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Mu Liu, Fang Zhou, Xiaoyun Pan, Zhijie Zhang, Milton B Traw, Bo Li
Herbivory-induced responses in plants can both negatively affect subsequently colonizing herbivores and mitigate the effect of herbivory on the host. However, it is still less known whether plants exhibit specific responses to specialist and generalist herbivores in non-secondary metabolite traits and how specificity to specialists and generalists differs between invasive and native plant populations. We exposed an invasive plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides, to Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; specialist), Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae; generalist), manual clipping, or application of exogenous jasmonic acid and examined both the specificity of elicitation in traits of fitness (e...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Francesco Molinaro, Olaf Tyc, Jules Beekwilder, Katarina Cankar, Cinzia Margherita Bertea, Michèle Negre, Paolina Garbeva
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed) is an invasive weed, well-known for the strong allergenic effect of its pollen, as well as for its invasiveness and impact in crop fields (e.g. causing yield losses). This species produces a broad range of sesquiterpenoids. In recent years, new bioactive molecules have been discovered in this plant, e.g. isabelin, a sesquiterpene dilactone. The bioactivity of isabelin has been already demonstrated on allergy-related receptors and its inhibitory effect on seeds of various plant species...
January 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Suélen K Sartori, Elson S Alvarenga, Cristiane A Franco, Danielle S Ramos, Denilson F Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Considering the demand for more efficient herbicides, the present work aimed at synthesizing anilides via simple methods, and evaluate their herbicidal activities through seed germination assays. In silico studies were carried out to identify the enzymatic target sitein the plants for the most active anilides. RESULTS: A total of eighteen anilides were prepared via one-pot reaction in yields which varied from 36 to 98% through reactions of anilines with sorbic chloride and hexanoic anhydride...
January 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
Tomas Smejkal, Shuji Hachisu, James N Scutt, Nigel J Willetts, Danielle Sayer, Laura Wildsmith, Sophie Oliver, Caroline Thompson, Michel Muehlebach
Novel 2-aryl-cyclic-1,3-diones containing a 5-methoxy-[1,2,5]triazepane unit were explored towards an effective and wheat safe control of grass weeds. Their preparation builds on the ease of synthetic access to 7-membered heterocyclic [1,2,5]triazepane building blocks. Substitution and pattern hopping in the phenyl moiety revealed structure-activity relationships in good agreement with previously disclosed observations amongst the pinoxaden family of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors. In light of basic physicochemical, enzyme inhibitory and binding site properties, the N-methoxy functionality effectively acts as a bioisostere of the ether group in the seven-membered hydrazine ring...
December 20, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Alexander M Gaffke, Sharlene E Sing, Tom L Dudley, Daniel W Bean, Justin A Russak, Agenor Mafra-Neto, Paul A Grieco, Robert K D Peterson, David K Weaver
BACKGROUND: Semiochemicals for monitoring, attracting or repelling pest and beneficial organisms are increasingly deployed in agricultural and forest systems for pest management activities. However, the use of aggregation pheromones and host plant attractants for the express purpose of increasing the efficacy of classical biological control agents of weeds has not been widely reported. Therefore, we conducted field-based assays to determine if a specialized wax based matrix impregnated with an aggregation pheromone of the northern tamarisk beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) or host plant volatiles could increase the efficacy of D...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
Roman B Vercellino, Claudio E Pandolfo, Gabriela Breccia, Miguel Cantamutto, Alejandro Presotto
BACKGROUND: Feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a problematic weed that has become resistant to AHAS (acetohydroxyacid synthase) inhibitor herbicides due to the Trp-574-Leu mutation. AHAS gene mutation that causes herbicide resistance may present negative pleiotropic effects on plant fitness. This study reports the effects of the Trp-574-Leu mutation on AHAS activity and reproductive traits of R. sativus. RESULTS: Eight out of 17 feral radish accessions presented resistant individuals to metsulfuron-methyl from 0...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
Sébastien Rigali, Sinaeda Anderssen, Aymeric Naômé, Gilles P van Wezel
The World Health Organization (WHO) describes antibiotic resistance as "one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today", as the number of multi- and pan-resistant bacteria is rising dangerously. Acquired resistance phenomena also impair antifungals, antivirals, anti-cancer drug therapy, while herbicide resistance in weeds threatens the crop industry. On the positive side, it is likely that the chemical space of natural products goes far beyond what has currently been discovered...
