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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928765/emerging-challenges-and-opportunities-for-education-and-research-in-weed-science
#1
REVIEW
Bhagirath S Chauhan, Amar Matloob, Gulshan Mahajan, Farhena Aslam, Singarayer K Florentine, Prashant Jha
In modern agriculture, with more emphasis on high input systems, weed problems are likely to increase and become more complex. With heightened awareness of adverse effects of herbicide residues on human health and environment and the evolution of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes, a significant focus within weed science has now shifted to the development of eco-friendly technologies with reduced reliance on herbicides. Further, with the large-scale adoption of herbicide-resistant crops, and uncertain climatic optima under climate change, the problems for weed science have become multi-faceted...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926718/corrigendum
#2
(no author information available yet)
Brunner JP, Jawad BA, McCoul ED. Polypoid change of the middle turbinate and paranasal sinus polyposis are distinct entities. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;157:519-523. (Original doi: 10.1177/0194599817711887) The Results section of this article and its abstract contained several errors in describing data that appears in Tables 1 and 2. The tables contain the correct information, the corrected abstract and article text appears below. Abstract: Results. Of 593 patients, 23 (3.9%) had PCMT and 44 (7.4%) had PSP...
September 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924222/conjugation-of-wildtype-and-hypoallergenic-mugwort-allergen-art-v-1-to-flagellin-induces-il-10-dc-and-suppresses-allergen-specific-th2-responses-in-vivo
#3
Schülke Stefan, Kuttich Kirsten, Wolfheimer Sonja, Duschek Nadine, Wangorsch Andrea, Reuter Andreas, Briza Peter, Pablos Isabel, Gadermaier Gabriele, Ferreira Fatima, Vieths Stefan, Toda Masako, Scheurer Stephan
Allergies to weed pollen including members of the Compositae family, such as mugwort, ragweed, and feverfew are spreading worldwide. To efficiently treat these newly arising allergies, allergen specific immunotherapy needs to be improved. Therefore, we generated novel vaccine candidates consisting of the TLR5-ligand Flagellin A from Listeria and the major mugwort allergen Art v 1 including either the wild type Art v 1 sequence (rFlaA:Artv1) or a hypoallergenic variant (rFlaA:Artv1(hyp)) with reduced IgE-binding capacity...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920774/kinetics-of-diuron-under-aerobic-condition-and-residue-analysis-in-sugarcane-under-subtropical-field-conditions
#4
Shishir Tandon, Ravi Pant
Phenylureas group are persistent herbicides compared to other groups. However, their dissipation in different ecosystem should be investigated as they are major pollutant to soil and water. Dissipation kinetics of diuron at two application rates, in texturally different soils under sugarcane field conditions was investigated. Diuron was extracted from the soil with acetone and florisil SPE cleanup and extracted diuron was characterized by HPLC-UV. Diuron dissipated slowly in soils and persisted for more than 100 days...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919970/b-chromosome-in-plantago-lagopus-linnaeus-1753-shows-preferential-transmission-and-accumulation-through-unusual-processes
#5
Manoj K Dhar, Gurmeet Kour, Sanjana Kaul
Plantago lagopus is a diploid (2n = 2x =12) weed belonging to family Plantaginaceae. We reported a novel B chromosome in this species composed of 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA and other repetitive elements. In the present work, presence of B chromosome(s) was confirmed through FISH on root tip and pollen mother cells. Several experiments were done to determine the transmission of B chromosome through male and female sex tracks. Progenies derived from the reciprocal crosses between plants with (1B) and without (0B) B chromosomes were studied...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919903/the-role-of-soil-solarization-in-india-how-an-unnoticed-practice-could-support-pest-control
#6
REVIEW
Harsimran K Gill, Iqbal S Aujla, Luigi De Bellis, Andrea Luvisi
Plant protection represents one of the strategies to fill the yield gap and to achieve food security, a key topic for India development. Analysis of climate risks for crops indicates that South Asia is one of the regions most exposed to the adverse impact on many plants that are relevant to inhabitants exposed to food safety risks. Furthermore, accumulation of pesticide residues in the aquatic and other ecosystems is becoming a significant threat in India. These perspectives require to develop programs of crop protection that can be feasible according to Indian rural development and pollution policy...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915873/a-prospective-cohort-study-on-ambient-air-pollution-and-respiratory-morbidities-including-childhood-asthma-in-adolescents-from-the-western-cape-province-study-protocol
#7
Toyib Olaniyan, Mohamed Jeebhay, Martin Röösli, Rajen Naidoo, Roslynn Baatjies, Nino Künzil, Ming Tsai, Mark Davey, Kees de Hoogh, Dilys Berman, Bhawoodien Parker, Joy Leaner, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie
BACKGROUND: There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings...
