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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215890/control-of-gallium-oxide-growth-on-liquid-metal-eutectic-gallium-indium-nanoparticles-via-thiolation
#1
Zachary J Farrell, Christopher Tabor
Eutectic gallium-indium alloy (EGaIn, a room-temperature liquid metal) nanoparticles are of interest for their unique potential uses in self-healing and flexible electronic devices. One reason for their interest is due to a passivating oxide skin that develops spontaneously on exposure to ambient atmosphere which resists deformation and rupture of the resultant liquid particles. It is then of interest to develop methods for control of this oxide growth process. It is hypothesized here that functionalization of EGaIn nanoparticles with thiolated molecules could moderate oxide growth based on insights from the Cabrera-Mott oxidation model...
December 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214460/blood-flow-restriction-late-in-recovery-after-heavy-resistance-exercise-hampers-muscle-recuperation
#2
Kestutis Bunevicius, Albinas Grunovas, Tomas Venckunas, Kristina Poderiene, Eugenijus Trinkunas, Jonas Poderys
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of acute blood flow restriction during the late recovery phase between two resistance exercise bouts on muscular endurance and oxygenation. METHODS: Amateur male middle- and long-distance runners performed two bouts of one-leg dynamic plantar flexion exercise to failure with the load equivalent to 75% of maximum. Subjects were randomly assigned into two experimental groups with thigh occlusion pressure between bouts at either 120 or 200 mmHg with 20 min of passive rest in between, and two control groups without any blood flow restriction separated by either 5 or 20 min of rest...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196421/integrative-model-of-coronary-flow-in-anatomically-based-vasculature-under-myogenic-shear-and-metabolic-regulation
#3
Ravi Namani, Ghassan S Kassab, Yoram Lanir
Coronary blood flow is regulated to match the oxygen demand of myocytes in the heart wall. Flow regulation is essential to meet the wide range of cardiac workload. The blood flows through a complex coronary vasculature of elastic vessels having nonlinear wall properties, under transmural heterogeneous myocardial extravascular loading. To date, there is no fully integrative flow analysis that incorporates global and local passive and flow control determinants. Here, we provide an integrative model of coronary flow regulation that considers the realistic asymmetric morphology of the coronary network, the dynamic myocardial loading on the vessels embedded in it, and the combined effects of local myogenic effect, local shear regulation, and conducted metabolic control driven by venous O2 saturation level...
December 1, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178346/highlighting-patterns-of-fungal-diversity-and-composition-shaped-by-ocean-currents-using-the-east-china-sea-as-a-model
#4
Wei Li, Mengmeng Wang, Haoqin Pan, Gaëtan Burgaud, Shengkang Liang, Jiajia Guo, Tian Luo, Zhaoxia Li, Shoumei Zhang, Lei Cai
How ocean currents shape fungal transport, dispersal and more broadly fungal biogeography remains poorly understood. The East China Sea (ECS) is a complex and dynamic habitat with different water masses blending microbial communities. The internal transcribed spacer 2 region of fungal rDNA was analyzed in water and sediment samples directly collected from the coastal (CWM), Kuroshio (KSWM), Taiwan warm (TWM) and the shelf mixed water mass (MWM), coupled with hydrographic properties measurements, to determine how ocean currents impact the fungal community composition...
November 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176568/low-temperature-fabrication-of-an-hfo2-passivation-layer-for-amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide-thin-film-transistors-using-a-solution-process
#5
Seonghwan Hong, Sung Pyo Park, Yeong-Gyu Kim, Byung Ha Kang, Jae Won Na, Hyun Jae Kim
We report low-temperature solution processing of hafnium oxide (HfO2) passivation layers for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). At 150 °C, the hafnium chloride (HfCl4) precursor readily hydrolyzed in deionized (DI) water and transformed into an HfO2 film. The fabricated HfO2 passivation layer prevented any interaction between the back surface of an a-IGZO TFT and ambient gas. Moreover, diffused Hf4+ in the back-channel layer of the a-IGZO TFT reduced the oxygen vacancy, which is the origin of the electrical instability in a-IGZO TFTs...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176051/polymer-based-doping-control-for-performance-enhancement-of-wet-processed-short-channel-cntfets
#6
Martin Hartmann, Rene Schubel, Martin Claus, Rainer Jordan, Stefan E Schulz, Sascha Hermann
The electrical transport properties of short-channel transistors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) are significantly affected by bundling along with solution processing. We report that especially high off currents of CNT transistors are not only related to the incorporation of metallic CNTs but also to the incorporation of CNT bundles. By applying device passivation with Poly(4-vinylpyridine), the impact of CNT bundling on the device performance can be strongly reduced due to increased gate efficiency as well as reduced oxygen and water-induced p-type doping, boosting essential field-effect transistor (FET) performance parameters by several orders of magnitude...