January 5, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Xin Jin, Yu Chen, Ping Liu, Chen Li, Xingxing Cai, Jun Rong, Bao-Rong Lu
Maintaining genetic integrity is essential for in situ and ex situ conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species. However, introgression of crop alleles into CWR species/populations may change their genetic structure and diversity, resulting in more invasive weeds or, in contrast, the extinction of endangered populations. To determine crop-wild introgression and its consequences, we examined the genetic structure and diversity of six wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) populations under in situ conservation in China...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Alper Yalcin, Onder Yumrutas, Tuncay Kuloglu, Ebru Elibol, Ali Parlar, İsmet Yilmaz, Mustafa Pehlivan, Mevlut Dogukan, Fatih Uckardes, Hasan Aydin, Ahmet Turk, Oznur Uludag, İbrahim Sahin, Kader Ugur, Suleyman Aydin
The present study was designed to determine the possible hepatoprotective effects of Salvia cryptantha (black weed) plant extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Animals were grouped as follows: control group (Group I), CCl4 group (Group II), olive oil group (Group III), CCl4 + S. cryphantha 200 mg/kg group (Group IV), and CCl4 + S. cryptantha 400mg/kg group (Group V). Rats were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 diluted in olive oil (50% v/v) at a dose of 1ml/kg body weight...
December 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Patrizia Bonfanti, M Saibene, R Bacchetta, P Mantecca, A Colombo
Glyphosate is the active ingredient in broad-spectrum herbicide formulations used in agriculture, domestic area and aquatic weed control worldwide. Its market is growing steadily concurrently with the cultivation of glyphosate-tolerant transgenic crops and emergence of weeds less sensitive to glyphosate. Ephemeral and lentic waters near to agricultural lands, representing favorite habitats for amphibian reproduction and early life-stage development, may thus be contaminated by glyphosate based herbicides (GBHs) residues...
December 24, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Poonam Roshan, Aditya Kulshreshtha, Vipin Hallan
Tomato leaf curl palampur virus (ToLCPalV) is a bipartite begomovirus with genome organization typical of old world begomoviruses. It infects commercially important crops and weeds in the Asian subcontinent. Apart from other proteins, the DNA-A of the virus encodes AV2 and AC4 proteins of approximately 13.73 and 6.7 kDa, respectively. In case of other begomoviruses, previous studies have shown the role of AV2 and AC4 proteins in virus movement, pathogenesis and suppression of gene silencing. However, the ToLCPalV proteins are significantly variable in comparison to closest relative and hence there is a need to work out their functions...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Olivier Loiseleur
Natural products have a long history of being used as, or serving as inspiration for, novel crop protection agents. Many of the discoveries in agrochemical research in the last decades have their origin in a wide range of natural products from a variety of sources. In light of the continuing need for new tools to address an ever-changing array of fungal, weed and insect pests, new agricultural practices and evolving regulatory requirements, the needs for new agrochemical tools remains as critical as ever. In that respect, nature continues to be an important source for novel chemical structures and biological mechanisms to be applied for the development of pest control agents...
