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passive oxygenation

Hao Yu, Bingqi Liu, Zongqun Yan, Yu Zhang
To solve the problem of poor real-time measurement caused by a hyperspectral imaging system and to simplify the design in passive ranging technology based on oxygen absorption spectrum, a filter-based non-imaging ranging method is proposed. In this method, three bandpass filters are used to obtain the source radiation intensities that are located in the oxygen absorption band near 762 nm and the band's left and right non-absorption shoulders, and a photomultiplier tube is used as the non-imaging sensor of the passive ranging system...
October 1, 2017: Applied Optics
C Q Li, D X Wang, T Cheng, X Y Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the recent upper respiratory tract infections (URI) on the incidence of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children scheduled to undergo general anesthesia and elective surgery. METHODS: In the study, 232 children undergoing general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for elective ophthalmic surgeries at Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China, from Nov. 1, 2015 to May 10, 2016 were enrolled. On the day of the surgery, the parents of the children were preoperatively asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding the baseline characteristics and medical history of the children, including gender, age, height, weight, history of URI within the last 2 weeks before anesthesia, history of premature, long-term passive smoking exposure, habitual sleep snoring, and history of asthma...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
E Bachus, H Holm, V Hamrefors, O Melander, R Sutton, M Magnusson, A Fedorowski
Aims: We applied near-infrared-spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure absolute frontal cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) during head-up tilt test (HUT) in patients investigated for unexplained syncope. Methods and results: Synchronized non-invasive beat-to-beat haemodynamic monitoring, ECG, SctO2 (NIRS; normal range: 60-80%), and peripheral oxygen saturation (left hand, SpO2) were applied during HUT in a random sample of patients with unexplained syncope. Tracings of 54 patients (mean-age: 55 ± 19 years, 39% male) with negative HUT, vasovagal syncope (VVS), or orthostatic hypotension (OH) were analysed...
September 28, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Min-Ho Jang, Hyunseung Yang, Yun Hee Chang, Hyun-Chul Park, Hyeonjung Park, Han Hee Cho, Bumjoon J Kim, Yong-Hyun Kim, Yong-Hoon Cho
Oxygen-containing functional groups such as epoxy, hydroxyl, carboxylic, and carboxyl groups have a great influence on the luminescence properties of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs). Understanding their roles is essential for the design and optimization of GOQD performance. Herein, we investigate the effect of epoxide functional groups in GOQDs on the luminescence mechanism through passivation of the epoxide functional groups using the alkyl ligand oleylamine. Luminescence in the as-synthesized GOQDs has two separate origins: intrinsic states derived from localized sp(2) carbon subdomains and extrinsic states formed by oxygen-functional groups...
October 13, 2017: Nanoscale
Sohair I Abou-Elela, Mohamed S Hellal, Olfat H Aly, Salah A Abo-Elenin
This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a novel pilot-scale passively aerated biological filter (PABF) as a low energy consumption system for the treatment of municipal wastewater. It consists of four similar compartments, each containing 40% of a non-woven polyester fabric as a bio-bed. The PABF was fed with primary treated wastewater under a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.5 hr and a hydraulic loading rate of 5.5 m(2)/m(3)/d. The effect of media depth, HRT, dissolved oxygen (DO) and surface area of the media on the removal efficiency of pollutants was investigated...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Technology
Xingjuan Chen, Da Song, Jingjing Xu, Guoping Sun, Meiying Xu
Increasing evidence has shown that the reaction of zero-valent iron [Fe(0)] by oxygen can produce strong oxidants and rapidly oxidize the tractable contaminants. However, Fe(0) is vulnerable to passivation in the presence of oxygen, which significantly decreases its surface reactivity towards the removal of refractory contaminants. Microorganisms capable of reducing ferric iron in the presence of oxygen are expected to overcome the limitation of Fe(0) passivation. However, no studies to date have shown that microorganisms are able to depassivate Fe(0) for the removal of recalcitrant compounds in the presence of oxygen...
