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passive oxygenation

Won-Hee Ryu, Forrest S Gittleson, Julianne M Thomsen, Jinyang Li, Mark J Schwab, Gary W Brudvig, André D Taylor
One of the greatest challenges with lithium-oxygen batteries involves identifying catalysts that facilitate the growth and evolution of cathode species on an oxygen electrode. Heterogeneous solid catalysts cannot adequately address the problematic overpotentials when the surfaces become passivated. However, there exists a class of biomolecules which have been designed by nature to guide complex solution-based oxygen chemistries. Here, we show that the heme molecule, a common porphyrin cofactor in blood, can function as a soluble redox catalyst and oxygen shuttle for efficient oxygen evolution in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries...
October 19, 2016: Nature Communications
Qin Wang, Katherine J Franz
Metal ions are essential for a wide range of physiological processes, but they can also be toxic if not appropriately regulated by a complex network of metal trafficking proteins. Intervention in cellular metal distribution with small-molecule or peptide chelating agents has promising therapeutic potential to harness metals to fight disease. Molecular outcomes associated with forming metal-chelate interactions in situ include altering the concentration and subcellular metal distribution, inhibiting metalloenzymes, enhancing the reactivity of a metal species to elicit a favorable biological response, or passivating the reactivity of a metal species to prevent deleterious reactivity...
October 17, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Sebastian Frese, Jens A Petersen, Maria Ligon-Auer, Sandro Manuel Mueller, Violeta Mihaylova, Saskia M Gehrig, Veronika Kana, Elisabeth J Rushing, Evelyn Unterburger, Georg Kägi, Jean-Marc Burgunder, Marco Toigo, Hans H Jung
Huntington disease (HD) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with symptoms across a wide range of neurological domains, including cognitive and motor dysfunction. There is still no causative treatment for HD but environmental factors such as passive lifestyle may modulate disease onset and progression. In humans, multidisciplinary rehabilitation has a positive impact on cognitive functions. However, a specific role for exercise as a component of an environmental enrichment effect has been difficult to demonstrate...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Anna Nigri, Eleonora Catricalà, Stefania Ferraro, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Ludovico D'Incerti, Davide Sattin, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Silvana Franceschetti, Giorgio Marotta, Riccardo Benti, Matilde Leonardi, Stefano F Cappa
There is a growing interest in the use of functional imaging to assess brain activity in the absence of behavioural responses in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). In the present study, we applied a hierarchical auditory stimulation paradigm to functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) in a group of long-term DOC adult patients. Brain response to pairs of pseudowords, of unrelated words and of semantically related words, i.e. stimuli differing in lexical status (words vs. pseudowords) and semantic relatedness (related vs...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Andrea Hermann, Laura Kress, Rudolf Stark
Cognitive emotion regulation strategies are important components of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Additionally, up-regulation and difficulties in the down-regulation of negative feelings are associated with mental disorders. However, little is known about the lasting effects of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on emotional experience and associated neural activation. Therefore, this study investigated immediate and prolonged effects of emotion regulation using cognitive reappraisal and distraction on subjective report and its neural correlates...
October 5, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Tolga Çukur, Alexander G Huth, Shinji Nishimoto, Jack L Gallant
: Functional MRI studies suggest that at least three brain regions in human visual cortex-the parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and occipital place area (OPA; often called the transverse occipital sulcus)-represent large-scale information in natural scenes. Tuning of voxels within each region is often assumed to be functionally homogeneous. To test this assumption, we recorded blood oxygenation level-dependent responses during passive viewing of complex natural movies...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Qi Wang, Ajinkya Puntambekar, Vidhya Chakrapani
Metal-insulator transitions in strongly correlated oxides induced by electrochemical charging have been attributed to formation of vacancy defects. However, the role of native defects in affecting these transitions is not clear. Here, we report a new type of phase transition in p-type, non-stoichiometric nickel oxide involving a semiconductor-to-insulator-to-metal transition along with the complete reversal of conductivity from p- to n-type at room temperature induced by electrochemical charging in a Li+-containing electrolyte...
October 3, 2016: Nano Letters
Anja Enell, Staffan Lundstedt, Hans Peter H Arp, Sarah Josefsson, Gerard Cornelissen, Ola Wik, Dan Berggren Kleja
Different methods to quantify soil porewater concentrations of contaminants will provide different types of information. Passive sampling measurements give freely dissolved porewater concentrations (Cpw,free), while leaching tests provide information on the mobile concentration (Cpw,leach), including contaminants associated to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles/colloids in the porewater. This study presents a novel combination of these two measurements, to study the sorption and mobility of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs)) to DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) in 10 historically contaminated soils...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ashok Agarwal, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Kimberly B Bjugstad, Chak-Lam Cho
The diagnosis of male infertility relies largely on conventional semen analysis, and its interpretation has a profound influence on subsequent management of patients. Despite poor correlation between conventional semen parameters and male fertility potential, inclusion of advanced semen quality tests to routine male infertility workup algorithms has not been widely accepted. Oxidative stress is one of the major mediators in various etiologies of male infertility; it has deleterious effects on spermatozoa, including DNA damage...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
Anna Schweifer, Florian Maier, Walter Ehrlichmann, Denis Lamparter, Manfred Kneilling, Bernd J Pichler, Friedrich Hammerschmidt, Gerald Reischl
INTRODUCTION: Radiolabeled 2-nitroimidazoles (azomycins) are a prominent class of biomarkers for PET imaging of hypoxia. [(18)F]Fluoro-azomycin-α-arabinoside ([(18)F]FAZA) - already in clinical use - may be seen as α-configuration nucleoside, but enters cells only via diffusion and is not transported by cellular nucleoside transporters. To enhance image contrast in comparison to [(18)F]FAZA our objective was to (18)F-radiolabel an azomycin-2´-deoxyriboside with β-configuration ([(18)F]FAZDR, [(18)F]-β-8) to mimic nucleosides more closely and comparatively evaluate it versus [(18)F]FAZA...
