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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447103/comparison-of-clinical-outcomes-following-head-and-neck-surgery-among-patients-who-contract-to-abstain-from-alcohol-vs-patients-who-abuse-alcohol
#1
Azeem S Kaka, Songzhu Zhao, Enver Ozer, Amit Agrawal, Stephen Kang, James Rocco, Ricardo Carrau, Theodoros Teknos, John D Clapp, Harrison Weed, Matthew O Old
Importance: Alcohol abuse is highly prevalent in the population of patients with head and neck cancer, and active abuse at the time of surgery results in poor postoperative outcomes. Objective: To determine the association of alcohol abstinence with postoperative outcome in alcohol misusers undergoing major surgical procedures of the head and neck. Design, Setting, and Participants: As a case-control study, from July 2013 to August 2015, outcomes were collected in patients at an academic tertiary referral center requiring free flap reconstruction who had undergone an abstinence contract (n = 15) and compared with those who were abusers of alcohol prior to the inception of the protocol (n = 30)...
April 26, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445000/vegetation-response-to-control-of-invasive-tamarix-in-southwestern-us-rivers-a-collaborative-study-including-416-sites
#2
Eduardo González, Anna A Sher, Robert M Anderson, Robin F Bay, Daniel W Bean, Gabriel J Bissonnete, Bérenger Bourgeois, David J Cooper, Kara Dohrenwend, Kim D Eichhorst, Hisham El Waer, Deborah K Kennard, Rebecca Harms-Weissinger, Annie L Henry, Lori J Makarick, Steven M Ostoja, Lindsay V Reynolds, W Wright Robinson, Patrick B Shafroth
Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely-used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. States. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments...
April 26, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444878/what-do-farmers-weed-control-decisions-imply-about-glyphosate-resistance-evidence-from-surveys-of-u-s-corn-fields
#3
Seth J Wechsler, Jonathan R McFadden, David J Smith
BACKGROUND: The first case of glyphosate-resistant weeds in the United States was documented in 1998, two years after the commercialization of genetically-engineered herbicide-resistant (HR) corn and soybeans. Currently, over 15 glyphosate-resistant weed species affect U.S. crop production areas. These weeds have the potential to reduce yields, increase costs, and lower farm profitability. The objective of our study is to develop a behavioral model of farmers' weed management decisions and use it to analyze weed resistance to glyphosate in U...
April 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443528/understanding-medusahead-low-intake-and-palatability-through-in-vitro-digestibility-and-fermentation-kinetics
#4
J J Montes-Sánchez, J J Villalba
The low intake of medusahead grass (Taeniatherum caput-medusae ssp. asperum) by sheep is attributed to the high silica content of the plant and its negative impact on digestibility, making this weed a successful competitor in grazed plant communities. The goals of this study were to determine the influence of (1) plant maturity stage (from late vegetative stage to beginning of senescence and thatch), (2) particle size (1, 5, 10 and 20 mm), and (3) high-quality feeds (alfalfa hay and a high-energy concentrate) on fermentation kinetics and apparent digestibility of medusahead relative to palatable feeds (alfalfa and tall fescue hays, and high-energy concentrates)...
April 26, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443128/physiological-and-molecular-characterization-of-hydroxyphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase-hppd-inhibitor-resistance-in-palmer-amaranth-amaranthus-palmeri-s-wats
#5
Sridevi Nakka, Amar S Godar, Prashant S Wani, Curtis R Thompson, Dallas E Peterson, Jeroen Roelofs, Mithila Jugulam
Herbicides that inhibit hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) such as mesotrione are widely used to control a broad spectrum of weeds in agriculture. Amaranthus palmeri is an economically troublesome weed throughout the United States. The first case of evolution of resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides in A. palmeri was documented in Kansas (KS) and later in Nebraska (NE). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechansim of HPPD-inhibitor (mesotrione) resistance in A. palmeri. Dose response analysis revealed that this population (KSR) was 10-18 times more resistant than their sensitive counterparts (MSS or KSS)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442795/becoming-weeds
#6
C Neal Stewart
A new resequencing analysis of weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) biotypes illuminates distinct evolutionary paths and outcomes of de-domestication and ferality. This largest effort to date in weedy plant genomics gives a better understanding of weediness while also providing a promising source of alleles for rice breeding.