November 27, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167839/early-life-exposure-to-indoor-air-pollution-or-tobacco-smoke-and-lower-respiratory-tract-illness-and-wheezing-in-african-infants-a-longitudinal-birth-cohort-study
#7
Aneesa Vanker, Whitney Barnett, Lesley Workman, Polite M Nduru, Peter D Sly, Robert P Gie, Heather J Zar
Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are associated with lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) or wheezing in children. However, the effect of the timing of these exposures, specifically antenatal versus postnatal, and of alternate fuel sources such as the increasingly used volatile organic compounds have not been well studied. We longitudinally investigated the effect of antenatal or postnatal IAP and ETS on LRTI or wheezing prevalence and severity in African infants...
November 2017: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161024/performance-and-stability-enhancement-of-in-sn-zn-o-tfts-using-sio2-gate-dielectrics-grown-by-low-temperature-atomic-layer-deposition
#8
Jiazhen Sheng, Ju-Hwan Han, Wan-Ho Choi, Jozeph Park, Jin-Seong Park
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) films were synthesized by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) using BTBAS (bis(tertiarybutylamino) silane) as the precursor and O2 plasma as the reactant, at a temperature range of 50 to 200 °C. While dielectric constant values larger than 3.7 are obtained at all deposition temperatures, the leakage current levels are drastically reduced to below 10-12 A at temperatures above 150 °C, which are similar to those obtained in thermally oxidized and PECVD grown SiO2. Thin film transistors (TFTs) based on In-Sn-Zn-O (ITZO) semiconductors were fabricated using thermal SiO2, PECVD SiO2 and PEALD SiO2 grown at 150 °C as the gate dielectrics, and superior device performance and stability are observed in the last case...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160684/improving-the-stability-of-high-performance-multilayer-mos2-field-effect-transistors
#9
Na Liu, Jongyeol Baek, Seung Min Kim, Seongin Hong, Young Ki Hong, Yang Soo Kim, Hyun-Suk Kim, Sunkook Kim, Jozeph Park
In this study, we propose a method for improving the stability of multilayer MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) by O2 plasma treatment and Al2O3 passivation sustaining high-performance characteristics of bulk MoS2 FET. The MoS2 FETs were exposed to O2 plasma for 30 s prior to Al2O3 encapsulation, showing a relatively small hysteresis and a high electrical performance. The MoOx layer formed during the plasma treatment was found between MoS2 and the top passivation layer. This MoOx interlayer prevents the generation of excess electron carriers in the channel due to Al2O3 passivation, minimizing the shift of threshold voltage (Vth) and increase of off-current leakage...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154189/novel-theranostic-zinc-phthalocyanine-phospholipid-complex-self-assembled-nanoparticles-for-imaging-guided-targeted-photodynamic-treatment-with-controllable-ros-production-and-shape-assisted-enhanced-cellular-uptake
#10
Jinyuan Ma, Yang Li, Guihua Liu, Ai Li, Yilin Chen, Xinyi Zhou, Dengyue Chen, Zhenqing Hou, Xuan Zhu
The novel drug delivery system based on self-assembly of zinc phthalocyanine-soybean phosphatidylcholine (ZnPc-SPC) complex was developed by a co-solvent method followed by a nanoprecipitaion technique. DSPE-PEG-methotrexate (DSPE-PEG-MTX) was introduced on the surface of ZnPc-SPC self-assembled nanoparticles (ZS) to endow them with folate receptor-targeting property. NMR, XRD, FTIR, and UV-vis-NIR analysis demonstrated the weak molecular interaction between ZnPc and SPC. The ZS functionalized with DSPE-PEG-MTX (ZSPM) was successfully constructed with an average particle size of ∼170nm, a narrow size distribution, and could remain physiologically stable for at least 7days...