September 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913583/economic-assessment-of-conventional-and-conservation-tillage-practices-in-different-wheat-based-cropping-systems-of-punjab-pakistan
#8
Muhammad Shahzad, Mubshar Hussain, Muhammad Farooq, Shahid Farooq, Khawar Jabran, Ahmad Nawaz
Wheat productivity and profitability is low under conventional tillage systems as they increase the production cost, soil compaction, and the weed infestation. Conservation tillage could be a pragmatic option to sustain the wheat productivity and enhance the profitability on long term basis. This study was aimed to evaluate the economics of different wheat-based cropping systems viz. fallow-wheat, rice-wheat, cotton-wheat, mung bean-wheat, and sorghum-wheat, with zero tillage, conventional tillage, deep tillage, bed sowing (60/30 cm beds and four rows), and bed sowing (90/45 cm beds and six rows)...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911745/investigation-of-resistance-levels-and-mechanisms-to-nicosulfuron-conferred-by-non-target-site-mechanisms-in-large-crabgrass-digitaria-sanguinalis-l-from-china
#9
Yu Mei, Chong Si, Mingjie Liu, Lihong Qiu, Mingqi Zheng
Large crabgrass is a major grass weed widely distributed across China. This weed infests maize fields and has evolved resistance to the acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide nicosulfuron due to continuous and intensive use. In this study, a total of 25 out of 26 large crabgrass populations collected from maize field demonstrated resistance to nicosulfuron. Amino acid modifications in ALS known to confer resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in other weeds, were not found in the 9 tested resistant populations...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910491/a-double-epsps-gene-mutation-endowing-glyphosate-resistance-shows-a-remarkably-high-resistance-cost
#10
Heping Han, Martin M Vila-Aiub, Adam Jalaludin, Qin Yu, Stephen B Powles
A novel glyphosate resistance double point mutation (T102I/P106S, TIPS) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3 phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene has been recently identified for the first time only in the weed species Eleusine indica. Quantification of plant resistance cost associated with the TIPS and the often reported glyphosate resistance single P106S mutation was performed. A significant resistance cost (50% in seed number currency) associated with the homozygous TIPS but not the homozygous P106S EPSPS variant was identified in E...
September 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903556/4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase-inhibitors-from-chemical-biology-to-agrochemicals
#11
Ferdinand Ndikuryayo, Behrooz Moosavi, Wen-Chao Yang, Guang-Fu Yang
The development of new herbicides is receiving considerable attention to control weed biotypes resistant to current herbicides. Consequently, new enzymes are always desired as targets for herbicide discovery. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD, EC 1.13.11.27) is an enzyme engaged in photosynthetic activity and catalyzes the transformation of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (HPPA) into homogentisic acid (HGA). HPPD inhibitors constitute a promising area of discovery and development of innovative herbicides with some advantages, including excellent crop selectivity, low application rates, and broad-spectrum weed control...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900190/soil-microbial-carbon-utilization-enzyme-activities-and-nutrient-availability-responses-to-bidens-pilosa-and-a-non-invasive-congener-under-different-irradiances
#12
Hui Wei, Wenbin Yan, Guoming Quan, Jiaen Zhang, Kaiming Liang
Two Bidens species (Bidens pilosa and B. bipinnata) that originate from America have been introduced widely in pan-tropics, with the former regarded as a noxious invasive weed whereas the latter naturalized as a plant resource. Whether the two species exhibit different effects on the belowground system remains rarely studied. This study was conducted to investigate soil microbial carbon (C) utilization, enzyme activities and available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents under the two species in a subtropical garden soil of southern China under different levels of light intensity...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893328/plasticity-in-host-utilization-by-two-host-associated-populations-of-aphis-gossypii-glover
#13
A K Barman, K R Gadhave, B Dutta, R Srinivasan
Biological and morphological plasticity in polyphagous insect herbivores allow them to exploit diverse host plant species. Geographical differences in resource availability can lead to preferential host exploitation and result in inconsistent host specialization. Biological and molecular data provide insights into specialization and plasticity of such herbivore populations. In agricultural landscapes, Aphis gossypii encounters several crop and non-crop hosts, which exist in temporal and spatial proximity. We investigated the host-specialization of two A...
