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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819793/the-mechanisms-underlying-the-production-of-discontinuous-gas-exchange-cycles-in-insects
#1
REVIEW
Philip G D Matthews
This review examines the control of gas exchange in insects, specifically examining what mechanisms could explain the emergence of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). DGCs are gas exchange patterns consisting of alternating breath-hold periods and bouts of gas exchange. While all insects are capable of displaying a continuous pattern of gas exchange, this episodic pattern is known to occur within only some groups of insects and then only sporadically or during certain phases of their life cycle. Investigations into DGCs have tended to emphasise the role of chemosensory thresholds in triggering spiracle opening as critical for producing these gas exchange patterns...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817701/effect-of-exoskeletal-joint-constraint-and-passive-resistance-on-metabolic-energy-expenditure-implications-for-walking-in-paraplegia
#2
Sarah R Chang, Rudi Kobetic, Ronald J Triolo
An important consideration in the design of a practical system to restore walking in individuals with spinal cord injury is to minimize metabolic energy demand on the user. In this study, the effects of exoskeletal constraints on metabolic energy expenditure were evaluated in able-bodied volunteers to gain insight into the demands of walking with a hybrid neuroprosthesis after paralysis. The exoskeleton had a hydraulic mechanism to reciprocally couple hip flexion and extension, unlocked hydraulic stance controlled knee mechanisms, and ankles fixed at neutral by ankle-foot orthoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813595/activation-of-a-nickel-based-oer-catalyst-on-a-hematite-photoanode-via-incorporation-of-cerium-for-photoelectrochemical-water-oxidation
#3
Hyungseob Lim, Jae Young Kim, Edward J Evans, Amritesh Rai, Jun-Hyuk Kim, Bryan R Wygant, Charles Buddie Mullins
There has been debate on whether Ni(OH)2 is truly catalytically active for the photo/-electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction. In this report, we have synthesized a Ni(OH)2 co-catalyst on a hematite photoanode and showed that, as has been proposed in other studies, the current density varies as a function of scan rate, which arise due to a photo-induced capacitive charging effect. We have discovered that this photo-induced charging of Ni2+/3+ can be overcome by mixing cerium nitrate into the Ni precursor solution...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805054/a-scalable-field-study-protocol-and-rationale-for-passive-ambient-air-sampling-a-spatial-phytosampling-for-leaf-data-collection
#4
Tonny J Oyana, Slawomir M Lomnicki, Chuqi Guo, Stephania A Cormier
Stable, bioreactive, radicals known as environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been found to exist on the surface of airborne PM2.5. These EPFRs have been found to form during many combustion processes, are present in vehicular exhaust, and persist in the environment for weeks and biological systems for up to 12 hours. To measure EPFRs in PM samples, high volume samplers are required and measurements are less representative of community exposure; therefore, we developed a novel spatial phytosampling methodology to study the spatial patterns of EPFR concentrations using plants...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773870/effect-of-dissolved-oxygen-and-immersion-time-on-the-corrosion-behaviour-of-mild-steel-in-bicarbonate-chloride-solution
#5
Gaius Debi Eyu, Geoffrey Will, Willem Dekkers, Jennifer MacLeod
The electrochemical behavior of mild steel in bicarbonate solution at different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and immersion times has been studied under dynamic conditions using electrochemical techniques. The results show that both DO and immersion times influence the morphology of the corrosion products. In comparative tests, the corrosion rate was systematically found to be lower in solutions with lower DO, lower HCO₃(-) concentrations and longer immersion time. The SEM analyses reveal that the iron dissolution rate was more severe in solutions containing higher DO...
September 1, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772802/strong-photoluminescence-enhancement-of-silicon-oxycarbide-through-defect-engineering
#6
Brian Ford, Natasha Tabassum, Vasileios Nikas, Spyros Gallis
The following study focuses on the photoluminescence (PL) enhancement of chemically synthesized silicon oxycarbide (SiCxOy) thin films and nanowires through defect engineering via post-deposition passivation treatments. SiCxOy materials were deposited via thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD), and exhibit strong white light emission at room-temperature. Post-deposition passivation treatments were carried out using oxygen, nitrogen, and forming gas (FG, 5% H₂, 95% N₂) ambients, modifying the observed white light emission...
April 23, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769775/measuring-mental-workload-with-eeg-fnirs
#7
Haleh Aghajani, Marc Garbey, Ahmet Omurtag
We studied the capability of a Hybrid functional neuroimaging technique to quantify human mental workload (MWL). We have used electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as imaging modalities with 17 healthy subjects performing the letter n-back task, a standard experimental paradigm related to working memory (WM). The level of MWL was parametrically changed by variation of n from 0 to 3. Nineteen EEG channels were covering the whole-head and 19 fNIRS channels were located on the forehead to cover the most dominant brain region involved in WM...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763941/assessment-of-biodegradation-potential-at-a-site-contaminated-by-a-mixture-of-btex-chlorinated-pollutants-and-pharmaceuticals-using-passive-sampling-methods-case-study
#8
Ondřej Lhotský, Eva Krákorová, Lucie Linhartová, Zdena Křesinová, Jana Steinová, Lukáš Dvořák, Torgeir Rodsand, Alena Filipová, Kristýna Kroupová, Lenka Wimmerová, Jan Kukačka, Tomáš Cajthaml
The present study describes a pilot remediation test of a co-mingled plume containing BTEX, chlorinated pollutants and pharmaceuticals. Remediation was attempted using a combination of various approaches, including a pump and treat system applying an advanced oxidation process and targeted direct push injections of calcium peroxide. The remediation process was monitored intensively and extensively throughout the pilot test using various conventional and passive sampling methods, including next-generation amplicon sequencing...
