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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900473/in-situ-xps-study-of-the-surface-chemistry-of-mapi-solar-cells-under-operating-conditions-in-vacuum
#1
C Das, M Wussler, T Hellmann, T Mayer, W Jaegermann
The most limiting factor for the commercialization of perovskite solar cells is the lack of long-term stability under operating conditions. To examine the intrinsic stability of the perovskite film, we investigated the chemical and electronic properties of methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In particular, XPS data were collected under dark conditions, at applied voltage, under illumination, at open circuit, and under operating conditions...
June 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894626/membrane-permeability-characteristic-times-and-lengths-for-oxygen-and-a-simulation-based-test-of-the-inhomogeneous-solubility-diffusion-model
#2
Oriana De Vos, Richard M Venable, Tanja Van Hecke, Gerhard Hummer, Richard Walter Pastor, An Ghysels
The balance of normal and radial (lateral) diffusion of oxygen in phospholipid mem-branes is critical for biological function. Based on the Smoluchowski equation for the inhomogeneous solubility-diffusion model, Bayesian analysis (BA) can be applied to molecular dynamics trajectories of oxygen to extract the free energy, and the normal and radial diffusion profiles. This paper derives a theoretical formalism to convert these profiles into characteristic times and lengths associated with entering, escaping, or completely crossing the membrane...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892762/electrochemistry-of-layered-metal-diborides
#3
Vlastimil Mazánek, Hindia Nahdi, Jan Luxa, Zdeněk Sofer, Martin Pumera
In the last decade, layered materials and their 2D counterparts, such as graphene, transition metal chalcogenides or black phosphorus, have been tested for their electrocatalytic properties. The main application is in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), in which layered materials could possibly replace platinum. Although platinum offers both the lowest overpotential and the highest current density, it is also expensive and rare and has little tolerance to passivation...
June 12, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889331/unraveling-the-water-impermeability-discrepancy-in-cvd-grown-graphene
#4
Jinsung Kwak, Se-Yang Kim, Yongsu Jo, Na Yeon Kim, Sung Youb Kim, Zonghoon Lee, Soon-Yong Kwon
Graphene has recently attracted particular interest as a flexible barrier film preventing permeation of gases and moistures. However, it has been proved to be exceptionally challenging to develop large-scale graphene films with little oxygen and moisture permeation suitable for industrial uses, mainly due to the presence of nanometer-sized defects of obscure origins. Here, the origins of water permeable routes on graphene-coated Cu foils are investigated by observing the micrometer-sized rusts in the underlying Cu substrates, and a site-selective passivation method of the nanometer-sized routes is devised...
June 11, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889044/oxygen-plasma-fragmented-kmnf3-nanoparticle-benefits-contrast-enhancement-for-mr-imaging-of-a-patient-derived-tumor-xenograft-model
#5
Xin Fu, Lulu Yu, Yanshu Li, Yu Zhang, Xiaoping Xiao, Jinsheng Zhang, Ting Shu, Cai Jing, Qun Tang
Magnetic nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for next-generation of imaging contrast agents and its performance was largely dependent on physico-chemistry properties. In this paper, A new type of "top down" fabrication technique was developed to synthesize ultrasmall magnetic nanoparticle as contrast enhancer. In detailed, home-made oxygen plasma generator fragments larger KMnF3 nanoparticle (22 nm) into smaller (<5 nm) particle with enhanced hydrophilicity, as massive activated oxygen species produced during plasma could severally etch the nanoparticle, and VUV light irradiated it heavily as well, leaving it weak crystallinity, even splitting into ultrafine particle, also its surface transformed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by oxidizing the passivated ligand, evidenced from the spectroscopy and microscopy...
June 11, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875367/hexagonal-mote-2-with-amorphous-bn-passivation-layer-for-improved-oxidation-resistance-and-endurance-of-2d-field-effect-transistors
#6
Benjamin Sirota, Nicholas Glavin, Sergiy Krylyuk, Albert V Davydov, Andrey A Voevodin
Environmental and thermal stability of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) remains a fundamental challenge towards enabling robust electronic devices. Few-layer 2H-MoTe2 with an amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) covering layer was synthesized as a channel for back-gated field effect transistors (FET) and compared to uncovered MoTe2 . A systematic approach was taken to understand the effects of heat treatment in air on the performance of FET devices. Atmospheric oxygen was shown to negatively affect uncoated MoTe2 devices while BN-covered FETs showed considerably enhanced chemical and electronic characteristic stability...