April 26, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439279/metabolic-investigation-of-phelipanche-aegyptiaca-reveals-significant-changes-during-developmental-stages-and-in-its-different-organs
#7
Noam Nativ, Yael Hacham, Joseph Hershenhorn, Evgenia Dor, Rachel Amir
Phelipanche aegyptiaca Pers. is a root holoparasitic plant considered to be among the most destructive agricultural weeds worldwide. In order to gain more knowledge about the metabolic profile of the parasite during its developmental stages, we carried out primary metabolic and lipid profiling using GC-MS analysis. In addition, the levels of amino acids that incorporate into proteins, total protein in the albumin fraction, nitrogen, reduced sugars, and phenols were determined. For the assays, the whole plants from the four developmental stages-tubercle, pre-emergent shoot, post-emergent shoot, and mature flowering plants-were taken...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438777/preference-for-an-opioid-benzodiazepine-mixture-over-an-opioid-alone-using-a-concurrent-choice-procedure-in-rhesus-monkeys
#8
Peter F Weed, Charles P France, Lisa R Gerak
Increased opioid abuse is contributing to a dramatic rise in overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines are frequently coabused with opioids, possibly because they increase the potency and/or effectiveness of opioids. This study used a concurrent choice procedure to determine whether monkeys would choose to self-administer a mixture of the opioid remifentanil and the benzodiazepine midazolam over remifentanil alone. Initially, three monkeys could respond on one lever for saline and on a second lever for either remifentanil alone or midazolam alone...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437402/don-t-pass-the-weed-or-say-guns
#9
Steve Mirsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429727/selection-of-relatively-exact-reference-genes-for-gene-expression-studies-in-goosegrass-eleusine-indica-under-herbicide-stress
#10
Jingchao Chen, Zhaofeng Huang, Hongjuan Huang, Shouhui Wei, Yan Liu, Cuilan Jiang, Jie Zhang, Chaoxian Zhang
Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is one of the most serious annual grassy weeds worldwide, and its evolved herbicide-resistant populations are more difficult to control. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a common technique for investigating the resistance mechanism; however, there is as yet no report on the systematic selection of stable reference genes for goosegrass. This study proposed to test the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in goosegrass in different tissues and developmental stages and under stress from three types of herbicide...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428854/not-all-weeds-are-created-equal-a-database-approach-uncovers-differences-in-the-sexual-system-of-native-and-introduced-weeds
#11
Megan L Van Etten, Jeffrey K Conner, Shu-Mei Chang, Regina S Baucom
Weedy species provide excellent opportunities to examine the process of successful colonization of novel environments. Despite the influence of the sexual system on a variety of processes from reproduction to genetic structure, how the sexual system of species influences weediness has received only limited consideration. We examined the hypothesis that weedy plants have an increased likelihood of being self-compatible compared with nonweedy plants; this hypothesis is derived from Baker's law, which states that species that can reproduce uniparentally are more likely to successfully establish in a new habitat where mates are lacking...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426703/effects-of-over-expressing-a-native-gene-encoding-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate-synthase-epsps-on-glyphosate-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Xiao Yang, Zachery T Beres, Lin Jin, Jason T Parrish, Wanying Zhao, David Mackey, Allison A Snow
Widespread overuse of the herbicide glyphosate, the active ingredient in RoundUp®, has led to the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes, some of which persist by overproducing the herbicide's target enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). EPSPS is a key enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, lignin, and defensive compounds, but little is known about how overproducing EPSPS affects downstream metabolites, growth, or lifetime fitness in the absence of glyphosate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424723/evidence-mechanism-and-alternative-chemical-seedbank-level-control-of-glyphosate-resistance-of-a-rigid-ryegrass-lolium-rigidum-biotype-from-southern-spain
#13
Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Fernando Bastida, Rafael De Prado
Rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is one of the most troublesome weeds in different crops in the Mediterranean region. A rigid ryegrass biotype from an olive grove in Jaén province (Andalusía, southern Spain), potentially resistant to glyphosate (RG), was tested for its resistance level through dose-response assays using a susceptible biotype (SG). To test the hypothesis of a non-target-site-based resistance, as point mutations are far less common mechanisms of glyphosate resistance, studies were also conducted to elucidate whether resistance was associated with biochemical, metabolism, molecular and/or physiological mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422495/cochliotoxin-a-dihydropyranopyran-4-5-dione-and-its-analogues-produced-by-cochliobolus-australiensis-display-phytotoxic-activity-against-buffelgrass-cenchrus-ciliaris
