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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330302/production-of-bioherbicide-by-phoma-sp-in-a-stirred-tank-bioreactor
#1
Thiarles Brun, Jéssica E Rabuske, Izelmar Todero, Thiago C Almeida, Jair J D Junior, Gustavo Ariotti, Tássia Confortin, Jonas A Arnemann, Raquel C Kuhn, Jerson V C Guedes, Marcio A Mazutti
The objective of this work was to produce an herbicide by submerged fermentation in a stirred-tank bioreactor and to assess the potential herbicidal in pre-emergence, post-emergence, and in a detached leaves of Cucumis sativus var species. wisconsin (cucumber) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) species. Fermentations were carried out in a stirred-tank bioreactor with useful volume of 3L. Stirring rate (40, 50, and 60 rpm) and aeration (1, 2 and 3 vvm) were the variables studied for bioherbicide production. Fermented broth was fractioned with different solvents to identify the molecules produced by the fungus in a multi-dimensional gas chromatograph system...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330082/mutations-in-the-plastidic-accase-gene-endowing-resistance-to-accase-inhibiting-herbicide-in-phalaris-minor-populations-from-india
#2
Nishu Raghav, Rajender Singh, Rajender Singh Chhokar, Davinder Sharma, Raman Kumar
Littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor Retz.) is one of the most common and troublesome weeds infesting wheat crop in India. Repeated use during the last two decades of the ACCase-inhibiting herbicide (clodinafop) to control this weed has resulted in the occurrence of resistance. Fifty-three P. minor populations were collected from wheat fields in Haryana and Punjab states of India. The dose-response assays indicated that 29 populations were resistant, 23 populations were susceptible and one population was moderately resistant to clodinafop...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327669/pollen-mediated-gene-flow-from-glyphosate-resistant-common-waterhemp-amaranthus-rudis-sauer-consequences-for-the-dispersal-of-resistance-genes
#3
Debalin Sarangi, Andrew J Tyre, Eric L Patterson, Todd A Gaines, Suat Irmak, Stevan Z Knezevic, John L Lindquist, Amit J Jhala
Gene flow is an important component in evolutionary biology; however, the role of gene flow in dispersal of herbicide-resistant alleles among weed populations is poorly understood. Field experiments were conducted at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to quantify pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from glyphosate-resistant (GR) to -susceptible (GS) common waterhemp using a concentric donor-receptor design. More than 130,000 common waterhemp plants were screened and 26,199 plants were confirmed resistant to glyphosate...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324251/simulating-changes-in-cropping-practises-in-conventional-and-glyphosate-tolerant-maize-i-effects-on-weeds
#4
Nathalie Colbach, Alice Fernier, Valérie Le Corre, Antoine Messéan, Henri Darmency
Herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops such as those tolerant to glyphosate simplify weed management and make it more efficient, at least at short-term. Overreliance on the same herbicide though leads to the spread of resistant weeds. Here, the objective was to evaluate, with simulations, the impact on the advent of glyphosate resistance in weeds of modifications in agricultural practises resulting from introducing HT maize into cropping systems. First, we included a single-gene herbicide resistance submodel in the existing multispecific FLORSYS model...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322258/optimum-soil-frost-depth-to-alleviate-climate-change-effects-in-cold-region-agriculture
#5
Yosuke Yanai, Yukiyoshi Iwata, Tomoyoshi Hirota
On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321974/a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-reveals-trends-and-gaps-in-integrated-pest-management-studies-conducted-in-the-usa
#6
Stephen L Young
Integrated pest management (IPM) is a broad-based approach for addressing pests that negatively affect human and environmental health and economic profitability. Weeds, insects, and disease-causing pathogens (diseases) are the pests most often associated with IPM. A systematic review, widely used in other scientific disciplines, was employed to determine the most commonly studied IPM topics and summarize the reasons for these trends and the gaps. In a field synopsis of the literature, 1,679 relevant published papers were identified and categorized into one of the following five broad areas: IPM and organic (organic), climate change and pests (climate), rural and urban IPM (rural and urban), next generation education (education), and advanced production systems (technology)...
