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Sonja Rutten, Chris Vriend, Jan H Smit, Henk W Berendse, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Odile A van den Heuvel, Ysbrand D van der Werf
BACKGROUND: A disturbed circadian rhythm seems to be a causal factor in the occurrence of depressive disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The circadian rhythm can be restored with light. Therefore, Bright Light Therapy (BLT) might be a new treatment option for depression in PD patients. METHODS/DESIGN: In this double-blind controlled trial, 84 subjects with idiopathic PD are randomized to either BLT or a control light condition. The BLT condition emits white light with an intensity of 10,000 Lux, while the control device emits dim white light of 200 Lux, which is presumed to be too low to influence the circadian rhythm...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Francisco Eduardo Martin-Cano, Mercedes Caso-Agundez, Cristina Camello-Almaraz, Francisco Juan Santos, María Teresa Espin, Juan Antonio Madrid, Adolfo Diez-Perez, Pedro Javier Camello, Maria Jose Pozo
Urinary bladder function consists in the storage and controlled voiding of urine. Translational studies require animal models that match human characteristics, such as Octodon degus, a diurnal rodent. This study aims to characterize the contractility of the detrusor muscle and the morphology and code of the vesical plexus from O. degus. Body temperature was measured by an intra-abdominal sensor, the contractility of detrusor strips was evaluated by isometric tension recording, and the vesical plexus was studied by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and immunofluorescence...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Adrian Andrzej Chrobak, Anna Tereszko, Daria Dembinska-Krajewska, Aleksandra Arciszewska, Marcin Siwek, Dominika Dudek, Janusz Rybakowski
Chronotype is a stable trait presenting one's circardian preference. Since chronotype disturbances are common in patients with affective disorders, our aim is to evaluate chronotypes related to affective temperaments, measured with the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). The study included 618 subjects (151 men and 467 women) within the framework of web-based design. They all fulfilled a questionnaire, consisting of the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), Sleep Wake Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SWPAQ), and the TEMPS-A scale...
October 13, 2016: Chronobiology International
Barbra A Dickerman, Sarah C Markt, Markku Koskenvuo, Christer Hublin, Eero Pukkala, Lorelei A Mucci, Jaakko Kaprio
PURPOSE: Sleep disruption and shift work have been associated with cancer risk, but epidemiologic evidence for prostate cancer remains limited. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between midlife sleep- and circadian-related parameters and later prostate cancer risk and mortality in a population-based cohort of Finnish twins. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Older Finnish Twin Cohort and included 11,370 twins followed from 1981 to 2012. Over the study period, 602 incident cases of prostate cancer and 110 deaths from prostate cancer occurred...
October 12, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Pasquale K Alvaro, Rachel M Roberts, Jodie K Harris, Oliviero Bruni
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the direction of the relationship between symptoms of insomnia disorder, depression, various anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in adolescents after controlling for age, gender, chronotype, and outcome variable at baseline. METHODS: Data was collected in eight high schools in Adelaide, South Australia, at two time-points approximately 6 months apart. The study was completed by 318 and 255 high school students at baseline and follow-up, respectively, aged 12-18 (M=14...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Katarzyna Nowakowska-Domagała, Łukasz Mokros, Karolina Jabłkowska-Górecka, Joanna Grzelińska, Tadeusz Pietras
The study investigates the distribution of chronotypes among alcohol-dependent subjects and the relationship between personality and chronotype. Fifty-eight alcohol-dependent patients and 29 age-matched healthy controls were studied using Ogińska's Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire - Revised (EPQ-R), Selzer's Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a sociodemographic status questionnaire designed by the authors. The alcohol-dependent patients tended to be morning type, based on the morningness-eveningness ChQ scale, with a weakly marked rhythm, based on the distinctness ChQ scale...
