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David Thornby, Jeff Werth, James Hereward, Michelle Keenan, Bhagirath S Chauhan
BACKGROUND: Because herbicide resistance evolves in very large populations over periods of many years, modelling is an important tool for investigating the dynamics of the problem. The Diversity model tracks the simultaneous evolution of resistance to multiple herbicides, using multiple genetic pathways, in several weed species at once. Tracking multiple species and simultaneous resistances is an important development in resistance modelling. We used the Diversity model to test weed management strategies for new cropping cotton varieties with multiple herbicide tolerances ('triple-stacked' varieties), in an Australian context...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
John Connolly, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Laura Kirwan, John Anthony Finn, Rosa Llurba, Matthias Suter, Rosemary P Collins, Claudio Porqueddu, Áslaug Helgadóttir, Ole H Baadshaug, Gilles Bélanger, Alistair Black, Caroline Brophy, Jure Čop, Sigridur Dalmannsdóttir, Ignacio Delgado, Anjo Elgersma, Michael Fothergill, Bodil E Frankow-Lindberg, An Ghesquiere, Piotr Golinski, Philippe Grieu, Anne-Maj Gustavsson, Mats Höglind, Olivier Huguenin-Elie, Marit Jørgensen, Zydre Kadziuliene, Tor Lunnan, Paivi Nykanen-Kurki, Angela Ribas, Friedhelm Taube, Ulrich Thumm, Alex De Vliegher, Andreas Lüscher
Grassland diversity can support sustainable intensification of grassland production through increased yields, reduced inputs and limited weed invasion. We report the effects of diversity on weed suppression from 3 years of a 31-site continental-scale field experiment.At each site, 15 grassland communities comprising four monocultures and 11 four-species mixtures based on a wide range of species' proportions were sown at two densities and managed by cutting. Forage species were selected according to two crossed functional traits, "method of nitrogen acquisition" and "pattern of temporal development"...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
Graciene de Souza Bido, Hingrid Ariane da Silva, Tiara da Silva Coelho Bortolo, Marcos Rodrigues Maldonado, Rogério Marchiosi, Wanderley Dantas Dos Santos, Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho
Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) is an efficient cover forage that controls weeds, pathogens and nematodes, and the non-protein amino acid L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is its main allelochemical. The effects of 3 g L-1 of an aqueous extract of velvet bean seeds, along with 0.5 mM L-DOPA for comparison, were evaluated in roots, stems and leaves of soybean (Glycine max). The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) were determined, along with the lignin content and its monomeric composition...
March 14, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Dorota Woźniak, Sylwester Ślusarczyk, Krzysztof Domaradzki, Andrzej Dryś, Adam Matkowski
European Pharmacopoeia accepts two equivalent species Solidago canadensis L. and S. gigantea Ait. as Goldenrod (Solidaginis herba). We compared phytochemical profile of both species from invasive populations in Poland. Further, we compared in vitro antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of solvent extracts from aerial (AP) and underground parts (UP). In S. gigantea, flavonoid profile was dominated by quercetin glycosides, with quercitrin as the major compound. In S. canadensis, quercetin and kaempferol rutinosides were two major constituents...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Thomas R Butts, Chase A Samples, Lucas X Franca, Darrin M Dodds, Daniel B Reynolds, Jason W Adams, Richard K Zollinger, Kirk A Howatt, Bradley K Fritz, W Clint Hoffmann, Greg R Kruger
BACKGROUND: Pesticide applications using a specific droplet size and carrier volume could maximize herbicide efficacy while mitigating particle drift in a precise and efficient manner. The objectives were to investigate the influence of spray droplet size and carrier volume on dicamba and glufosinate efficacy, and to determine the plausibility of droplet size based site-specific weed management strategies. RESULTS: Generally, across herbicides and carrier volumes, as droplet size increased, weed control decreased...
