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Anthocyanin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775294/management-zone-delineation-for-winegrape-selective-harvesting-based-on-fluorescence-sensor-mapping-of-grape-skin-anthocyanins
#1
Giovanni Agati, Kamel Soudani, Lorenza Tuccio, Elisa Fierini, Naima Ben Ghozlen, El Mostafa Fadaili, Annalisa Romani, Zoran G Cerovic
We analyzed the potential of non-destructive optical sensing of grape skin anthocyanins for selective harvesting in precision viticulture. We measured anthocyanins by a hand-held fluorescence optical sensor on a 7-ha Sangiovese vineyard plot in central Italy. Optical indices obtained by the sensor were calibrated for the transformation in units of anthocyanins per berry mass, i.e. mg g-1 berry fresh weight. A full protocol for optimal data filtration, interpolation and homogenous zones delineation based on a very large number of optical measurements was proposed...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774337/fermentation-alters-the-bioaccessible-phenolic-compounds-and-increases-the-alpha-glucosidase-inhibitory-effects-of-aronia-juice-in-a-dairy-matrix-following-in-vitro-digestion
#2
Xue Du, Angela D Myracle
The prevalence of diabetes reached 415 million worldwide in 2015. Polyphenol-rich food intake can benefit the glycemic control for individuals with diabetes. Fermentation may increase the bioavailability of polyphenols, which is generally low. Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) is a polyphenol-rich berry that is native to North America. Proanthocyanins and anthocyanins are the major phenolic compounds in aronia. In this study, aronia kefir was made by fermenting cow's milk with added aronia juice. The changes in bioaccessible polyphenols of aronia kefir during digestion were assessed using an in vitro model...
May 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771352/de-novo-biosynthesis-of-anthocyanins-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Michael Eichenberger, Anders Hansson, David Fischer, Lara Dürr, Michael Naesby
Anthocyanins (ACNs) are plant secondary metabolites responsible for most of the red, purple and blue colors of flowers, fruits and vegetables. They are increasingly used in the food and beverage industry as natural alternative to artificial colorants. Production of these compounds by fermentation of microorganisms would provide an attractive alternative. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for de novo production of the three basic anthocyanins, as well as the three main trans-flavan-3-ols...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769704/effect-of-protocatechuic-acid-on-insulin-responsiveness-and-inflammation-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-obese-individuals-possible-role-for-ptp1b
#4
Paulina Ormazabal, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Rosaria Varì, Carmela Santangelo, Massimo D'Archivio, Gianfranco Silecchia, Annunziata Iacovelli, Claudio Giovannini, Roberta Masella
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in obese subjects precipitates the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Anthocyanins and their main metabolite protocatechuic acid (PCA) have been demonstrated to stimulate insulin signaling in human adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PCA is able to modulate insulin responsiveness and inflammation in VAT from obese (OB) and normal weight (NW) subjects...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767238/red-mulberry-fruit-aqueous-extract-and-silk-proteins-accelerate-acute-ethanol-metabolism-and-promote-the-anti%C3%A2-oxidant-enzyme-systems-in-rats
#5
Hye Jeong Yang, Min Jung Kim, Eun Seon Kang, Da Sol Kim, Sunmin Park
Red mulberry (Morus alba) fruit is rich in anthocyanins, and mulberry leaves are used by silk worms to make silk protein. We determined that the water and ethanol extract of mulberry fruit and silk amino acids accelerated ethanol degradation and suppressed temporal cognitive dysfunction in acute alcohol administered rats. The mechanism was explored in rats with acute oral administration of silk protein and mulberry fruit extracts. Rats were given 0.3 g of dextrin (control) and water extract (WMB) and ethanol extract of mulberry (EMB), silk protein hydrolysates (SKA), and a commercial product (positive‑control) based on body weight...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766782/role-of-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-the-beneficial-effects-of-flavonoids
#6
Mohammad Shamsul Ola, Dalia Al-Dosari, Abdullah S Alhomida
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness in developed countries. Diabetes-induced metabolic disorder is believed to increase oxidative stress in the retina. This results in deleterious changes through dysregulation of cellular physiology that damages both neuronal and vascular cells. Here in this review, we first highlight the evidence of potential metabolic sources and pathways which increase oxidative stress that contributes to retinal pathology in diabetes...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766690/garden-nasturtium-tropaeolum-majus-l-a-source-of-mineral-elements-and-bioactive-compounds
#7
Karolina Jakubczyk, Katarzyna Janda, Katarzyna Watychowicz, Jagoda Łukasiak, Jolanta Wolska
The garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) belongs to the family Tropaeolaceae. Native to South America it was brought to Europe in XVI century. It is a plant with numerous healing properties. Medicinal plants such as the garden nasturtium contain trace elements and bioactive compounds which can be easily absorbed by the human body. The flowers and other parts of the garden nasturtium are a good source of micro elements such as potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, and macro elements, especially of zinc, copper and iron...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765504/polyphenolic-compounds-antioxidant-and-cardioprotective-effects-of-pomace-extracts-from-feteasc%C3%A4-neagr%C3%A4-cultivar