August 12, 2016: Chronobiology International
Susan Kohl Malone, Babette Zemel, Charlene Compher, Margaret Souders, Jesse Chittams, Aleda Leis Thompson, Allan Pack, Terri H Lipman
The relationship between sleep duration and obesity in adolescents is inconclusive. This may stem from a more complex relationship between sleep and obesity than previously considered. Shifts toward evening preferences, later sleep-wake times and irregular sleep-wake patterns are typical during adolescence but their relationship to body mass index (BMI) has been relatively unexplored. This cross-sectional study examined associations between sleep duration, midpoint of sleep and social jet lag (estimated from 7 days of continuous actigraphy monitoring), and morningness/eveningness with BMIs (BMI z-scores) and waist-to-height ratios in 14-17-year-old adolescents...
August 11, 2016: Chronobiology International
Joshua Tutek, Sarah E Emert, Natalie D Dautovich, Kenneth L Lichstein
Nonrestorative sleep (NRS), characterized by a lack of refreshment upon awakening, has received little attention in the sleep literature even though it can occur and cause impairment apart from other sleep difficulties associated with insomnia. The Restorative Sleep Questionnaire (RSQ) is one of the first validated self-report instruments for investigating NRS severity, presenting new opportunities to explore what factors predict and perhaps contribute to unrefreshing sleep. The present study sought to determine whether inherent circadian preference for morning or evening activity, known as chronotype, predicted restorative sleep in 164 college undergraduates who completed daily RSQs over 2 weeks...
August 11, 2016: Chronobiology International
Katarina Danielsson, Markus Jansson-Fröjmark, Jan-Erik Broman, Agneta Markström
Clinical trials with light therapy (LT) for delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) are sparse and little is known about factors that are favorable for improvements. In this study, LT with scheduled rise times was conducted at home for 14 days by 44 participants with DSPD aged 16-26 years. Primary outcomes were sleep onset and sleep offset. Potential predictors were demographic characteristics, chronotype, dim light melatonin onset, the number of days the LT lamp was used, the daily duration of LT, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, depression, worry, and rumination...
August 11, 2016: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Niall M McGowan, Bogdan I Voinescu, Andrew N Coogan
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioural disorder which has been associated with sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances. Numerous studies have linked evening circadian typology with traits and behaviours associated with the disorder, although a precise reason for this relationship has not been clarified. The current study examines ADHD symptoms, impulsivity, cognitive failures, sleep quality and chronotype in a cohort of healthy young adults (N = 396). Results show significant, small magnitude associations between mid-point of sleep on free days, social jetlag (SJL) and ADHD symptoms and impulsivity, although not with cognitive failures...
September 26, 2016: Chronobiology International
J S G Muñoz, R Cañavate, C M Hernández, V Cara-Salmerón, J J H Morante
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that individuals with circadian preferences for the evening (wake up later and reach maximum activity in the afternoon) have distorted dietary habits and misregulated body weight. Therefore, the present study was conducted to analyse the possible relationships between 'morningness' or 'eveningness' (chronotype), dietary habits and the level of obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among 400 participants, 171 subjects finished the follow-up period and were evaluated...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
L Maierova, A Borisuit, J-L Scartezzini, S M Jaeggi, C Schmidt, M Münch
Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior are modulated by external factors such as light or temperature. We studied whether self-selected office lighting during the habitual waking period had a different impact on alertness, cognitive performance and hormonal secretion in extreme morning and evening chronotypes (N = 32), whose preferred bed- and wake-up times differed by several hours. The self-selected lighting condition was compared with constant bright light and a control condition in dim light. Saliva samples for hormonal analyses, subjective ratings of alertness, wellbeing, visual comfort and cognitive performance were regularly collected...