March 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Sherry LeClere, Chenxi Wu, Philip Westra, R Douglas Sammons
The understanding and mitigation of the appearance of herbicide-resistant weeds have come to the forefront of study in the past decade, as the number of weed species that are resistant to one or more herbicide modes of action is on the increase. Historically, weed resistance to auxin herbicides has been rare, but examples, such as Kochia scoparia L. Schrad (kochia), have appeared, posing a challenge to conventional agricultural practices. Reports of dicamba-resistant kochia populations began in the early 1990s in areas where auxin herbicides were heavily utilized for weed control in corn and wheat cropping systems, and some biotypes are resistant to other auxin herbicides as well...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dal-Hoe Koo, William T Molin, Christopher A Saski, Jiming Jiang, Karthik Putta, Mithila Jugulam, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill
Gene amplification has been observed in many bacteria and eukaryotes as a response to various selective pressures, such as antibiotics, cytotoxic drugs, pesticides, herbicides, and other stressful environmental conditions. An increase in gene copy number is often found as extrachromosomal elements that usually contain autonomously replicating extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules (eccDNAs). Amaranthus palmeri , a crop weed, can develop herbicide resistance to glyphosate [ N -(phosphonomethyl) glycine] by amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase ( EPSPS ) gene, the molecular target of glyphosate...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Colton O'Brien, Arathi H S
Intensive agricultural practices resulting in large scale habitat loss ranks as the top contributing factors in the global bee decline. Growing Genetically Modified Herbicide Tolerant (GMHT) crops as large monocultures has resulted extensive applications of herbicides leading to the degradation of natural habitats surrounding farmlands. Herbicide tolerance trait is beneficial for crops such as Canola (Brassica napus) that are extremely vulnerable to weed competition. While the trait in itself does not harm pollinators, growing genetically modified herbicide tolerant cultivars indirectly contributes towards pollinator declines through habitat loss...
March 12, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Zongjie Ren, Yuan Li, Wensheng Fang, Dongdong Yan, Bin Huang, Jiahong Zhu, Xiaoning Wang, Xianli Wang, Qiuxia Wang, Meixia Guo, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. RESULTS: The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC50 of 0...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jatinder Singh, Yogalakshmi Kadapakkam Nandabalan
Butachlor is a chloroacetamide herbicide used worldwide for controlling weeds in plants of rice, corn, soybean and other crops. In this study, indigenous bacterial species Ammoniphilus sp. JF was isolated from the agricultural fields of Punjab and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. The bacteria utilized butachlor as the sole carbon source and showed complete degradation (100 mg/L) within 24 h of incubation. Two intermediate products, namely 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl) ester and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol were observed at the end of butachlor degradation...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
J P T Lambert, H L Hicks, D Z Childs, R P Freckleton
Mapping weed densities within crops has conventionally been achieved either by detailed ecological monitoring or by field walking, both of which are time-consuming and expensive. Recent advances have resulted in increased interest in using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to map fields, aiming to reduce labour costs and increase the spatial extent of coverage. However, adoption of this technology ideally requires that mapping can be undertaken automatically and without the need for extensive ground-truthing. This approach has not been validated at large scale using UAS-derived imagery in combination with extensive ground-truth data...
February 2018: Weed Research
Nathalie Amacker, Edward A D Mitchell, Benoît J D Ferrari, Nathalie Chèvre
An ever-increasing diversity of potentially toxic chemical compounds are being developed and released into the environment as a result of human activities (e.g. agriculture, drugs, and cosmetics). Among these, pesticides have been shown to affect non-targeted wildlife since the 1960s. A range of ecotoxicological tests are used to assess the toxicity of pesticides on various model organisms. However most model organisms are metazoans, while the majority of Eukaryotes are unicellular microorganisms known as protists...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Cyril Hamiaux, Revel S M Drummond, Zhiwei Luo, Hui Wen Lee, Prachi Sharma, Bart J Janssen, Nigel B Perry, William A Denny, Kimberley C Snowden
The strigolactone (SL) family of plant hormones regulates a broad range of physiological processes affecting plant growth and development and also plays essential roles in controlling interactions with parasitic weeds and symbiotic fungi. Recent progress elucidating details of SL biosynthesis, signalling, and transport offer many opportunities for discovering new plant growth regulators via chemical interference. Here, using high throughput screening and downstream biochemical assays, we identified N -phenylanthranilic acid derivatives as potent inhibitors of the SL receptors from petunia (DAD2), rice (OsD14) and Arabidopsis (AtD14)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bram Hanse, Frans G J Tijink, Jurgen Maassen, Noud van Swaaij
The reform of the European Union's sugar regime caused potential decreasing beet prices. Therefore, the Speeding Up Sugar Yield (SUSY) project was initiated. At the start, a 3 × 15 target was formulated: in 2015 the national average sugar yield in the Netherlands equals 15 t/ha (60% of the sugar beet potential) and the total variable costs 15 euro/t sugar beet, aspiring a saving on total variable costs and a strong increase in sugar yield. Based on their average sugar yield in 2000-2004, 26 pairs of "type top" (high yielding) and "type average" (average yielding) growers were selected from all sugar beet growing regions in the Netherlands...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
P C Jiwuba, I P Ogbuewu, K Nwachukwuguru
A 49-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of Siam weed leaf meal (SWLM)-based diets on growth, organ, and carcass weight characteristics and economics of production of broilers. Proximate biochemical composition of SWLM and the appropriate inclusion level of SWLM for optimum productivity were also determined. Ninety-six-day-old Chi broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups of 24 birds, and each group replicated three times. Each group was assigned to one experimental diet in a completely randomized design marked T1 (0%), T2 (4%), T3 (8%), and T4 (12%)...