#8
Ştefania Silvia Balea, Alina Elena Pârvu, Nastasia Pop, Fernando Zamora Marín, Marcel Pârvu
Grape pomace is a potential source of natural antioxidant agents. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant and cardioprotective properties of fresh and fermented pomace extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera L. red variety Fetească neagră grown in Romania in 2015 were investigated. Grape pomace extracts total phenolic index, total tannins, total anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavan-3-ol monomers, stilbenes, and DPPH free radical scavenger were measured. The effect of a seven-day pretreatment with grape pomace extracts on the isoprenaline-induced infarct-like lesion in rats was assessed by ECG monitoring, serum levels of creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759310/flavanols-are-potential-anti-obesity-agents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-clinical-trials
#9
M Akhlaghi, S Ghobadi, M Mohammad Hosseini, Z Gholami, F Mohammadian
BACKGROUND: The anti-obesity potential of flavonoids has been shown by animal and human studies. In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed controlled clinical trials and quantified the effects of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses on obesity-related anthropometric measures. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest databases were searched to identify trials examining the effect of flavonoids on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat percentage...
April 13, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758982/melatonin-antagonizes-jasmonate-triggered-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
Yu Ai, Ziqiang Zhu
As a plant-specific flavonoid type metabolite, anthocyanin is an important plant-sourced nutrition. Although anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway has been revealed, how to modulate anthocyanin production by endogenous molecules is still elusive. Here, we investigated the role of melatonin in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana and found that melatonin suppresses anthocyanin synthesis. Moreover, melatonin was able to significantly inhibit jasmonate-stimulated anthocyanin production...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755991/drying-rate-and-product-quality-evaluation-of-roselle-hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-calyces-extract-dried-with-foaming-agent-under-different-temperatures
#11
Mohamad Djaeni, Andri Cahyo Kumoro, Setia Budi Sasongko, Febiani Dwi Utari
The utilisation of roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyx as a source of anthocyanins has been explored through intensive investigations. Due to its perishable property, the transformation of roselle calyces into dried extract without reducing their quality is highly challenging. The aim of this work was to study the effect of air temperatures and relative humidity on the kinetics and product quality during drying of roselle extract foamed with ovalbumin and glycerol monostearate (GMS). The results showed that foam mat drying increased the drying rate significantly and retained the antioxidant activity and colour of roselle calyces extract...
2018: International Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755971/impact-of-increasing-levels-of-oxygen-consumption-on-the-evolution-of-color-phenolic-and-volatile-compounds-of-nebbiolo-wines
#12
Maurizio Petrozziello, Fabrizio Torchio, Federico Piano, Simone Giacosa, Maurizio Ugliano, Antonella Bosso, Luca Rolle
Since the end of the last century, many works have been carried out to verify the effect of controlled oxygen intake on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of red wines. In spite of the large number of studies on this subject, oxygen remains a cutting-edge research topic in oenology. Oxygen consumption leads to complex and not univocal changes in wine composition, sometimes positive such as color stabilization, softening of mouthfeel, increase of aroma complexity. However, the variability of these effects, which depend both on the oxygenation conditions and the composition of the wine, require more efforts in this research field to effectively manage wine oxygen exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751916/phytochemical-and-physical-properties-of-blueberries-tart-cherries-strawberries-and-cranberries-as-affected-by-different-drying-methods
#13
Boris Nemzer, Luis Vargas, Xiaoyan Xia, Marsha Sintara, Hao Feng
The effects of hot-air drying (AD), freeze drying (FD) and Refractance Window drying (RWD) on the retention of anthocyanins, phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and B, and antioxidant capacity (ORAC) in blueberries, tart cherries, strawberries, and cranberries, as well as organic acids and proanthocyanins in cranberries and chlorogenic acid and catchins in blueberries were evaluated. Changes in color, glass transition, specific heat, and surface morphology of the dried fruits were also evaluated. The quality retention in the dried fruits was found to be product and drying method specific...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751487/preparation-and-antioxidant-activity-of-ethyl-linked-anthocyanin-flavanol-pigments-from-model-wine-solutions
#14
Lingxi Li, Minna Zhang, Shuting Zhang, Yan Cui, Baoshan Sun
Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers), are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study...