October 24, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136946/neuroprotective-effect-of-hesperetin-and-nano-hesperetin-on-recognition-memory-impairment-and-the-elevated-oxygen-stress-in-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Elham Kheradmand, Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Zare
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive dementia affecting a large proportion of the aging population. There is evidence that brain tissue in patients with AD is exposed to oxidative stress during the course of the disease. Hesperetin (Hst) is a natural flavonoid, which has been reported to exert various biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on neurobehavioral activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx) and catalase (CAT) enzymes activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in hippocampal area of rats in an experimental model of AD...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134501/pharmacokinetic-properties-of-saffron-and-its-active-components
#12
Azar Hosseini, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron as a medicinal plant has many therapeutic effects. Phytochemical studies have reported that saffron is composed of at least four active ingredients which include crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. The carotenoids of saffron are sensitive to oxygen, light, heat and enzymatic oxidization. However, regulation of these factors is required for saffron quality. Some pharmacologic effects of saffron and its active compounds include cardioprotective, neuroprotective, memory enhancer, antidepressant and anxiolytic...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134423/perioperative-respiratory-complications-current-evidence-and-strategy-discussed-in-2017-ja-symposium
#13
K Hirota, M Yamakage, S Hashimoto, T Asai, S Isono
Respiratory management during general anesthesia aims to safely secure the airway and maintain adequate ventilation to deliver oxygen to the vital organs, maintaining homeostasis even during surgery. Despite its clinical importance, anesthesiologists often encounter difficulties in properly managing respiration during the perioperative period, leading to severe respiratory complications. In this year's JA symposium, 5 editorial board members of Journal of Anesthesia (JA) who are experts in the field of respiratory management in anesthesia discussed the following topics: quitting smoking before surgery: exposure to passive smoke is damaging to children, ventilator-associated pneumonia, high inspiratory oxygen concentration and lung injury, aspiration pneumonia, and postoperative respiratory management strategy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124322/air-breathing-changes-the-pattern-for-temperature-induced-ph-regulation-in-a-bimodal-breathing-teleost
#14
Christian Damsgaard, Mikkel Thy Thomsen, Mark Bayley, Tobias Wang
It is well established that ectothermic vertebrates regulate a lower arterial pH when temperature increases. Typically, water-breathers reduce arterial pH by altering plasma [HCO3(-)], whilst air-breathers rely on ventilatory adjustments to modulate arterial PCO2. However, no studies have investigated whether the shift from water- to air-breathing within a species changes the mechanisms for temperature-induced pH regulation. Here, we used the striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus to examine how pH regulation is affected by water- versus air-breathing, since P...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123868/cardiocerebral-and-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-2017-update
#15
REVIEW
Gordon A Ewy
Sudden cardiac arrest is a major public health problem in the industrialized nations of the world. Yet, in spite of recurrent updates of the guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care, many areas have suboptimal survival rates. Cardiocerebral resuscitation, a non-guidelines approach to therapy of primary cardiac arrest based on our animal research, was instituted in Tucson (AZ, USA) in 2002 and subsequently adopted in other areas of the USA. Survival rates of patients with primary cardiac arrest and a shockable rhythm significantly improved wherever it was adopted...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119549/a-prototype-small-bore-ventilation-catheter-with-a-cuff-cuff-inflation-optimizes-ventilation-with-the-ventrain
#16
M W P de Wolf, T van der Beek, A E Hamaekers, M Theunissen, D Enk
BACKGROUND: Ventilation through small-diameter tubes typically precludes use of a cuff as this will impede the necessary passive outflow of gas alongside the tube's outer surface. Ventrain assists expiration and enables oxygenation and normoventilation through small-bore cannulas or catheters, particularly in obstructed airways. A small-bore ventilation catheter (SBVC; 40 cm long, 2.2 mm inner diameter) with a separate pressure monitoring lumen and a cuff was developed. Efficacy of oxygenation and ventilation with Ventrain through this catheter was investigated in sealed and open airways in a porcine cross-over study...