March 6, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Barney P Caton, Anthony L Koop, Larry Fowler, Leslie Newton, Lisa Kohl
Weed risk assessments (WRA) are used to identify plant invaders before introduction. Unfortunately, very few incorporate uncertainty ratings or evaluate the effects of uncertainty, a fundamental risk component. We developed a probabilistic model to quantitatively evaluate the effects of uncertainty on the outcomes of a question-based WRA tool for the United States. In our tool, the uncertainty of each response is rated as Negligible, Low, Moderate, or High. We developed the model by specifying the likelihood of a response changing for each uncertainty rating...
March 6, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Min Jiang, Tao Liu, Niansheng Huang, Xinping Shen, Mingxing Shen, Qigen Dai
Effects of fertilisation and other management techniques on a weed community were evaluated during wheat growth in a rice-wheat cropping system. Fertiliser treatments were C0 (C means chemical, C0 means zero chemical fertiliser.), CN (N fertiliser), CNK (N plus K fertiliser), CNPK (N plus P and K fertiliser), CNP (N plus P fertiliser), and CPK (P plus K fertiliser). Weed density, biomass, and bio-diversity were determined. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the relationship between fertiliser management, weed species, and weed density...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stacy Keough, Jonathan Danielson, Jordan M Marshall, Doris Lagos-Kutz, David J Voegtlin, Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan, Punya Nachappa
Thrips-infesting soybeans were considered of minor economic importance, but recent evidence of their ability to transmit a newly identified soybean virus, Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), has raised their profile as pests. Season-long surveys were conducted using suction traps to determine the effects of temperature and precipitation on the spatiotemporal patterns of three vector species of SVNV, Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (soybean thrips), Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (eastern flower thrips), and Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (tobacco thrips) in soybean fields in Indiana in 2013 and 2014...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Entomology
M Castro Berman, D J G Marino, María Victoria Quiroga, Horacio Zagarese
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds that compete with commercial crops. In Argentina, the use of glyphosate-based herbicides increased dramatically (up to ∼200,000 tons on 2012) since the introduction of glyphosate-resistant crops, such as transgenic soy and resistant corn, and the adoption of non-till practices in the 1990's. Sallow lakes within the Pampa region may be potentially impacted by continuous herbicide usage. We surveyed 52 shallow lakes from the Pampa region (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) to assess the occurrence and concentrations of glyphosate and its main degradation product (AMPA)...
February 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Songkui Cui, Syogo Wada, Yuki Tobimatsu, Yuri Takeda, Simon B Saucet, Toshiyuki Takano, Toshiaki Umezawa, Ken Shirasu, Satoko Yoshida
Parasitic plants in the family Orobanchaceae are destructive weeds of agriculture worldwide. The haustorium, an essential parasitic organ used by these plants to penetrate host tissues, is induced by host-derived phenolic compounds called haustorium-inducing factors (HIFs). The origin of HIFs remains unknown, although the structures of lignin monomers resemble that of HIFs. Lignin is a natural phenylpropanoid polymer, commonly found in secondary cell walls of vascular plants. We therefore investigated the possibility that HIFs are derived from host lignin...
March 2, 2018: New Phytologist
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