December 1, 2017: Chimia
Yong-Hoon Kim, Jung-Ran Noh, Jung Hwan Hwang, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Dong-Hee Choi, Jin-Pyo An, Won-Keun Oh, Chul-Ho Lee
Sicyos angulatus (SA), a summer annual vine originating from Northeastern USA, is a widely distributed noxious invasive plant. However, the clinical application of SA has not been investigated previously. The purpose of present study was to determine the effects of SA on atherosclerosis and its underlying mechanism. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice with an atherogenic diet for 8 weeks. SA was administered daily by oral gavage during induction of atherosclerosis...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Amith Sadananda Maroli, Vijay K Nandula, Stephen O Duke, Partick Gerard, Nishanth Tharayil
Glyphosate tolerant Ipomoea lacunosa is emerging as a problematic weed in the southeastern U.S. Metabolomic profiling was conducted to examine the innate physiology and the glyphosate induced perturbations in two biotypes of I. lacunosa (WAS and QUI) that had contrasting glyphosate tolerance. Compared to the QUI, the innate metabolism of the more tolerant WAS-biotype was characterized by a higher abundance of amino acids, and pyruvate; whereas the sugar profile of less tolerant QUI biotype was dominated by the transport sugar sucrose...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Achmad Syafiuddin, Tony Hadibarata, Ahmad Beng Hong Kueh, Mohd Razman Salim
This is the first investigation to demonstrate the use of biochemical contents present within Cyperus rotundus, Eleusin indica, Euphorbia hirta, Melastoma malabathricum, Clidemia hirta and Pachyrhizus erosus extracts for the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) form. In addition, the antibacterial capability of the synthesized AgNPs and plant extracts alone against a rare bacterium, Chromobacterium haemolyticum (C. haemolyticum), was examined. Moreover, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPOES) of the synthesized AgNPs were characterized...
December 26, 2017: Nanomaterials
José Couceiro, Gonzalo Garcia-Portal, Olga Garcia
Background  Oxyfluorfen, a commercially available pesticide, commonly used for weed control in crop production, has been studied in terms of its toxicity, its carcinogenic properties, and its teratogenicity. We have found no reports, however, of the effects produced by an oxyfluorfen injection to the upper limb. Methods  We present the case of a 40 years old psychiatric patient, who reportedly injected her forearm accidentally while fumigating her garden. She was treated with irrigation and open forearm fasciectomy...
October 2017: Surgery Journal
Traimat Boonthai, Seth J Herbst, Gary E Whelan, Michelle Gunn Van Deuren, Thomas P Loch, Mohamed Faisal
BACKGROUND: The Asian fish tapeworm Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Yamaguti, 1934) is an important fish pathogen because of its wide range of intermediate and definitive hosts and its pathological consequences. This study was designed to determine if baitfish are a likely vector contributing to the expansion of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm. RESULTS: We collected live baitfish for examination from 78 retail stores in Michigan between September 2015 and June 2016...
December 22, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Michael R Weed, Joseph Polino, Laura Signor, Mark Bookbinder, Deborah Keavy, Yulia Benitex, Daniel G Morgan, Dalton King, John E Macor, Robert Zaczek, Richard Olson, Linda J Bristow
Agonists at the nicotinic acetylcholine alpha 7 receptor (nAChR α7) subtype have the potential to treat cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or schizophrenia. Visuo-spatial paired associates learning (vsPAL) is a task that has been shown to reliably predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to AD in humans and can also be performed by nonhuman primates. Reversal of scopolamine-induced impairment of vsPAL performance may represent a translational approach for the development of nAChR α7 agonists...
2017: PloS One
Iwona Kwiecień, Grazyna Adamus, Guozhan Jiang, Iza Radecka, Timothy C Baldwin, Habib R Khan, Brian Johnston, Valentina Pennetta, David Hill, Inna Bretz, Marek M Kowalczuk
The herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) conjugated with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was prepared via a melt transesterification route. The resultant bioactive oligomer was then mixed with a blend of polylactide (PLA) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with different loadings; to manufacture films to be used as a bioactive, biodegradable mulch to deliver the herbicide to target broadleaf weed species. The biological targeting of the MCPA-PHBV conjugate in the mulch film was investigated under glasshouse conditions using faba bean (Vicia faba) as a selective (non-target) model crop species having broadleaf morphology...
December 20, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Søren Skovsen, Mads Dyrmann, Anders Krogh Mortensen, Kim Arild Steen, Ole Green, Jørgen Eriksen, René Gislum, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen, Henrik Karstoft
Optimal fertilization of clover-grass fields relies on knowledge of the clover and grass fractions. This study shows how knowledge can be obtained by analyzing images collected in fields automatically. A fully convolutional neural network was trained to create a pixel-wise classification of clover, grass, and weeds in red, green, and blue (RGB) images of clover-grass mixtures. The estimated clover fractions of the dry matter from the images were found to be highly correlated with the real clover fractions of the dry matter, making this a cheap and non-destructive way of monitoring clover-grass fields...
December 17, 2017: Sensors
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