August 9, 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Junhui Shao, Jiang Huang, Yana Guo, Lijuan Li, Xueqin Liu, Xiaoxuan Chen, Junfa Yuan
Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and failure to maintain an appropriate redox balance contribute to viral pathogenesis. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular homoeostasis and coping with invasive pathogens by coordinately activating a series of cytoprotective genes. Previous studies indicated that the transcription and expression levels of Nrf2 were up-regulated in SVCV-infected EPC cells with the unknown mechanism(s)...
September 28, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ryota Asahara, Kanji Matsukawa, Kei Ishii, Nan Liang, Kana Endo
When performing exercise arbitrarily, activation of central command should start prior to the onset of exercise, but when exercise is forced to start with cue, activation of central command should be delayed. We examined whether the in advance activation of central command influenced the ventilatory response and reflected in the prefrontal oxygenation, by comparing the responses during exercise with arbitrary and cued start. The breath-by-breath respiratory variables and the prefrontal oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) were measured during one-legged cycling...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Yuri Kriel, Hugo A Kerhervé, Christopher D Askew, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods...
2016: PloS One
Agathe Anthierens, Nicolas Olivier, Patrick Mucci, André Thevenon
OBJECTIVE: Low back pain is a pathology associated to a trunk extensors muscles weakness. Studies suggested that it could be associated with an inadequacy between oxygen demand and oxygen utilization by paraspinal muscles (Kell and Bhambhani, 2006). In contrast to chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients, judo athletes are characterized by a great trunk extensors muscles endurance, due to their intensive solicitation within sport practice. Our purpose was to compare aerobic metabolism in those muscles of CLBP patients with judo athletes...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Christian Roth, Hubertus Stitz, Jens Kleffmann, Stefanie Kaestner, Wolfgang Deinsberger, Andreas Ferbert, Markus Gehling
Background Studies investigating multimodal cerebral monitoring including partial brain tissue oxygen monitoring (ptiO2) in neuro-intensive care patients during physiotherapy are completely lacking in the literature. Materials and Methods We performed a post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data of patients on multimodal cerebral monitoring by intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) measurement as well as ptiO2. Patients with severe brain diseases were treated with passive range of motion (PROM)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Wei Luo, Dmitry Y Zemlyanov, Cory A Milligan, Yuchen Du, Lingming Yang, Yanqing Wu, Peide D Ye
Black phosphorus (BP), the bulk counterpart of monolayer phosphorene, is a relatively stable phosphorus allotrope at room temperature. However, monolayer phosphorene and ultra-thin BP layers degrade in ambient atmosphere. In this paper, we report the investigation of BP oxidation and discuss the reaction mechanism based on the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data. The kinetics of BP oxidation was examined under various well-controlled conditions, namely in 5% O2/Ar, 2.3% H2O/Ar, and 5% O2 and 2.3% H2O/Ar...
September 23, 2016: Nanotechnology
Jinxing Ma, Di He, Richard N Collins, Chuanshu He, T David Waite
A comparative study of the ability of microparticulate zerovalent iron (mZVI) and nanoparticulate zerovalent iron (nZVI) to oxidize a target compound (in this study, (14)C-labelled formate) under aerobic conditions has been conducted with specific consideration given to differences in reaction mechanisms. Results of Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that mZVI underwent a slow transformation to ferrihydrite while nZVI, in contrast, rapidly transformed into lepidocrocite...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Christopher Lotz, Norbert Roewer, Ralf M Muellenbach
Mechanical ventilation is the most commonly used form of respiratory support to restore or maintain adequate gas exchange. However, mechanical ventilation does not provide a physiological form of breathing. Neither does it provide an optimal ventilation / perfusion ratio due to passive movement of the diagphragm favoring the non-dependent parts of the lung. Furthermore, patients are in danger of ventilator-associated/induced lung injury (VALI/VILI). Hence, lung protective ventilation is mandatory in patients with an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and should likewise be used in the operating room...
September 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Ning Ding, Lan Zhou, Changwei Zhou, Dongsheng Geng, Jin Yang, Sheau Wei Chien, Zhaolin Liu, Man-Fai Ng, Aishui Yu, T S Andy Hor, Michael B Sullivan, Yun Zong
Lithium nitrate (LiNO3) is known as an important electrolyte additive in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The prevailing understanding is that LiNO3 reacts with metallic lithium anode to form a passivation layer which suppresses redox shuttles of lithium polysulfides, enabling good rechargeability of Li-S batteries. However, this view is seeing more challenges in the recent studies, and above all, the inability of inhibiting polysulfide reduction on Li anode. A closely related issue is the progressive reduction of LiNO3 on Li anode which elevates internal resistance of the cell and compromises its cycling stability...
2016: Scientific Reports
Cassondra L Williams, James W Hicks
Mammals and birds maintain high arterial partial pressure of oxygen (P O2) values in order to preserve near complete hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen (O2) saturation. In diving mammals and birds, arterial O2 follows a primarily monotonic decline and then recovery quickly after dives. In laboratory studies of submerged freshwater turtles, arterial O2 depletion typically follows a similar pattern. However, in these studies, turtles were disturbed, frequently tethered to external equipment and either confined to small tanks or breathing holes...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
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