November 8, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118720/altered-right-ventricular-mechanical-properties-are-afterload-dependent-in-a-rodent-model-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#17
Jitandrakumar R Patel, Gregory P Barton, Rudolf K Braun, Kara N Goss, Kristin Haraldsdottir, Alexandria Hopp, Gary Diffee, Timothy A Hacker, Richard L Moss, Marlowe W Eldridge
Infants born premature are at increased risk for development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), pulmonary hypertension (PH), and ultimately right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, which together carry a high risk of neonatal mortality. However, the role alveolar simplification and abnormal pulmonary microvascular development in BPD affects RV contractile properties is unknown. We used a rat model of BPD to examine the effect of hyperoxia-induced PH on RV contractile properties. We measured in vivo RV pressure as well as passive force, maximum Ca(2+) activated force, calcium sensitivity of force (pCa50) and rate of force redevelopment (ktr) in RV skinned trabeculae isolated from hearts of 21-and 35-day old rats pre-exposed to 21% oxygen (normoxia) or 85% oxygen (hyperoxia) for 14 days after birth...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116689/evaluation-of-hemodynamic-performance-of-total-cavopulmonary-connection-tcpc-with-porous-inserts
#18
K Dhayananth, Arunn Narasimhan
Infants born with univentricular heart disease undergo Fontan surgery in order to establish separate systemic and pulmonary circulations. This surgery results in better blood circulation across a single ventricle that supplies oxygenated blood to the body and passively returns venous blood to the lungs through the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). Reducing the pressure drop across the TCPC during Fontan circulation helps in reducing the work load of univentricular heart and various designs have been proposed for this purpose...
November 8, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116603/leigh-syndrome-in-individuals-bearing-m-9185t-c-mtatp6-variant-is-hyperventilation-a-factor-which-starts-its-development
#19
Dorota Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Rafał Rutyna, Elżbieta Czyżyk, Elżbieta Jurkiewicz, Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka, Dariusz Rokicki, Sylwia Stachowicz, Joanna Strzemecka, Wiesław Guz, Michał Gawroński, Aneta Kosierb, Joanna Ligas, Mateusz Puchala, Anna Drelich-Zbroja, Małgorzata Bednarska-Makaruk, Wojciech Dąbrowski, Elżbieta Ciara, Janusz B Książyk, Ewa Pronicka
Leigh syndrome (LS), subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy is caused by various genetic defects, including m.9185T>C MTATP6 variant. Mechanism of LS development remains unknown. We report on the acid-base status of three patients with m.9185T>C related LS. At the onset, it showed respiratory alkalosis, reflecting excessive respiration effort (hyperventilation with low pCO2). In patient 1, the deterioration occurred in temporal relation to passive oxygen therapy. To the contrary, on the recovery, she demonstrated a relatively low respiratory drive, suggesting that a "hypoventilation" might be beneficial for m...
November 7, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095446/in-situ-xas-study-of-cobi-modified-hematite-photoanodes
#20
Lifei Xi, Christoph Schwanke, Dong Zhou, Dorian Drevon, Roel van de Krol, Kathrin M Lange
Solar water splitting is a potentially scalable method to store solar energy in the form of renewable hydrogen gas. In this study, we demonstrate that the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of hematite photoanodes can be improved by modification with the oxygen evolution catalyst CoBi. The current density at 1.23 V of the pristine hematite under one sun is 0.88 mA cm(-2) and it increases to 1.12 mA cm(-2) after CoBi modification (∼27% improvement). The presence of a CoBi cocatalayst layer is proposed to improve the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) kinetics and also to prevent electron-hole recombination at the surface via passivating surface defects as well as suppressing the tunneling of electrons from the hematite core, thus improving the photocurrents and resulting in a negative shift of photocurrent onset potentials...
November 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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