July 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756144/blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-early-days-correlation-between-passive-activation-and-motor-recovery-after-unilateral-striatocapsular-cerebral-infarction
#9
Long-Jiang Zhou, Wei Wang, Yi Zhao, Chun-Feng Liu, Xin-Jiang Zhang, Zhen-Sheng Liu, Hua-Dong Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pattern and the motor function recovery of an affected limb during the passive movement of the affected limb at an early stage of the striatocapsular infarction (SCI). METHODS: A total of 17 patients with an acute stage of SCI and 3 healthy volunteers as controls were included in this study. fMRI scans of passive movement were performed on the affected limbs of stroke patients within 1 week of onset...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753285/activity-and-reactivity-of-pyrogenic-carbonaceous-matter-toward-organic-compounds
#10
J J Pignatello, William A Mitch, Wenqing Xu
Pyrogenic carbonaceous matter (PCM) includes environmental black carbon (fossil fuel soot, biomass char), engineered carbons (biochar, activated carbon), and related materials like graphene and nanotubes. These materials contact organic pollutants due to their widespread presence in the environment or through their use in various engineering applications. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of adsorption and chemical reactions mediated by PCM and the links between these processes. It also covers adsorptive processes previously receiving little attention and ignored in models such as steric constraints, physicochemical effects of confinement in nanopores, π interactions of aromatic compounds with polyaromatic surfaces, and very strong hydrogen bonding of ionizable compounds with surface functional groups...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750530/wireless-oxygen-sensors-enabled-by-fe-ii-polymer-wrapped-carbon-nanotubes
#11
Rong Zhu, Maude Desroches, Bora Yoon, Timothy M Swager
Oxygen causes food spoilage and drug degradation, which is addressed commercially by modified atmosphere packaging. We report herein a wireless oxygen sensor, O2-p-CARD, from solution processed Fe(II)-poly(4-vinylpyridine)-single-walled carbon nanotube composites on commercial passive near-field communication tags. A large irreversible attenuation in the reflection signal of an O2-p-CARD was observed in response to oxygen at relevant concentrations, enabling non-line-of-sight monitoring of modified atmosphere packaging...
July 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743965/nanocrystalline-diamond-protects-zr-cladding-surface-against-oxygen-and-hydrogen-uptake-nuclear-fuel-durability-enhancement
#12
Jan Škarohlíd, Petr Ashcheulov, Radek Škoda, Andrew Taylor, Radim Čtvrtlík, Jan Tomáštík, František Fendrych, Jaromír Kopeček, Vladimír Cháb, Stanislav Cichoň, Petr Sajdl, Jan Macák, Peng Xu, Jonna M Partezana, Jan Lorinčík, Jana Prehradná, Martin Steinbrück, Irena Kratochvílová
In this work, we demonstrate and describe an effective method of protecting zirconium fuel cladding against oxygen and hydrogen uptake at both accident and working temperatures in water-cooled nuclear reactor environments. Zr alloy samples were coated with nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layers of different thicknesses, grown in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition apparatus. In addition to showing that such an NCD layer prevents the Zr alloy from directly interacting with water, we show that carbon released from the NCD film enters the underlying Zr material and changes its properties, such that uptake of oxygen and hydrogen is significantly decreased...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723674/nanoparticles-and-female-reproductive-system-how-do-nanoparticles-affect-oogenesis-and-embryonic-development
#13
REVIEW
Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Along with the increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in many walks of life, environmental exposure to NPs has raised considerable health concerns. When NPs enter a pregnant woman's body through inhalation, venous injection, ingestion or skin permeation, maternal toxic stress reactions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, apoptosis and endocrine dyscrasia are induced in different organs, particularly in the reproductive organs. Recent studies have shown that NPs disturb the developing oocyte by invading the protective barrier of theca cells, granulosa cell layers and zona pellucida...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714246/carbon-nanodot-sensitized-modulation-of-alzheimer-s-%C3%AE-amyloid-self-assembly-disassembly-and-toxicity
#14
You Jung Chung, Kayoung Kim, Byung Il Lee, Chan Beum Park
The self-assembly of amyloidogenic peptides into β-sheet-rich aggregates is a general feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, which signifies the need for the effective attenuation of amyloid aggregation toward alleviating amyloid-associated neurotoxicity. This study reports that photoluminescent carbon nanodots (CDs) can effectively suppress Alzheimer's β-amyloid (Aβ) self-assembly and function as a β-sheet breaker disintegrating preformed Aβ aggregates. This study synthesizes CDs using ammonium citrate through one-pot hydrothermal treatment and passivates their surface with branched polyethylenimine (bPEI)...