September 12, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892386/double-mutated-5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate-synthase-protein-expressed-in-mzhg0jg-corn-zea-mays-l-has-no-impact-on-toxicological-safety-and-nutritional-composition
#14
Bethany A Matthews, Karen L Launis, Patricia A Bauman, Nicole C Juba
MZHG0JG corn will offer growers the flexibility to alternate between herbicides with two different modes of action in their weed-management programs, helping to mitigate and manage the evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations. The proteins conferring herbicide tolerence in MZHG0JG corn, double-mutated 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein (mEPSPS) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), as well as the MZHG0JG corn event, have been assessed by regulatory authorities globally and have been determined to be safe for humans, animals, and the environment...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890757/populations-of-rice-grain-bug-paraeuscosmetus-pallicomis-hemiptera-lygaeidae-in-weed-free-paddy-field-weedy-paddy-field-and-paddy-dykes
#15
Tamrin Abdullah, Andi Nasruddin, Nurariaty Agus
Research on the populations of rice grain bug Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis Dallas (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in paddy field ecosystems was performed with the aim to determine the populations of rice grain bug in weed-free paddy field, weedy paddy field, and paddy dykes. Experiment was carried out in the village of Paccellekang in the district of Patallasang of Gowa Regency in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Observations were performed during the milky grain stage (85 days after planting), the mature grain stage (105 days after planting), and one day after harvest (115 days after transplanting)...
July 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890724/vacuolar-sequestration-of-paraquat-is-involved-in-the-resistance-mechanism-in-lolium-perenne-l-spp-multiflorum
#16
Caio A C G Brunharo, Bradley D Hanson
Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot (LOLMU) is a winter annual weed, common to row crops, orchards and roadsides. Glyphosate-resistant populations of LOLMU are widespread in California. In many situations, growers have switched to paraquat or other postemergence herbicides to manage glyphosate-resistant LOLMU populations. Recently, poor control of LOLMU with paraquat was reported in a prune orchard in California where paraquat has been used several times. We hypothesize that the low efficacy observed is due to the selection of a paraquat-resistant biotype of LOLMU...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889344/emission-factors-from-different-burning-stages-of-agriculture-wastes-in-mexico
#17
Naxieli Santiago-De la Rosa, Violeta Mugica-Álvarez, Francisco Cereceda-Balic, Fabián Guerrero, Karen Yáñez, Magin Lapuerta
Open-air burning of agricultural wastes from crops like corn, rice, sorghum, sugar cane, and wheat is common practice in Mexico, which in spite limiting regulations, is the method to eliminate such wastes, to clear the land for further harvesting, to control grasses, weeds, insects, and pests, and to facilitate nutrient absorption. However, this practice generates air pollution and contributes to the greenhouse effect. Burning of straws derived from the said crops was emulated in a controlled combustion chamber, hence determining emission factors for particles, black carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide throughout the process, which comprised three apparent stages: pre-ignition, flaming, and smoldering...
September 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888062/epigenetic-regulation-contribution-to-herbicide-resistance-in-weeds
#18
REVIEW
Catarine Markus, Ales Pecinka, Ratna Karan, Jacob N Barney, Aldo Merotto
Continuous use of herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to all major herbicide modes of action worldwide. Besides the well-documented cases of newly acquired resistance by genetic changes, epigenetic regulation may also contribute to herbicide resistance in weeds. Epigenetics involves processes that modify the expression of specific genetic elements without changes in the DNA sequence, and present an important role for re-programming gene expression. Epigenetic modifications can be induced spontaneously, genetically or environmentally...
September 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887919/cassia-tora-linn-a-boon-to-alzheimer-s-disease-for-its-anti-amyloidogenic-and-cholinergic-activities
#19
K R Chethana, Fatma Sezer Senol, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, K R Anilakumar, Rangappa S Keri
BACKGROUND: Drug discovery from natural products as alternatives for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a current trend. For which plant is an alternative for searching potential molecule for treating AD. Availability of Cassia tora as weed and abundance in nature makes it as potential source. Many plants group under Leguminosae family has potential medicinal property of which Cassia tora is an appropriate choice, to know potency against AD. Etiology of AD is described by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles...
September 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885646/relationship-between-clinical-results-of-total-hip-replacement-and-postoperative-activities-including-weeding-and-snow-shovelling
#20
Hiroaki Kijima, Shin Yamada, Natsuo Konishi, Hitoshi Kubota, Hiroshi Tazawa, Takayuki Tani, Norio Suzuki, Keiji Kamo, Yoshihiko Okudera, Ken Sasaki, Tetsuya Kawano, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Yoichi Shimada
INTRODUCTION: Weeding or snow shovelling is indispensable for life in farm villages of northern countries. Clarifying the relationships between the degrees of these activities after total hip replacement (THR) and the clinical results of THR may enable us to predict the results of THR for high-level activity patients. The relationships between work activities after THR and the results were investigated. METHODS: The subjects were 95 post-THR patients, who consulted 6 hospitals in August 2012...
September 7, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
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