2016: Scientific Reports
Zhuo Fang, Valya Sergeeva, Laura B Ray, Jeremy Viczko, Adrian M Owen, Stuart M Fogel
Sleep spindles-short, phasic, oscillatory bursts of activity that characterize non-rapid eye movement sleep-are one of the only electrophysiological oscillations identified as a biological marker of human intelligence (e.g., cognitive abilities commonly assessed using intelligence quotient tests). However, spindles are also important for sleep maintenance and are modulated by circadian factors. Thus, the possibility remains that the relationship between spindles and intelligence quotient may be an epiphenomenon of a putative relationship between good quality sleep and cognitive ability or perhaps modulated by circadian factors such as morningness-eveningness tendencies...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Nicola L Barclay, Andriy Myachykov
INTRODUCTION: Attentional networks are sensitive to sleep deprivation and increased time awake. However, existing evidence is inconsistent and may be accounted for by differences in chronotype or time-of-day. We examined the effects of sustained wakefulness over a normal "socially constrained" day (following 18 h of sustained wakefulness), following a night of normal sleep, on visual attention as a function of chronotype. METHODS: Twenty-six good sleepers (mean age 25...
September 13, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Kneginja Richter, Sophia Adam, Lennard Geiss, Lukas Peter, Guenter Niklewski
OBJECTIVE: To summarize research on couple sleeping with respect to gender-specific differences and chronotype. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature. RESULTS: Millions of adults around the world share their beds with a partner. This may be an expression of intimacy and attachment and tends to intensify romantic relationships. Yet, couple sleeping still has underestimated implications for the quality of the relationship, quality of sleep and for physical and psychological health which are not consistently positive...
September 13, 2016: Chronobiology International
Dorit Koren, Magdalena Dumin, David Gozal
Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Francisco Romo-Nava, Silvia A Tafoya, Joaquín Gutiérrez-Soriano, Yanik Osorio, Pilar Carriedo, Bárbara Ocampo, Rosa I Bobadilla, Gerhard Heinze
Depression is a multifactorial illness that is highly prevalent among medical students (MS). Chronotypes, which reflect circadian preference in humans, as well as academic stress have been associated with depression in different populations. However, it is not known how chronotype and stress might alone or in combination, associate with depression in MS. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the association between stress, chronotype and depression in MS. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 1068 medical students from a public Medical School in Mexico City...
August 31, 2016: Chronobiology International
So-Jin Lee, Chul-Soo Park, Bong-Jo Kim, Cheol-Soon Lee, Boseok Cha, Yu Jin Lee, Minah Soh, Jin Ah Park, Park So Young, Eun Hye Song
Circadian typology and sleep quality may be essential factors associated with the promotion of resilience. However, previous studies investigating the association between circadian typology and resilience did not analyze the effects of sleep quality on resilience. Thus, the present study evaluated the association between circadian typology and resilience in Korean college students after controlling for sleep quality. Additionally, this study investigated several sleep-related variables, including sleep duration, social jetlag and sunlight exposure during the daytime, to examine the modifiable behavioral features of morningness and also investigated whether the findings regarding morningness-related modifiable habits were associated with resilience...
August 30, 2016: Chronobiology International
Yuriko Doi, Kaneyoshi Ishihara, Makoto Uchiyama
Our current 24-h society and the weekday-weekend switch of our social clocks may affect young children's sleep and circadian rhythms. However, such evidence is scarce. We conducted a nationwide epidemiological study of sleep and health in preschool children aged 3-5 years attending kindergarten or childcare centers in Japan, using stratified one-stage cluster sampling. The target population was 2 969 627 individuals (as of 1 April 2013). The Children's ChronoType Questionnaire was used to measure chronotypes (morning (M)-type, neither (N)-type and evening (E)-type), and weekday and weekend sleep-wake parameters...
August 18, 2016: Chronobiology International
A Zouabi, G Quarck, T Martin, M Grespinet, A Gauthier
Daytime activity is largely regulated by the day/night pattern. During the diurnal period individuals manage their balance, spatial orientation and consequently their perception of the vertical. Only six studies have attempted to evaluate postural control at different times of the day. The findings prove contradictory as two studies indicate postural control changes in the day while four others conclude that there is no time-of-day effect. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of time of day on postural control and perception of the vertical...
August 18, 2016: Chronobiology International
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