June 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870922/effects-of-a-capacitive-resistive-electric-transfer-therapy-on-physiological-and-biomechanical-parameters-in-recreational-runners-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#7
Iratxe Duñabeitia, Haritz Arrieta, Jon Torres-Unda, Javier Gil, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Susana M Gil, Jon Irazusta, Iraia Bidaurrazaga-Letona
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the effects of a capacitive-resistive electric transfer therapy (Tecar) and passive rest on physiological and biomechanical parameters in recreational runners when performed shortly after an exhausting training session. DESIGN: Randomized controlled crossover trial. SETTING: University biomechanical research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen trained male runners MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physiological (running economy, oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, ventilation, heart rate, blood lactate concentration) and biomechanical (step length; stride angle, height, frequency, and contact time; swing time; contact phase; support phase; push-off phase) parameters were measured during two incremental treadmill running tests performed two days apart after an exhaustive training session...
May 26, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867088/dynamics-of-self-reorganization-explains-passivation-of-silicate-glasses
#8
Stéphane Gin, Marie Collin, Patrick Jollivet, Maxime Fournier, Yves Minet, Laurent Dupuy, Thiruvilla Mahadevan, Sebastien Kerisit, Jincheng Du
Understanding the dissolution of silicate glasses and minerals from atomic to macroscopic levels is a challenge with major implications in geoscience and industry. One of the main uncertainties limiting the development of predictive models lies in the formation of an amorphous surface layer--called gel--that can in some circumstances control the reactivity of the buried interface. Here, we report experimental and simulation results deciphering the mechanisms by which the gel becomes passivating. The study conducted on a six-oxide borosilicate glass shows that gel reorganization involving high exchange rate of oxygen and low exchange rate of silicon is the key mechanism accounting for extremely low apparent water diffusivity (∼10-21  m2  s-1 ), which could be rate-limiting for the overall reaction...
June 4, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862189/the-progress-of-prophylactic-treatment-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#9
REVIEW
Hong-Bing Zhang, Xiao-Dong Wang, Kun Xu, Xiao-Gang Li
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vascular disorder frequently found in premature infants. Different therapeutic strategies have been developed to treat ROP. However, there are still many children with ROP suffering by severe limitations in vision or even blindness. Recently, ROP has been suggested to be caused by abnormal development of the retinal vasculature, but not simply resulted by retinal neovascularization which takes about 4 to 6wk after birth in premature infants. Thus, instead of focusing on how to reduce retinal neovascularization, understanding the pathological changes and mechanisms that occur prior to retinal neovascularization is meaningful, which may lead to identify novel target(s) for the development of novel strategy to promote the healthy growth of retinal blood vessels rather than passively waiting for the appearance of retinal neovascularization and removing it by force...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29813077/underlying-mechanism-of-subcortical-brain-protection-during-hypoxia-and-reoxygenation-in-a-sheep-model-influence-of-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-signalling
#10
René Schiffner, Sabine Juliane Bischoff, Thomas Lehmann, Florian Rakers, Sven Rupprecht, Georg Matziolis, Harald Schubert, Matthias Schwab, Otmar Huber, Cornelius Lemke, Martin Schmidt
While the cerebral autoregulation sufficiently protects subcortical brain regions during hypoxia or asphyxia, the cerebral cortex is not as adequately protected, which suggests that regulation of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) is area-specific. Hypoxia was induced by inhalation of 5% oxygen, for reoxygenation 100% oxygen was used. Cortical and subcortical CBF (by laser Doppler flowmetry), blood gases, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), heart rate and renal blood flow were constantly monitored. Low dosed urapidil was used for α1A-adrenergic receptor blockade...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802828/jacareubin-inhibits-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-induced-extracellular-calcium-entry-and-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-required-for-anaphylactic-degranulation-of-mast-cells
#11
J I Castillo-Arellano, S L Guzmán-Gutiérrez, A Ibarra-Sánchez, S Hernández-Ortega, A Nieto-Camacho, O N Medina-Campos, J Pedraza-Chaverri, R Reyes-Chilpa, C González-Espinosa
Mast cells (MCs) are important effectors in allergic reactions since they produce a number of pre-formed and de novo synthesized pro-inflammatory compounds in response to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) crosslinking. IgE/Antigen-dependent degranulation and cytokine synthesis in MCs have been recognized as relevant pharmacological targets for the control of deleterious inflammatory reactions. Despite the relevance of allergic diseases worldwide, efficient pharmacological control of mast cell degranulation has been elusive...