March 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320775/is-it-time-to-reassess-current-safety-standards-for-glyphosate-based-herbicides
#7
REVIEW
Laura N Vandenberg, Bruce Blumberg, Michael N Antoniou, Charles M Benbrook, Lynn Carroll, Theo Colborn, Lorne G Everett, Michael Hansen, Philip J Landrigan, Bruce P Lanphear, Robin Mesnage, Frederick S Vom Saal, Wade V Welshons, John Peterson Myers
Use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) increased ∼100-fold from 1974 to 2014. Additional increases are expected due to widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds, increased application of GBHs, and preharvest uses of GBHs as desiccants. Current safety assessments rely heavily on studies conducted over 30 years ago. We have considered information on GBH use, exposures, mechanisms of action, toxicity and epidemiology. Human exposures to glyphosate are rising, and a number of in vitro and in vivo studies challenge the basis for the current safety assessment of glyphosate and GBHs...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303149/qtl-hotspots-for-early-vigor-and-related-traits-under-dry-direct-seeded-system-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#8
Uma M Singh, Shailesh Yadav, Shilpi Dixit, P Janaki Ramayya, M Nagamallika Devi, K Anitha Raman, Arvind Kumar
Strong seedling vigor is desirable trait in dry direct-seeded rice (DSR) for enhancing crop establishment and the ability to compete against weeds. A set of 253 BC3F4 lines derived from cross between Swarna and Moroberekan was phenotyped for early vigor (EV) and 8 related traits viz., early uniform emergence (EUE), shoot length (SHL), stem length (SL), shoot fresh weight (SFW), total fresh weight (TFW), shoot dry weight (SDW), total dry weight (TDW), and root dry weight (RDW). Composite interval mapping analysis using genotypic data from 194 SNP markers identified six genomic regions associated with traits on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, and 6 with phenotypic variance ranging from 2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303143/copy-number-variation-in-acetolactate-synthase-genes-of-thifensulfuron-methyl-resistant-alopecurus-aequalis-shortawn-foxtail-accessions-in-japan
#9
Satoshi Iwakami, Yoshiko Shimono, Yohei Manabe, Masaki Endo, Hiroyuki Shibaike, Akira Uchino, Tohru Tominaga
Severe infestations of Alopecurus aequalis (shortawn foxtail), a noxious weed in wheat and barley cropping systems in Japan, can occur even after application of thifensulfuron-methyl, a sulfonylurea (SU) herbicide. In the present study, nine accessions of A. aequalis growing in a single wheat field were tested for sensitivity to thifensulfuron-methyl. Seven of the nine accessions survived application of standard field rates of thifensulfuron-methyl, indicating that severe infestations likely result from herbicide resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299485/characterization-of-lettuce-big-vein-associated-virus-and-mirafiori-lettuce-big-vein-virus-infecting-lettuce-in-saudi-arabia
#10
M Umar, M A Amer, M A Al-Saleh, I M Al-Shahwan, M T Shakeel, A M Zakri, N I Katis
During 2014 and 2015, 97 lettuce plants that showed big-vein-disease-like symptoms and seven weed plants were collected from the Riyadh region. DAS-ELISA revealed that 25% and 9% of the lettuce plants were singly infected with LBVaV and MiLBVV, respectively, whereas 63% had a mixed infection with both viruses. The results were confirmed by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for LBVaV and MiLBVV. LBVaV and MiLBVV were also detected in Sonchus oleraceus and Eruca sativa, respectively...
March 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298919/overestimation-of-crop-root-biomass-in-field-experiments-due-to-extraneous-organic-matter
#11
Juliane Hirte, Jens Leifeld, Samuel Abiven, Hans-Rudolf Oberholzer, Andreas Hammelehle, Jochen Mayer
Root biomass is one of the most relevant root parameters for studies of plant response to environmental change, soil carbon modeling or estimations of soil carbon sequestration. A major source of error in root biomass quantification of agricultural crops in the field is the presence of extraneous organic matter in soil: dead roots from previous crops, weed roots, incorporated above ground plant residues and organic soil amendments, or remnants of soil fauna. Using the isotopic difference between recent maize root biomass and predominantly C3-derived extraneous organic matter, we determined the proportions of maize root biomass carbon of total carbon in root samples from the Swiss long-term field trial "DOK...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298918/host-parasite-bacteria-triangle-the-microbiome-of-the-parasitic-weed-phelipanche-aegyptiaca-and-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-mill-as-a-host
#12
Lilach Iasur Kruh, Tamar Lahav, Jacline Abu-Nassar, Guy Achdari, Raghda Salami, Shiri Freilich, Radi Aly
Broomrapes (Phelipanche/Orobanche spp.) are holoparasitic plants that subsist on the roots of a variety of agricultural crops, establishing direct connections with the host vascular system. This connection allows for the exchange of various substances and a possible exchange of endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the internal tissues of both plants. To shed some light on bacterial interactions occurring between the parasitic Phelipanche aegyptiaca and its host tomato, we characterized the endophytic composition in the parasite during the parasitization process and ascertained if these changes were accompanied by changes to endophytes in the host root...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293428/photocatalytic-degradation-of-atrazine-herbicide-with-illuminated-fe-3-tio2-nanoparticles
#13
Narges Shamsedini, Mansooreh Dehghani, Simin Nasseri, Mohammad Ali Baghapour