July 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709104/biological-attenuation-of-arsenic-and-iron-in-a-continuous-flow-bioreactor-treating-acid-mine-drainage-amd
#15
L Fernandez-Rojo, M Héry, P Le Pape, C Braungardt, A Desoeuvre, E Torres, V Tardy, E Resongles, E Laroche, S Delpoux, C Joulian, F Battaglia-Brunet, J Boisson, G Grapin, G Morin, C Casiot
Passive water treatments based on biological attenuation can be effective for arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). However, the key factors driving the biological processes involved in this attenuation are not well-known. Here, the efficiency of arsenic (As) removal was investigated in a bench-scale continuous flow channel bioreactor treating As-rich AMD (∼30-40 mg L(-1)). In this bioreactor, As removal proceeds via the formation of biogenic precipitates consisting of iron- and arsenic-rich mineral phases encrusting a microbial biofilm...
June 22, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692805/stability-scale-up-and-performance-of-quantum-dot-solar-cells-with-carbonate-treated-titanium-oxide-films
#16
P Naresh Kumar, Ankita Kolay, Melepurath Deepa, S M Shivaprasad, Avanish K Srivastava
A novel yet simple approach of carbonate (CBN) treatment of TiO2 films is performed, and quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) with high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), reasonably good stabilities, and good fill factors (FFs) are fabricated with TiO2-CBN films. The ability of carbonate groups to passivate defects or oxygen vacancies of TiO2 is confirmed from a nominally enhanced band gap, a lowered defect induced fluorescence intensity, an additional Ti-OH signal obtained after carbonate decomposition, and a more capacitive low frequency electrochemical impedance behavior achieved for TiO2-CBN compared to untreated TiO2...
July 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692280/revealing-nanoscale-passivation-and-corrosion-mechanisms-of-reactive-battery-materials-in-gas-environments
#17
Yuzhang Li, Yanbin Li, Yongming Sun, Benjamin Butz, Kai Yan, Ai Leen Koh, Jie Zhao, Allen Pei, Yi Cui
Lithium (Li) metal is a high-capacity anode material (3860 mAh g(-1)) that can enable high-energy batteries for electric vehicles and grid-storage applications. However, Li metal is highly reactive and repeatedly consumed when exposed to liquid electrolyte (during battery operation) or the ambient environment (throughout battery manufacturing). Studying these corrosion reactions on the nanoscale is especially difficult due to the high chemical reactivity of both Li metal and its surface corrosion films. Here, we directly generate pure Li metal inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (TEM), revealing the nanoscale passivation and corrosion process of Li metal in oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and water vapor (H2O)...
July 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686793/learning-and-memory-effects-of-neonatal-methamphetamine-exposure-in-rats-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-age-at-assessment
#18
Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
In utero methamphetamine (MA) exposure leads to a range of adverse effects, such as decreased attention, reduced working-memory capability, behavioral dysregulation, and spatial memory impairments in exposed children. In the current experiment, preweaning Sprague-Dawley rats, as a model of third trimester human exposure, were administered the spin trapping agent, N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN), daily prior to MA. Rats were given 0 (SAL) or 40 mg/kg PBN prior to each MA dose (10 mg/kg, 4x per day) from postnatal day (P) 6-15...
July 7, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686441/a-direct-alcohol-fuel-cell-driven-by-an-outer-sphere-positive-electrode
#19
Zahid Manzoor Bhat, Ravikumar Thimmappa, Mruthunjayachari Chattanahalli Devendrachari, Shahid Pottachola Shafi, Shambulinga Aralekallu, Alagar Raja Kottaichamy, Manu Gautam, Musthafa Ottakam Thotiyl
Molecular oxygen, the conventional electron acceptor in fuel cells poses challenges specific to direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs). Due to the coupling of alcohol dehydrogenation with the scission of oxygen on the positive electrode during the alcohol crossover, the benchmark Pt-based air cathode experiences severe competition and depolarization losses. The necessity of heavy precious metal loading with domains for alcohol tolerance in the state of the art DAFC cathode is a direct consequence of this. Although efforts are dedicated to selectively cleave oxygen, the root of the problem being the inner sphere nature of either half-cell chemistry is often overlooked...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680039/improved-energetic-behaviors-of-spontaneously-surface-mediated-al-particles
#20
Dong Won Kim, Kyung Tae Kim, Tae Sik Min, Kyung Ju Kim, Soo Hyung Kim
Surface-mediated Al particles are synthesized by incorporating the stable fluoride reaction of Al-F on a pure Al surface in place of natural oxides. Al particles with fluoro-polymer directly adsorbed on the surface show a considerable capability to overcome limitations caused by the surface oxide. Here, we report that Al fluoride when spontaneously formed at the poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Al interface serves as an oxidation-protecting layer while also providing an efficient combustion path along which the internal Al rapidly reacts with external oxygen atoms...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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