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Virology, microbiology

Andrew Blann
In 2016, the British Journal of Biomedical Science published 36 reports outlining specific advances in each of the various disciplines within biomedical science. These were one review, 25 original articles, 9 'In Brief' reports and one letter to the Editor. Of these, the majority were in blood science (5 in biochemistry, 7 in haematology and 2 in immunology) and infection science (8 in microbiology, 2 in virology) with a smaller number in cellular sciences (6 in cellular pathology and 2 in cytopathology). Three reports considered both biochemistry and immunology, while another reported an advance in the identification of chromosomal abnormalities...
January 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
Amila Abduzaimovic, Mufida Aljicevic, Velma Rebic, Sabina Mahmutovic Vranic, Kadrija Abduzaimovic, Sabina Sestic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antimicrobial resistance / susceptibility strains of Escherichia coli in inpatients and outpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective study carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Parasitology and Virology Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. In cooperation with the Microbiological laboratory of the Cantonal Hospital Zenica and the Microbiological laboratory of the General Hospital Tesanj, 3863 urine samples were processed in the period from March 1(st) to March 31(st) 2016...
December 2016: Materia Socio-medica
Joachim Denner
Xenotransplantation is a new technology that may help to overcome the shortage of human tissues and organs available for the treatment of tissue and organ failure. Remarkable progress has recently been made in this field. First, understanding of the mechanisms of immunological rejection, mainly of the hyperacute rejection, allowed generating numerous genetically modified pigs to overcome rejection. Second, based on these genetically modified animals and new immunosuppression regimens, long-term survival of non-human primate recipients of heart, kidney, and islet cell cells has been reported...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
(no author information available yet)
Many disciplines, from human genetics and oncology to plant breeding, microbiology and virology, commonly face the challenge of analyzing rapidly increasing numbers of genomes. In case of Homo sapiens, the number of sequenced genomes will approach hundreds of thousands in the next few years. Simply scaling up established bioinformatics pipelines will not be sufficient for leveraging the full potential of such rich genomic data sets. Instead, novel, qualitatively different computational methods and paradigms are needed...
October 21, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Christoph Lübbert, Sophie Schneitler
In recent years, global and regional crises have led to extraordinary worldwide migration, accompanied by an increase in long-distance travel from Western countries. Both are linked to a rising incidence of rare parasitic and infectious diseases in first world countries, including in the biliary tract. Areas covered: A selective literature research in PubMed was performed to review the most important parasitic and infectious biliary diseases, which are caused by a wide variety of pathogens and may be latent over long periods, with chronic courses leading to cholangitis, hepatic failure or development of cholangiocarcinoma...
November 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Enrique Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, M Del Remedio Guna Serrano, Nieves Orta Mira, Rafael Medina González, María Rosario Ovies, Marta Poveda, Concepción Gimeno Cardona
The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2014 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2014 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations...
July 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Jordi Vila, Yuliya Zboromyrska, Almudena Burillo, Emilio Bouza
MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry (MS) has been vigorously introduced in many clinical microbiology laboratories for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria and fungi. In fact, the implementation of this methodology can be considered a revolution in these laboratories. In addition to microbial identification, MALDI-TOF MS is being used for the detection of some mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and for the molecular typing of bacteria. A number of current and future applications that increase the versatility of this methodology may also be mentioned...
June 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Jelena Naric, Jürgen Rissland, Arne Simon, Martin Poryo, Ludwig Gortner, Sascha Meyer
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess multiplex PCR analysis in detecting causative viruses in children with febrile seizures. METHODS: The study was a retrospective analysis comparing data from a pre-multiplex era (2009) with a period after the introduction of routine respiratory multiplex analysis (2010-2013) in children with febrile seizures. RESULTS: We included 200 children with febrile seizures (mean age: 29.5 ± 1.4.months; 104 male) in the study...
June 20, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Andrew Blann, Brian Nation
In 2015, the British Journal of Biomedical Science published 47 reports on topics relating to the various disciplines within biomedical science. Of these, the majority were in infection science (15 in microbiology and two in virology) and blood science (seven in biochemistry, four in haematology, three in immunology and one in transplantation), with a smaller number in cellular sciences (four reports) and with one review across disciplines. The present report will summarise key aspects of these publications that are of greatest relevance to laboratory scientists...
2016: British Journal of Biomedical Science
Wilbert Sybesma, Reinhard Zbinden, Nino Chanishvili, Mzia Kutateladze, Archil Chkhotua, Aleksandre Ujmajuridze, Ulrich Mehnert, Thomas M Kessler
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most prevalent microbial diseases and their financial burden on society is substantial. The continuing increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide is alarming so that well-tolerated, highly effective therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of bacteriophages on Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from the urine of patients suffering from UTIs...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
H Wünnemann, S M Bergmann, U Eskens, A Scharbert, M Hundt, M Lierz
The anadromous allis shad Alosa alosa has suffered dramatic population declines throughout Europe and is currently considered as endangered throughout its entire distribution range. In order to reestablish allis shad in the River Rhine, which formerly housed one of the largest and most important populations, an EU-LIFE Project 'The re-introduction of allis shad in the Rhine system' was started in 2007. In course of the LIFE+ Projects, allis shad larvae bred from genitor fish of the Gironde-Garonne-Dordogne population in France were reared in a pilot ex situ stock plant pilot facility in Aßlar, Germany...