May 23, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801219/acid-rock-drainage-passive-remediation-using-alkaline-clay-hydro-geochemical-study-and-impacts-of-vegetation-and-sand-on-remediation
#12
Fernando Plaza, Yipei Wen, Xu Liang
Acid rock drainage (ARD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mine industry, especially in regions with an abundance of coal refuse (CR) deposits (e.g. the Northern Appalachian Coalfield in the USA) where surface and ground waters are affected by this pollution due to the acidity and high content of sulfates and heavy metals. This study explores the effectiveness of the ARD passive remediation method using alkaline clay (AC) through a series of static and long-term kinetic laboratory experiments (over three years) complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797057/koro%C3%A5-ka-8000-himalayan-expedition-digit-responses-to-cold-stress-following-ascent-to-broadpeak-pakistan-8051-m
#13
Jurij Gorjanc, Shawnda A Morrison, Adam C McDonnell, Igor B Mekjavic
PURPOSE: Cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) is a peripheral blood flow response, observed in both the hands and feet. Exercise has been shown to enhance the response, specifically by increasing mean skin temperatures (Tsk ), in part due to the increased number of CIVD waves. In contrast, hypobaric hypoxia has been suggested to impair digit skin temperature responses, particularly during subsequent hand rewarming following the cold stimulus. This study examined the combined effect of exercise and hypobaric hypoxia on the CIVD response...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789202/relationship-between-prolonged-neural-suppression-and-cerebral-hemodynamic-dysfunction-during-hypothermia-in-asphyxiated-piglets
#14
Wataru Jinnai, Shinji Nakamura, Kosuke Koyano, Satoshi Yamato, Takayuki Wakabayashi, Yinmon Htun, Yasuhiro Nakao, Takashi Iwase, Makoto Nakamura, Saneyuki Yasuda, Masaki Ueno, Takanori Miki, Takashi Kusaka
OBJECTIVES: Hypothermia (HT) improves the outcome of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Here, we investigated changes during HT in cortical electrical activity using amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) and in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) and compared the results with those obtained during normothermia (NT) after a hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult in a piglet model of asphyxia...
May 19, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775547/acute-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-does-not-attenuate-oxidative-stress-or-the-hemodynamic-response-during-submaximal-exercise-in-hypobaric-hypoxia
#15
Colin R Carriker, Paige Rombach, Brooke M Stevens, Roger A Vaughan, Ann L Gibson
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in oxidative stress, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) while exercising in hypobaric hypoxia following acute dietary nitrate supplementation. METHODS: Nine well-trained (60.8±7.8 ml/kg/min) males (29±7 years) visited the lab on 3 occasions, each separated by 1 week. Visit 1 included a maximal aerobic cycling test (VO2max) and 5 five-minute increasing intensity exercise bouts in a normobaric environment (1600m)...
