time. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is the tool of choice for viral diagnosis in CNS infections. In this study, viral etiological agents found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to our university hospital virology laboratory for laboratory diagnosis of CNS infections were retrospectively evaluated and results were compared with other reports from our country...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526309/antimicrobial-stewardship-for-hospitalized-patients-with-viral-respiratory-tract-infections
#18
Christopher F Lowe, Michael Payne, David Puddicombe, Allison Mah, Davie Wong, Allison Kirkwood, Mark W Hull, Victor Leung
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to implement a targeted antimicrobial stewardship intervention for patients with a viral respiratory tract infection. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental before and after audit and feedback intervention of adult inpatients with a positive polymerase chain reaction for a respiratory virus in 2 acute care hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Audit and feedback was implemented based on 2 criteria: microbiology (no positive bacterial cultures) and chest imaging (absence of pneumonia or consolidation on radiology dictation)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484348/the-most-frequent-isolates-from-outpatients-with-urinary-tract-infection
#19
Sabina Mahmutovic Vranic, Nadira Zatric, Velma Rebic, Mufida Aljicevic, Amila Abdulzaimovic
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study was to identify the most frequent isolates from female outpatients with urinary tract infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective study was performed at the Department of Microbiology, Parasitology and Virology Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo in period of 2015. The most frequent isolates were determined in 405 first urine samples from female outpatients of Hrasno community in Sarajevo, B&H. Identification of isolates was performed by the standard microbiological testing and the standard methods of descriptive statistics as well...
March 2017: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372529/panel-4-report-of-the-microbiology-panel
#20
REVIEW
Stephen J Barenkamp, Tasnee Chonmaitree, Anders P Hakansson, Terho Heikkinen, Samantha King, Johanna Nokso-Koivisto, Laura A Novotny, Janak A Patel, Melinda Pettigrew, W Edward Swords
Objective To perform a comprehensive review of the literature from July 2011 until June 2015 on the virology and bacteriology of otitis media in children. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Two subpanels comprising experts in the virology and bacteriology of otitis media were created. Each panel reviewed the relevant literature in the fields of virology and bacteriology and generated draft reviews. These initial reviews were distributed to all panel members prior to meeting together at the Post-symposium Research Conference of the 18th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media, National Harbor, Maryland, in June 2015...
April 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
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