January 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
Angela M Caliendo, Marc R Couturier, Christine C Ginocchio, Kimberly E Hanson, Melissa B Miller, Kimberly E Walker, Gregory M Frank
In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to regulate laboratory-developed tests (LDTs)-diagnostics designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory. The Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology recognize that the FDA is committed to protecting patients. However, our societies are concerned that the proposed regulations will limit access to testing and negatively impact infectious diseases (ID) LDTs...
July 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
(no author information available yet)
In this update, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load (PVL). Initial ART should comprise 3 drugs, namely, 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), and 1 drug from another family. Four of the recommended regimens, all of which have an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) as the third drug, are considered a preferred regimen; a further 6 regimens, which are based on an INSTI, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), or a protease inhibitor boosted with cobicistat or ritonavir (PI/COBI, PI/r), are considered alternatives...
August 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Emily Rames, Anne Roiko, Helen Stratton, Joanne Macdonald
Despite dramatic improvements in water treatment technologies in developed countries, waterborne viruses are still associated with many of cases of illness each year. These illnesses include gastroenteritis, meningitis, encephalitis, and respiratory infections. Importantly, outbreaks of viral disease from waters deemed compliant from bacterial indicator testing still occur, which highlights the need to monitor the virological quality of water. Human adenoviruses are often used as a viral indicator of water quality (faecal contamination), as this pathogen has high UV-resistance and is prevalent in untreated domestic wastewater all year round, unlike enteroviruses and noroviruses that are often only detected in certain seasons...
June 1, 2016: Water Research
Elena González-Fandos
The 25th Congress of the Spanish Society for Microbiology (SEM) took place on 7-10 July, 2015, at the University of La Rioja, in Logroño. This meeting brought together microbiologists from several prestigious universities and research centers throughout Spain, as well as experts from other countries including the United States, United Kingdom, Portugal, Germany, Mexico and Venezuela. The program included an opening lecture, one invited lecture and a closing lecture, twelve symposia on selected topics, ten sessions of oral presentations, four poster sessions, and three workshops...
September 2015: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
I N Falynskova, E I Leonova, I T Fedyakina, N R Makhmudova, L N Lepekha, N A Mikhailova, L D Rasnetsov, V V Zverev, I A Leneva
AIM: Study the effectiveness of the substance and various drug formulations of fullerene-(tris-aminocapronic acid) hydrate (FTAAH onwards) in the model of experimental viral-bacterial pneumonia of mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BALB/c mice were infected with influenza virus A/California/04/2009 and subsequently infected with Staphylococcus aureus. The animals were treated after viral infection with the substance and various drug forms of FTAAH, as well as comparative preparations--oseltamivir and arbidol...
September 2015: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
Robin A Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Journal of General Virology
N Rockwood, L Cook, H Kagdi, S Basnayake, C R M Bangham, A L Pozniak, G P Taylor
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infections have complex effects on adaptive immunity, with specific tropism for, but contrasting effects on, CD4 T lymphocytes: depletion with HIV-1, proliferation with HTLV-1. Impaired T lymphocyte function occurs early in HIV-1 infection but opportunistic infections (OIs) rarely occur in the absence of CD4 lymphopenia. In the unusual case where a HIV-1 infected individual with a high CD4 count presents with recurrent OIs, a clinician is faced with the possibility of a second underlying comorbidity...
December 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Olivier Lortholary, Caroline Roussillon, Céline Boucherie, Christophe Padoin, Marie-Laure Chaix, Guillaume Breton, Agathe Rami, Nicolas Veziris, Olivier Patey, Eric Caumes, Thierry May, Jean-Michel Molina, Jérome Robert, Michel Tod, Catherine Fagard, Geneviève Chêne
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients with TB need simplified, effective and well-tolerated antiretroviral regimens. METHODS: The French ANRS 129 BKVIR open trial evaluated the once-daily tenofovir DF/emtricitabine and efavirenz combination, started within 12 weeks after TB treatment initiation, in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients. Success was defined as an HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL and TB cure at 48 weeks. RESULTS: TB was confirmed microbiologically (90%) or histologically (10%) in 69 patients (71% male; median age 43 years; 54% born in Africa)...
March 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Xiaotang Hu, Verronika Laguerre, Daniel Packert, Alice Nakasone, Lynn Moscinski
Cell staining is a necessary and useful technique for visualizing cell morphology and structure under a microscope. This technique has been used in many areas such as cytology, hematology, oncology, histology, virology, serology, microbiology, cell biology, and immunochemistry. One of the key pieces of equipment for preparing a slide for cell staining is cytology centrifuge (cytocentrifuge) such as cytospin. However, many small labs do not have this expensive equipment and its accessory, cytoclips (also expensive relatively), which makes them difficult to study cell cytology...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
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