BACKGROUND: Atrazine is a herbicide that is widely used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds for growing many crops especially in maize production. It is a frequently detected herbicide in many groundwater resources. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using ultraviolet radiation UV and fortified nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) doped with trivalent iron to remove atrazine from aqueous phase and determin the removal efficiency under the optimal conditions. RESULTS: The results of this study demonstrated that the maximum atrazine removal rate was at pH = 11 in the presence of Fe(+ 3)-TiO2 catalyst =25 mg/L and the initial concentration of atrazine equal to 10 mg/L...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286509/weed-diversity-affects-soybean-and-maize-yield-in-a-long-term-experiment-in-michigan-usa
#14
Rosana Ferrero, Mauricio Lima, Adam S Davis, Jose L Gonzalez-Andujar
Managing production environments in ways that promote weed community diversity may enhance both crop production and the development of a more sustainable agriculture. This study analyzed data of productivity of maize (corn) and soybean in plots in the Main Cropping System Experiment (MCSE) at the W. K. Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research (KBS-LTER) in Michigan, USA, from 1996 to 2011. We used models derived from population ecology to explore how weed diversity, temperature, and precipitation interact with crop yields...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283983/parthenium-weed-parthenium-hysterophorus-l-and-climate-change-the-effect-of-co2-concentration-temperature-and-water-deficit-on-growth-and-reproduction-of-two-biotypes
#15
Thi Nguyen, Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Sheldon Navie, Chris O'Donnell, Steve Adkins
Climate change will have a considerable impact upon the processes that moderate weed invasion, in particular to that of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). This study evaluated the performance of two Australian biotypes of parthenium weed under a range of environmental conditions including soil moisture (100 and 50% of field capacity), atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (390 and 550 ppm), and temperature (35/20 and 30/15 °C/day/night). Measurements were taken upon growth, reproductive output, seed biology (fill, viability and dormancy) and soil seed longevity...
March 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283810/anesthetic-and-analgesic-management-for-outpatient-knee-arthroplasty
#16
REVIEW
Chris Cullom, Jonathan T Weed
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Total knee arthroplasty traditionally has been associated with significant postoperative pain that can limit recovery and prolong hospital length of stay. Recently, however, due to financial pressures and an emphasis on improving patient satisfaction, many institutions are implementing outpatient and short-stay programs for patients undergoing this procedure. An effective perioperative anesthetic plan is an essential quality of a successful outpatient joint replacement program...
May 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282407/potential-disease-agents-in-domestic-goats-and-relevance-to-bighorn-sheep-ovis-canadensis-management
#17
Mark L Drew, Glen C Weiser
Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279883/comprehensive-analysis-of-degradation-and-accumulation-of-ametryn-in-soils-and-in-wheat-maize-ryegrass-and-alfalfa-plants
#18
Ying Liu, Li Ya Ma, Yi Chen Lu, Shuang Shuang Jiang, Hong Jin Wu, Hong Yang
Ametryn is a selective herbicide belonging to the triazine family and widely used for killing annual grasses or weeds in China and other parts of the world. However, reports on its environmental risk assessment with regard to soil and crop contamination are limited. In this study, accumulation of ametryn in wheat, maize, ryegrass and alfalfa crops along with ametryn residues in the soil planted with the plants were comparatively investigated. Soil enzyme activities and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), as well as antioxidant and degradation enzyme activities in plant tissues were measured...
March 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279017/germination-of-seeds-and-seedling-growth-of-amaranthus-retroflexus-l-following-sublethal-exposure-of-parent-plants-to-herbicides
#19
Yue Qi, Bing Yan, Gang Fu, Xiao Guan, Leshan Du, Junsheng Li
Herbicides have long-term effects on the vegetative parts and reproduction of plants; however, the carry-over effects of herbicides on the F1 generation of invasive plants remain unclear. The objectives of this work were to investigate the germination and growth of the F1 generation of A. retroflexus, an invasion plant, treated by sublethal herbicides. The results demonstrated that atrazine or tribenuron-methyl had carry-over effects on the F1 generation of A. retroflexus. Atrazine or tribenuron-methyl exposure during the vegetative and reproductive periods significantly inhibited the germination and growth of the F1 generation; a lower sublethal dose of atrazine or tribenuron-methyl did not weaken the inhibition of germination or growth of the F1 generation...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278655/hepatotoxicity-of-eupatorium-adenophorum-extracts-and-the-identification-of-major-hepatotoxic-components
#20
Boyan Liu, Lili Cao, Lijun Zhang, Xiaofan Yuan, Bing Zhao
Eupatorium adenophorum can induce liver toxicity in animals. For the safe utilisation of the weed, the hepatotoxic components need to be discovered. In this study, in vitro hepatotoxicity of different extracts from E. adenophorum were determined on human hepatocyte cell line L02 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The results showed that water extracts of E. adenophorum exhibited no hepatotoxicity in vitro while high concentrations of the organic solvent extracts had obvious hepatotoxicity. Sesquiterpenes may contribute to the toxicity based on the comparison of composition analysis...
February 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
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