May 18, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774339/effects-of-oxygen-chemical-potential-on-the-anisotropy-of-the-adsorption-properties-of-zr-surfaces
#16
Hai-Hui Zhang, Yao-Ping Xie, Mei-Yi Yao, Jing-Xiang Xu, Jin-Long Zhang, Li-Juan Hu
The anisotropy of metal oxidation is a fundamental issue, and the oxidation of Zr surfaces also attracts much attention due to the application of Zr alloys as cladding materials for nuclear fuels in nuclear power plants. In this study, we systematically investigate the diagram of O adsorption on low Miller index Zr surfaces by using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory calculations. We find that O adsorption on the basal surface, Zr(0001), is more favourable than that on the prism surfaces, Zr(112[combining macron]0) and Zr(101[combining macron]0), under strong O-reducing conditions, while O adsorption on the prism surface is more favourable than that of the basal surface under weak O-reducing conditions and the O-rich conditions...
May 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772805/ethyl-acetate-fraction-from-persimmon-diospyros-kaki-ameliorates-cerebral-neuronal-loss-and-cognitive-deficit-via-the-jnk-akt-pathway-in-tmt-induced-mice
#17
Jong Min Kim, Seon Kyeong Park, Jin Yong Kang, Su Bin Park, Seul Ki Yoo, Hye Ju Han, Chul-Woo Kim, Uk Lee, Sea-Hyun Kim, Ho Jin Heo
This study was conducted to assess the antioxidant capacity and protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction from persimmon ( Diospyros kaki ) (EFDK) on H₂O₂-induced hippocampal HT22 cells and trimethyltin chloride (TMT)-induced Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. EFDK had high antioxidant activities and neuroprotective effects in HT22 cells. EFDK ameliorated behavioral and memory deficits in Y-maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. Also, EFDK restored the antioxidant system by regulating malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced gluthathione (GSH), and the cholinergic system by controlling the acetylcholine (ACh) level and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and expression...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769828/the-effect-of-half-time-re-warm-up-duration-on-intermittent-sprint-performance
#18
Takuma Yanaoka, Kyoko Kashiwabara, Yuta Masuda, Jumpei Yamagami, Kuran Kurata, Shun Takagi, Masashi Miyashita, Norikazu Hirose
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different durations of half-time re-warm up (RW) on intermittent sprint performance. Using a randomized crossover design, 13 healthy men performed three trials, which consisted of two, 40-min intermittent exercises separated by a 15-min half-time. Half-time interventions were 15 min of seated rest (Control), 7 min of cycling at 70% of maximal heart rate (HRmax ) (7 min RW), and 3 min of cycling at 70% of HRmax (3 min RW). The second 40-min intermittent exercise as an exercise performance test was the Cycling Intermittent-Sprint Protocol (CISP), which consisted of 10 s of rest, 5 s of maximal sprint, and 105 s of low-intensity exercise at 50% of VO2max , with the cycles repeated over the 40-min duration...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769827/effects-of-a-4-week-very-low-carbohydrate-diet-on-high-intensity-interval-training-responses
#19
Lukas Cipryan, Daniel J Plews, Alessandro Ferretti, Phil B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of altering from habitual mixed Western-based (HD) to a very low-carbohydrate high-fat (VLCHF) diet over a 4-week timecourse on performance and physiological responses during high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Eighteen moderately trained males (age 23.8 ± 2.1 years) consuming their HD (48 ± 13% carbohydrate, 17 ± 3% protein, 35 ± 9% fat) were assigned to 2 groups. One group was asked to remain on their HD, while the other was asked to switch to a non-standardized VLCHF diet (8 ± 3% carbohydrate, 29 ± 15% protein, 63 ± 13% fat) for 4 weeks...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765003/passive-versus-active-circuit-during-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-in-subjects-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
Elisa De Mattia, Elisa Falcier, Andrea Lizio, Christian Lunetta, Valeria A Sansone, Nicola Barbarito, Barbara Garabelli, Marino Iatomasi, Elisabetta Roma, Fabrizio Rao, Annalisa Carlucci
BACKGROUND: Until recently, it has been considered essential to maintain the use of a double-limb circuit in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to avoid rebreathing expired air during invasive mechanical ventilation. Currently, life-sustaining home ventilators can work with a single, lighter circuit that is easier to manage. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single-limb circuit with intentional leaks (passive circuit) in comparison with a circuit with an expiratory valve (active circuit), in subjects with ALS who use invasive home ventilation...
May 15, 2018: Respiratory Care
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