May 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749527/purple-sweet-potato-anthocyanin-exerts-antitumor-effect-in-bladder-cancer
#15
Wei-Lin Li, Hong-Yuan Yu, Xian-Jun Zhang, Mang Ke, Tao Hong
Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common malignant disease. The developing of economically sustainable and available agents for the treatment of BC is required. Purple sweet potato anthocyanin (PSPA) has been shown to have antitumor abilities. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential role of PSPA in BC treatment. CCK-8 assay was used to assess the viability of BC cells. Flow cytometry assays were performed to evaluate the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution...
May 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746533/jasmonate-signalling-pathway-in-strawberry-genome-wide-identification-molecular-characterization-and-expression-of-jazs-and-mycs-during-fruit-development-and-ripening
#16
Adrián Garrido-Bigotes, Nicolás E Figueroa, Pablo M Figueroa, Carlos R Figueroa
Jasmonates (JAs) are signalling molecules involved in stress responses, development and secondary metabolism biosynthesis, although their roles in fleshy-fruit development and ripening processes are not well known. In strawberry fruit, it has been proposed that JAs could regulate the early development through the activation of the JAs biosynthesis. Moreover, it has been reported that JA treatment increases anthocyanin content in strawberry fruit involving the bioactive jasmonate biosynthesis. Nevertheless, JA signalling pathway, of which main components are the COI1-JAZ co-receptor and the MYC transcription factors (TFs), has not been characterized in strawberry until now...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742931/the-intraocular-staining-potential-of-anthocyanins-and-their-retinal-biocompatibility-a-preclinical-study
#17
Lan-Hsin Chuang, An-Lun Wu, Nan-Kai Wang, Kuan-Jen Chen, Laura Liu, Yih-Shiou Hwang, Ling Yeung, Wei-Chi Wu, Chi-Chun Lai
PURPOSE: To perform preclinical studies to determine the efficacy and safety of anthocyanins as stains for the internal limiting membrane (ILM) of the eye. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cyanidin (Cya), delphinidin (Del), luteolinidin (Lut), peonidin (Peo), and pelargonidin (Pel) were evaluated. These natural dyes were used to stain the lens capsule and ILM of pig eyes. The effects of these dyes on retinal cell viability was determined using a water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay, and oxidative stress was measured in vitro...
May 9, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742507/cyanidin-curtails-renal-cell-carcinoma-tumorigenesis
#18
Xiaobing Liu, Dangling Zhang, Yaxing Hao, Qian Liu, Yuqi Wu, Xin Liu, Jing Luo, Tao Zhou, Bishao Sun, Xing Luo, Jie Xu, Qingqing Wang, Zhenxing Yang, Longkun Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cyanidin is an anthocyanin found in many foods. Although its variable antioxidant levels are well-documented, little is known about its effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumorigenesis. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of cyanidin on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of renal cell carcinoma lines and demonstrated, for the first time, significant inhibitory effects of cyanidin on RCC tumorigenesis. METHODS: RCC cells were treated with different doses of cyanidin and the effects were tested by Cell Counting Kit-8 reagent, clone formation assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry...
May 5, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742305/red-grape-vitis-vinifera-l-flavonoids-down-regulate-collagen-type-iii-expression-after-uv-a-in-primary-human-dermal-blood-endothelial-cells
#19
Serena Di Francesco, Monica Savio, Nora Bloise, Giovanni Borroni, Lucia Anna Stivala, Riccardo G Borroni
Red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) flavonoids including flavan-3-ols (e.g., catechin and epicatechin), flavonols (e.g., quercetin) and anthocyanins (e.g., malvidin) exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In the skin they also have a photoprotective action, and their effects have been extensively investigated in keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts. Despite their known effects also on blood vasculature, little is known on their activities on human dermal blood endothelial cells (HDBECs), which are critically involved in skin homeostasis as well as in the pathogenesis of neoplastic and inflammatory skin diseases...
May 9, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742202/chemistry-inspired-by-the-colors-of-fruits-flowers-and-wine
#20
Frank H Quina, Erick L Bastos
An overview is provided of the status of research at the frontiers of investigation of the chemistry and photochemistry of two classes of natural plant pigments, the anthocyanins and the betalains, as well as of the pyranoanthocyanin pigments formed from anthocyanins during the maturation of red wine. Together, anthocyanins and betalains are responsible for almost all of the red, purple and blue colors of fruits and flowers and anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins are major contributors to the color of red wines...
2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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