October 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hedieh Torabifard, G Andrés Cisneros
E. Coli AlkB catalyzes the direct dealkylation of various alkylated bases in damaged DNA. The diffusion of molecular oxygen to the active site in AlkB is an essential step for the oxidative dealkylation activity. Despite detailed studies on the stepwise oxidation mechanism of AlkB, there is no conclusive picture of how O2 molecules reach the active site of the protein. Yu et al. (Nature, 439, 879) proposed the existence of an intra-molecular tunnel based on their initial crystal structures of AlkB. We have employed computational simulations to investigate possible migration pathways inside AlkB for O2 molecules...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Hitesh Gidwani, Hernando Gómez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rapid restoration of tissue perfusion and oxygenation are the main goals in the resuscitation of a patient with circulatory collapse. This review will focus on providing an evidence based framework of the technological and conceptual advances in the evaluation and management of the patient with cardiovascular collapse. RECENT FINDINGS: The initial approach to the patient in cardiovascular collapse continues to be based on the Ventilate-Infuse-Pump rule...
October 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Francis H Wong, Asmahan AbuArish, Elizabeth Matthes, Mark J Turner, Lana E Greene, Alexandre Cloutier, Renaud Robert, David Y Thomas, Gonzalo Cosa, Andre M Cantin, John W Hanrahan
Air pollution stimulates airway epithelial secretion through a cholinergic reflex that is unaffected in cystic fibrosis (CF), yet a strong correlation is observed between passive smoke exposure in the home and impaired lung function in CF children. Our aim was to study the effects of low smoke concentrations on CFTR function in vitro. Cigarette smoke extract stimulated robust anion secretion that was transient, mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and dependent on cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Jun Huang, Bo Tong
Li2O2 is revealed to play a positive role by facilitating the kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction in aprotic Li-O2 batteries, in addition to the well-known negative role by passivating the electrode surface. Moreover, it is inferred that the oxygen reduction reaction takes place at the Li2O2/electrolyte interface, rather than the electrode/Li2O2 interface, in our cell.
October 4, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Lóránd Kiss, Alexandra Bocsik, Fruzsina R Walter, James Ross, Denise Brown, Brooke A Mendenhall, Sarah R Crews, Jana Lowry, Valerie Coronado, David E Thompson, Peter Sipos, Piroska Szabó-Révész, Mária A Deli, Ilona Petrikovics
Recent in vitro and in vivo studies highlight the strong potential of dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) as an antidote for cyanide (CN) intoxication. Due to its high oxygen demand, the brain is one of the main target organs of CN. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the uptake of molecules into the brain. In the literature, there is no data about the ability of DMTS to penetrate the BBB. Therefore, our aim was to test the in vitro BBB penetration of DMTS and its in vivo pharmacokinetics in blood and brain. The in vitro BBB penetration of DMTS was measured by using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (BBB-PAMPA), and a triple BBB co-culture model...
September 9, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Jamie Josephine Avila McLeod, Heather L Caslin, Andrew J Spence, Elizabeth M Kolawole, Amina Abdul Qayum, Anuya Paranjape, Marcela Taruselli, Tamara T Haque, Kasalina N Kiwanuka, Howard L Elford, John J Ryan
Mast cell activation via the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) elicits production of inflammatory mediators central to allergic disease. As a synthetic antioxidant and a potent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, Didox (3,4-dihyroxybenzohydroxamic acid) has been tested in clinical trials for cancer and is an attractive therapeutic for inflammatory disease. We found that Didox treatment of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) reduced IgE-stimulated degranulation and cytokine production, including IL-6, IL-13, TNF and MIP-1a (CCL3)...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Hong Jae Kim, Young Jun Tak, Sung Pyo Park, Jae Won Na, Yeong-Gyu Kim, Seonghwan Hong, Pyeong Hun Kim, Geon Tae Kim, Byeong Koo Kim, Hyun Jae Kim
In this study, we propose a self-activated radical doping (SRD) method on the catalyzed surface of amorphous oxide film that can improve both the electrical characteristics and the stability of amorphous oxide films through oxidizing oxygen vacancy using hydroxyl radical which is a strong oxidizer. This SRD method, which uses UV irradiation and thermal hydrogen peroxide solution treatment, effectively decreased the amount of oxygen vacancies and facilitated self-passivation and doping effect by radical reaction with photo-activated oxygen defects...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Asha Brown, Katrina M Mennie, Owen Mason, Nicholas G White, Paul D Beer
Neutral heteroditopic [2]rotaxane ion-pair host systems were synthesised via a Cu(ii) directed passive metal template strategy. Each rotaxane contains discrete, axle-separated interlocked binding sites for a guest anion and a transition metal countercation. The anion binding sites are composed of convergent X-H (X = C, N) hydrogen bond donor groups, or mixed X-H and C-I hydrogen and halogen bond donor groups, whereas an equivalent three-dimensional array of amine, pyridine and carbonyl oxygen donor groups comprise the transition metal binding site...