#14
Marco Masi, Susan Meyer, Suzette Clement, Alessio Cimmino, Massimo Cristofaro, Antonio Evidente
Buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare or Cenchrus ciliaris) is a perennial grass that has become highly invasive in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona. In the search for novel control strategies against this weed, strains of the foliar fungal pathogen Cochliobolus australiensis from buffelgrass have been screened for their ability to produce phytotoxic metabolites that could potentially be used as natural herbicides in an integrated pest management strategy. A new phytotoxin, named cochliotoxin, was isolated from liquid culture of this fungus together with radicinin, radicinol, and their 3-epimers...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421101/hyperspectral-technologies-for-assessing-seed-germination-and-trifloxysulfuron-methyl-response-in-amaranthus-palmeri-palmer-amaranth
#15
Maor Matzrafi, Ittai Herrmann, Christian Nansen, Tom Kliper, Yotam Zait, Timea Ignat, Dana Siso, Baruch Rubin, Arnon Karnieli, Hanan Eizenberg
Weed infestations in agricultural systems constitute a serious challenge to agricultural sustainability and food security worldwide. Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson (Palmer amaranth) is one of the most noxious weeds causing significant yield reductions in various crops. The ability to estimate seed viability and herbicide susceptibility is a key factor in the development of a long-term management strategy, particularly since the misuse of herbicides is driving the evolution of herbicide response in various weed species...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418615/co-expression-of-gr79-epsps-and-gat-yields-herbicide-resistant-cotton-with-low-glyphosate-residues
#16
Chengzhen Liang, Bao Sun, Zhigang Meng, Zhaohong Meng, Yuan Wang, Guoqing Sun, Tao Zhu, Wei Lu, Wei Zhang, Waqas Malik, Min Lin, Rui Zhang, Sandui Guo
Glyphosate resistant (GR) crops have been adopted on a massive scale by North and South American farmers. Currently, about 80% of the 120 million hectares of the global genetically-modified (GM) crops are GR crop varieties. However, the adoption of GR plants in China has not occurred at the same pace, owing to several factors including, among other things, labor markets and the residual effects of glyphosate in transgenic plants. Here, we report the co-expression of codon-optimized forms of GR79 EPSPS and N-acetyltransferase (GAT) genes in cotton...
April 18, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414779/seed-germination-in-relation-to-the-invasiveness-in-spiny-amaranth-and-edible-amaranth-in-xishuangbanna-sw-china
#17
Juan Ye, Bin Wen
Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor) are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411550/nature-based-solutions-to-mitigate-soil-sealing-in-urban-areas-results-from-a-4-year-study-comparing-permeable-porous-and-impermeable-pavements
#18
A Fini, P Frangi, J Mori, D Donzelli, F Ferrini
Soil sealing is one of the most pervasive forms of soil degradation that follows urbanization and, despite innovative pavements (i.e. pervious) are being installed in urban areas to mitigate it, there is little research on the effects of pervious pavements on soil water and carbon cycle and on the physiology of urban trees. The aim of this 4-year experiment was to assess the effects of three pavements, differing in permeability to water and gases, on some soil physical parameters, and on growth and physiology of newly planted Celtis australis and Fraxinus ornus...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409935/assessment-of-two-solid-anaerobic-digestate-soil-amendments-for-effects-on-soil-quality-and-biosolarization-efficacy
#19
Jesus Dionisio Fernandez-Bayo, Yigal Achmon, Duff R Harrold, Dlinka G McCurry, Katie Hernandez, Ruth M Dahlquist-Willard, James J Stapleton, Jean S VanderGheynst, Christopher W Simmons
Anaerobic digestion is an organic waste bioconversion process that produces biofuel and digestates. Digestates have potential to be applied as soil amendment to improve properties for crop production including phytonutrient content and pest load. Our objective was to assess the impact of solid anaerobic digestates on weed seed inactivation and soil quality upon soil biosolarization (a pest control technique that combines solar heating and amendment-induced microbial activity). Two solid digestates from thermophilic (TD) and a mesophilic (MD) digesters were tested...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405794/a-model-for-the-spread-of-an-invasive-weed-tradescantia-fluminensis
#20
Alexandra B Hogan, Mary R Myerscough
Tradescantia fluminensis is an invasive weed and a serious threat to native forests in eastern Australia and New Zealand. Current methods of eradication are often ineffective, so understanding the growth mechanisms of Tradescantia is important in formulating better control strategies. We present a partial differential equation (PDE) model for Tradescantia growth and spatial proliferation that accounts for Tradescantia's particular creeping and branching morphology, and the impact of self-shading on plant growth...
April 12, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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