October 10, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Pranjal Kumar Gogoi, Zhenliang Hu, Qixing Wang, Alexandra Carvalho, Daniel Schmidt, Xinmao Yin, Yung-Huang Chang, Lain-Jong Li, Chorng Haur Sow, A H Castro Neto, Mark B H Breese, Andrivo Rusydi, Andrew T S Wee
Using wide spectral range in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry with systematic ultrahigh vacuum annealing and in situ exposure to oxygen, we report the complex dielectric function of MoS_{2} isolating the environmental effects and revealing the crucial role of unpassivated and passivated sulphur vacancies. The spectral weights of the A (1.92 eV) and B (2.02 eV) exciton peaks in the dielectric function reduce significantly upon annealing, accompanied by spectral weight transfer in a broad energy range. Interestingly, the original spectral weights are recovered upon controlled oxygen exposure...
August 18, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Subhabrata Mitra, Gemma Bale, David Highton, Roxanna Gunny, Cristina Uria-Avellanal, Alan Bainbridge, Magdalena Sokolska, David Price, Angela Huertas-Ceballos, Giles S Kendall, Judith Meek, Ilias Tachtsidis, Nicola J Robertson
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Impaired autoregulation after hypoxia-ischaemia has been suggested to contribute further to injury. Thalamic lactate/N-Acetylasperate (Lac/NAA) peak area ratio of > 0.3 on proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is associated with poor neurodevelopment outcome following HIE. Cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) plays a central role in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and ATP synthesis. Using a novel broadband NIRS system, we investigated the impact of pressure passivity of cerebral metabolism (CCO), oxygenation (haemoglobin difference (HbD)) and cerebral blood volume (total haemoglobin (HbT)) in 23 term infants following HIE during therapeutic hypothermia (HT)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Simon Geiger, Olga Kasian, Andrea M Mingers, Shannon S Nicley, Ken Haenen, Karl J J Mayrhofer, Serhiy Cherevko
In searching for alternative oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts for acidic water splitting, fast screening of materials intrinsic activity and stability in half-cell tests is of vital importance. It significantly accelerates the discovery of new promising materials without the need of time-consuming real cell analysis. In commonly employed tests, a conclusion on the catalyst stability is drawn solely on the basis of pure electrochemical information, e.g. by evaluating potential vs. time profiles. In this work we demonstrate important limitations of such approaches, which are related to the degradation of the backing electrode material...
September 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
Chong Liu, Wenzhe Li, Hongliang Li, Cuiling Zhang, Jiandong Fan, Yaohua Mai
The development of hybrid tin (Sn)-lead (Pb) perovskite solar cells likely tackles the toxic problem with the power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 17%. However, the stability problems, e.g. hysteresis effect, degeneration and oxidation, appear to be the bottleneck that limit its further development. Here, we innovatively introduced C60 at the grain boundaries throughout the CH3NH3Pb0.75Sn0.25I3 (MAPb0.75Sn0.25I3) thin film, playing a role not only in in situ passivating the interfaces and reducing the pinholes of perovskite thin films, but also in preventing the penetration of moisture and oxygen from ambient atmosphere...
September 28, 2017: Nanoscale
Arnold De Loof
Cells are powerful miniature electrophoresis chambers, at least during part of their life cycle. They die at the moment the voltage gradient over their plasma membrane, and their ability to drive a self-generated electric current carried by inorganic ions through themselves irreversibly collapses. Senescence is likely due to the progressive, multifactorial damage to the cell's electrical system. This is the essence of the "Fading electricity theory of aging" (De Loof et al., Aging Res. Rev. 2013;12:58-66)...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Min Baik, Hang-Kyu Kang, Yu-Seon Kang, Kwang-Sik Jeong, Youngseo An, Seongheum Choi, Hyoungsub Kim, Jin-Dong Song, Mann-Ho Cho
Changes in the electrical properties and thermal stability of HfO2 grown on Al2O3-passivated InSb by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were investigated. The deposited HfO2 on InSb at a temperature of 200 °C was in an amorphous phase with low interfacial defect states. During post-deposition annealing (PDA) at 400 °C, In-Sb bonding was dissociated and diffusion through HfO2 occurred. The diffusion of indium atoms from the InSb substrate into the HfO2 increased during PDA at 400 °C. Most of the diffused atoms reacted with oxygen in the overall HfO2 layer, which degraded the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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